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1.
Food Chem ; 304: 125446, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491715

RESUMO

Fused coumarins recently attracted strong scientific interest due to their potent pharmacological activities. In this study, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to evaluate the antiradical activities of a series of coumarin-fused coumarins. By calculating the thermodynamic parameters, three primary mechanisms including hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) were examined. It was found that in the gas and benzene phases, the studied compounds prefer to undergo HAT mechanism, while SPLET is more favored in polar media. The results also reveal the possibility of double HAT and double SPLET mechanisms for compound CC-6. Interestingly, a new polycyclic compound was generated by forming a new C5-O5' bond during the second HAT process at the 5'-OH in CC-6-R6 radical. In addition, the SPLHAT mechanism is proposed as a competitive pathway for radical scavenging by CC-4, CC-5 and CC-6.

2.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 47-54, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously studies have shown that Nox2 and Nox4, as members of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase, Nox), participate in brain damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of specific chemical inhibitors of Nox2 and Nox4 on cerebral I/R-induced brain injury in rats. METHODS: At 0.5 h before MCAO surgery, the rats were pretreated with vehicle, Nox2 inhibitor (gp91ds-tat), and Nox4 inhibitor (GKT137831), respectively. After reperfusion for 24 h, the infarct sizes of brain tissues in rats in various groups are determined. The penumbra (ischemic) tissues are collected to measure ROS levels, neuronal apoptosis, and degeneration, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in brain tissues of rats. RESULTS: gp91ds-tat and GKT137831 pretreatment significantly reduced the infarct sizes in brain tissues of rats, effectively suppressed I/R-induced increase in ROS levels, neuronal apoptosis and degeneration, and obviously alleviated BBB damage. CONCLUSION: Under cerebral I/R conditions, Nox2 inhibitor (gp91ds-tat) and Nox4 inhibitor (GKT137831) can effectively play a protective role in the brain tissues of rats.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Isquemia Encefálica , NADPH Oxidase 2 , NADPH Oxidase 4 , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 4/antagonistas & inibidores , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
3.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668091

RESUMO

Adult day services (ADS) provide respite for dementia caregivers and directly reduce exposure to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study examines the psycho-behavioral mechanism on how daily ADS use may benefit caregivers' daily affect through its impact on the distress associated with BPSD stressor exposure. The sample consists of dementia caregivers (N = 173) who participated in an ADS intervention across 8 days. Multilevel structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the within- and between-person mediating effects of BPSD distress on the direct associations between daily ADS use and daily negative and positive affect. ADS days were associated with lower daily negative affect and higher daily positive affect; the significant within-person effect of ADS use on daily affect was mediated by daily BPSD distress. Findings highlight the association between daily ADS use and caregiver affective well-being. This understanding is important for designing respite and other interventions to help dementia caregivers manage the daily stress of caregiving.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121388, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668758

RESUMO

The long-terms effects of different crystal-composition TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on nitrogen-cycle-related functional guilds in activated sludge remain unclear, especially under natural light irradiation. Accordingly, activated sludge was exposed to anatase TiO2-NPs (TiO2-A) and rutile TiO2-NPs (TiO2-R) for up to 45 days. With markedly (p < 0.05) reducing nitrification-/denitrification-enzymatic-activities and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing-microorganisms (AOMs) and nitrite-reducing-bacteria (NRB), TiO2-NPs triggered bacteria and archaea UPGMA clustering and a deep modification of N-cycling functional diversity guided by crystal structure. in situ13C-DNA-SIP confirmed ammonia-oxidizing-bacteria (AOB) (Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira) in original sludge as main active AOMs with 75.4 times more abundance than ammonia-oxidizing-archaea (AOA), while AOA within Nitrosopumilus and Nitrososphaera genera were the main active AOMs and tended to aggregate inside sludge after 10-mg/L TiO2-NPs exposure. Encoding-nirK NRB were more sensitive, while encoding-nirS Zoogloea with a total share of 4.97% to 14.93%, etc. were the main active NRB. AOB was more sensitive to TiO2-A, while TiO2-R showed the stronger toxicity to AOA and NRB resulting from differences in water environmental behaviors and crystal characteristics of two TiO2-NPs. This work expands understanding of the ecological risks of titanium-dioxide-crystal-NPs in aquatic environment and may help devise better methods to alleviate environmental stress caused by NPs at wastewater treatment plants.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1047, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C-Jun and EGFR have not been explored as targets via the mechanism of RNA silencing. Hence, this study designed an efficient C-Jun-h-825 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and investigated its effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and collagen expression in human keratinocytes exposed to UV radiation. METHODS: Five C-Jun siRNAs were designed and screened for their ability to downregulate C-Jun expression in human fibroblasts. These constructs were used to study changes in skin cancer-related protein expression. HaCaT cells were grouped into 5-carboxyfluorescien (FAM-labeled) C-Jun-h-825 siRNA + 2 hr prior irradiation; mock transfected + 2 hr prior irradiation; normal control; irradiation only for 2 hr; and Blank. Twenty-four hours posttransfection, mRNA and protein levels of MMP-I, MMP-III, collagen-I and collagen-III were determined using standard RT-PCR and ELISA kits. RESULTS: FAM-labeled C-Jun siRNA showed 80%-90% transfection efficiency. There was a significant increase in MMP-I and MMP-III and decrease in Col-I and III mRNA levels when the cells were exposed to UV irradiation without siRNA transfection compared to blank (p < .05). This effect was reversed upon transfection with C-Jun-h-825 (p < .01). CONCLUSION: Thus, C-Jun-h-825 siRNA might help restore skin collagen by decreasing MMP expression in cells exposed to UVA. Constructs and vectors designed herein have the potential to be translated into a treatment for photoaging induced skin cancer.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726750

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the status and barriers related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment among Chinese methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients, and the willingness and barriers of patients to accept directly observed treatment (DOT) service and oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). We conducted a cross-sectional survey from July to October 2017 in Guangdong Province, China, involving 678 HCV antibody-positive MMT patients. If they reported being infected with HCV, then their HCV treatment experience, willingness to use DOT and DAAs, along with any barriers, were collected. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the correlates of initiating HCV treatment. Among those reporting HCV infection (54%, 366/678), 39% (144/366) initiated treatment; however, 38% (55/144) interrupted and 55% (79/135) delayed treatment for 15 months. Seventy-five percent (273/366) and 53% (195/366) were willing to use DOT and DAAs, respectively. Unaffordable medical costs and insignificant symptoms were the major barriers to HCV treatment and accepting DOT or DAAs. The lack of a stable residence, being a woman, and having ever injected drugs were all associated with a low probability of initiating treatment (p < 0.05). This study highlights a limited uptake of HCV treatment among MMT patients, and a need to strengthen the popularity of DOT and DAAs and integrate them into Chinese MMT clinics.

7.
Eur Neurol ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical phenotypes and features of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in our hospital and explore the diagnostic value of the Brighton criteria. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of GBS patients hospitalized in our hospital from January 1, 2013, to September 30, 2016. The patients were affirmatively graded according to the Brighton criteria (highest: level 1, lowest: level 4). RESULT: (1) We enrolled 72 patients with GBS, including 7 with cranial nerve variants, 4 with Miler-Fisher syndrome, and 61 with classic GBS that mainly presented as limb weakness. (2) A total of 56.94% of the included patients had preceding events, of which respiratory tract infections accounted for 63.41%; there was a significant difference in the incidence of GBS across the spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Weakness was the first symptom in 75% of patients, all patients reached peaked within 4 weeks, and 94.44% of the patients presented with decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes. Among the patients who completed a lumbar puncture cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, 73.24% showed proteins dissociated from CSF cells. Demyelinating GBS was found in 54%, and axonal GBS was found in 22% of the patients who completed an electrophysiological examination. All patients with classic GBS were graded according to the Brighton diagnostic criteria as level 1 (60.66%, 37/61), level 2 (34.42%, 21/61), level 3 (4.92%, 3/61), or level 4 (0%). CONCLUSION: In our hospital, the clinical features of patients with GBS were similar to those described in previous studies, but demyelinating GBS was the most important subtype. Most preceding events were upper respiratory tract infections. The Brighton criteria were highly sensitive, and perfect clinical data improved diagnostic grading. In areas where medical resources are relatively scarce, a detailed medical history and physical examination can help improve diagnostic accuracy.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3711-3717, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602943

RESUMO

In this paper,the fingerprint of different varieties of chrysanthemum were established with " Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Chinese Materia Medica" and the content of chlorogenic acid,galuteolin and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in 29 batches of different varieties of chrysanthemum in Futianhe town,Huangtugang town and Wuhan city were compared. At the same time,similarity evaluation and common peak clustering analysis were carried out. There were 11 common peaks in the fingerprints of 29 batches of different varieties of chrysanthemum,and the similarity ranged from 0. 802 to 0. 975. Hangju and Gongju were divided into one group by cluster analysis,and Huangju into another category. The established fingerprint method provides a basis for the identification of chrysanthemum cultivars. The content of 29 batches of chlorogenic acid was between 4. 092 and 11. 723 mg·g-1,luteolin was between 1. 010 and 11. 713 mg·g-1,and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid was between 8. 828 and 33. 435 mg·g-1,both reach the pharmacopoeia standard,but the effective components of different varieties of chrysanthemum were quite different. Based on the contents of three active ingredients and the diversity of fingerprint peaks,the quality of the characteristic germplasm resource of local Fubaijuin Macheng is superior,and the protection of local characteristic germplasm resource should be strengthened in production.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Luteolina/análise
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 644, 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606848

RESUMO

The bayberry is an important economic fruit as well as a minor crop in China, and few pesticide products are registered for bayberry. Prochloraz is a widely used fungicide with a high detection rate on bayberry. This study evaluated the potential dietary risk of prochloraz for different populations in China based on field trial data and market surveillance. The results indicate that one-time applications at dosages of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg with a recommended preharvest interval of 20 days do not pose a chronic or acute dietary risk. However, applying the above dosages twice will cause a potential short-term dietary risk. Risk assessment results conducted on surveillance samples indicated acceptable long-term risks for the general population, with a hazard quotient < 0.82. Furthermore, simulated washing and wine production processes were performed to mimic household practices to investigate residue transfer and distribution. We found that rinsing with tap water for 1 min was an effective way to remove residue, and the processing factors of prochloraz for both bayberry and wine were < 1, indicating that wine production could reduce residue levels. Prochloraz had a strong capacity to transfer to wine due to its high log Kow value, with transfer percentages up to 43%. This study supports the recommendation on good agricultural practices for prochloraz application and provides a guide for safe consumption.

10.
FASEB J ; : fj201901474RR, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585505

RESUMO

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (CADs) participate in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation; abnormal fatty acid oxidation is associated with obesity and related metabolic disorders. We decipher the impact of short-chain CAD (SCAD) on adiposity and insulin resistance. BALB/cBy strain mice derived from BALB/c strain are deficient in SCAD activity because of a spontaneous deletion in the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (Acads) gene. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity were compared in BALB/c and BALB/cBy mice subjected to high-fat diets (HFDs). A whole hepatic transcriptome profiling experiment with microarrays was performed to evaluate the mechanisms by which SCAD deficiency protects against insulin resistance. Acads-deficient mice were significantly resistant to HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance as compared with control mice. Reduced obesity results from decreased triglyceride content due to activation of AMPK in liver that would reduce hepatic content of malonyl-CoA, resulting in decreased hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Improved insulin sensitivity was associated with reduced diacylglycerol content commensurate with reduced PKC-ε activity and increased protein kinase B (AKT) activation in liver and skeletal muscle. Additionally, Acads-deficient mice displayed significantly higher expression of the endoplasmic chaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, which was further associated with the AKT activation in the primary hepatocytes. Modulation of SCAD expression may therefore be a novel therapeutic approach to manage and prevent obesity and related metabolic diseases, such as diabetes.-Chen, Y., Chen, J., Zhang, C., Yang, S., Zhang, X., Liu, Y., Su, Z. Deficiency in the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase protects mice against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(20): 8892-8910, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631064

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is used to treat gastric cancer (GC); however, radioresistance challenges the clinical outcomes of GC, and the mechanisms of radioresistance in GC remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the TGF-ß receptor inhibitor, LY2109761 (LY), is a potential radiosensitizer both in vitro and in vivo. As per the Cancer Genome Atlas database, TGF-ß overexpression is significantly related to poor overall survival in GC patients. We demonstrated that the TGF-ß/SMAD4 signaling pathway was activated in both radioresistant GC cells and radioresistant GC patients. As a TGF-ß receptor inhibitor, LY can enhance the activities of irradiation by inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing clonogenicity and increasing apoptosis. Moreover, LY attenuated the radiation-induced migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), inflammatory factor activation, immunosuppression, and cancer stem cell characteristics of GC cells, thus leading to radiosensitization of the GC cells. We confirmed that LY reduced tumor growth, inhibited TGF-ß/SMAD4 pathway activation and reversed irradiation-induced EMT in a tumor xenograft model. Our findings indicate that the novel TGF-ß receptor inhibitor, LY, increases GC radiosensitivity by directly regulating the TGF-ß/SMAD4 signaling pathway. These findings provide new insight for radiotherapy in GC patients.

12.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105240, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654917

RESUMO

Water snake and small common carp samples collected from a Chinese pond polluted with electronic waste (e-waste) were analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), PFR metabolites, and plasticizers to investigate their occurrence, biomagnification, and maternal transfer in ovoviviparous species. Mean concentrations of total PFRs, PFR metabolites, and plasticizers were 2.2-16, 1.3-2.8 and 151-1320 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively in analyzed organisms. Metabolites of PFRs were found in the same order of magnitude as or even higher than their parent compounds, indicating the importance of monitoring metabolites to evaluate the internal exposure of PFRs in organisms. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were below 1 for all targeted chemicals and negatively correlated with metabolite/parent ratios (MPRs), suggesting a biodilution driven by metabolism. The lipid normalized concentrations were lower in eggs than in muscle for most of targeted chemicals. The maternal transfer potential was significantly and positively correlated with log KOW (p < 0.05) when log KOW was below 6.

13.
J Biosci ; 44(4)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502580

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) represents the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Cisplatin, also known as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP), is a standard chemotherapeutic agent used to treat PCa, and DDP resistance remains one important obstacle in DDP-based chemotherapy. In our research, we found miR-425-5p was down-regulated in PCa and even lower in DDP-resistant PCa determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction; in contrast, GSK3ß mRNA expression was upregulated in PCa and even higher in DDP-resistant PCa. Moreover, there was a modest but significant inverse correlation between the expression of GSK3ß mRNA and miR-425-5p. Functional experiments showed that miR-425-5p mimic inhibited DDP resistance as evidenced by a promoted apoptosis rate (flow cytometry) and suppressed cell viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay) and expressions of MDR1 andMRP1 (western blotting) in DU145/DDP and PC3/DDP cells. Luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation identifiedGSK3ß was a potential target of miR-425-5p. The effect ofmiR-425-5pmimic on DDP resistance was partially reversed by pcDNA-GSK3ß. Mechanically, miR-425-5p mimic reduced expression of ß-catenin, cyclin D1 and C-myc, which was further blocked when GSK3ß overexpressed. In vivo experiments, recovery of GSK3ß prevented xenograft tumor growth and DDP resistance in the presence of miR-425-5p mimic. To sum up, miR-425-5p upregulation might sensitize human PCa to DDP by targeting GSK3ß and inactivating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113286, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563785

RESUMO

Water, sediment, and wild aquatic species were collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) polluted pond in South China. This study aimed to investigate the bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, and trophic transfer of organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in these aquatic organisms. The concentrations of PFRs detected in the analyzed organisms were between 1.7 and 47 ng/g wet weight (ww). Oriental river prawn and snakehead exhibited the highest and lowest levels, respectively. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were dominant contaminants, accounting for approximately 86% of the total sum. The mean values of bioaccumulation factors (BCFs) and logarithmic biota-sediment accumulation factors (log BSAFs) for individual PFRs varied from 6.6 to 1109 and from -2.0 to 0.41, respectively. Both log BCFs and log BSAFs of PFRs were significantly and positively correlated with their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (log KOW). The concentrations of PFRs in tissues of large mud carp and snakehead were significantly and positively correlated with the lipid content (each p < 0.05) and the liver, kidney, and gill exhibited high PFR levels. When the concentration was expressed on a lipid basis, liver exhibited the lowest level, indicating the probable effects of metabolism. Significantly positive correlation was also found between lipid content and total PFR concentration in muscle of all aquatic organisms, given the strong correlation between lipid content and the concentration of TnBP. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) of TnBP and TPhP were lower than 1 (0.57 and 0.62), indicating that these PFRs undergo trophic dilution in this aquatic food web.

15.
Acad Radiol ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447258

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether iodine quantification extracted from enhanced dual energy-computed tomography (DE-CT) is useful for distinguishing lung squamous cell carcinoma from adenocarcinoma and to evaluate whether a single scan evaluated during the venous phase (VP) can be substituted for scans evaluated during other phases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients with lung cancer (32 squamous cell carcinomas; 30 adenocarcinomas) underwent enhanced dual-phase DE-CT scans, including an arterial phase and VP. The iodine concentration (IC), normalized iodine concentration (NIC), and slope of the curve (K) in lesions were measured during two scanning phases in two different pathological types of lung cancers. The differences in parameters (IC, NIC, and K) between these two types of lung cancers were statistically analyzed. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic curves of these parameters were performed to discriminate squamous cell carcinoma from adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: The mean IC, NIC, and K in adenocarcinomas were all higher than those in squamous cell carcinomas during the two scanning phases. However, the differences in these parameters between the two types of cancers were significant only during the VP, not during the arterial phase. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the optimal thresholds of the IC, NIC, and K for discriminating squamous cell carcinoma from adenocarcinoma were 1.550, 0.227, and 1.608, respectively. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve were 81.2%, 83.3%, and 0.871 for the IC; 56.2%, 93.3%, and 0.800 for the NIC; and 65.6%, 80%, and 0.720 for the K; 81.3%, 83.3%, and 0.874 for the IC + NIC; 68.8%, 93.3%, and 0.891 for the IC + NIC + K, respectively. The "IC + NIC + K" had the highest diagnostic efficiency for discriminating two types of lung cancers, but with low sensitivity. Whereas, "IC"and "IC + NIC" had the similar lower diagnostic efficiency, but with high sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: The iodine quantification parameters derived from enhanced DE-CT during the VP may be useful for distinguishing lung squamous cell carcinoma from adenocarcinoma.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390750

RESUMO

Around half of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) participants choose the tapering phase, however, the guidelines on tapering differ between countries and only include the tapering rate. Physicians need more evidence to guide clinical practice. We aimed to explore a specific tapering strategy to improve heroin abstinence among MMT participants. We conducted a retrospective study from 2006 to 2017 at nine MMT clinics in Guangdong, China, involving 853 participants with 961 treatment episodes. We performed two-level hierarchical logistic regression models to identify tapering phase characteristics associated with heroin abstinence. Among all treatment episodes, 419 (43.6%) were heroin abstinent. Participants who started tapering after 52 weeks, had a taper start dose of less than 60 mg and a taper ratio of less than 5%/week, while a dose reduction in 75%-89% of the tapering weeks provided the highest odds of heroin abstinence. This study highlights the need for a more gradual taper than current guidelines recommend and strongly suggests the inclusion of other tapering phase characteristics. Those who start the tapering phase later, have a lower dose of methadone, with a more gradual rate of taper, and a dose reduction in 75%-89% of the tapering phase increased the odds of heroin abstinence.

17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e198273, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373649

RESUMO

Importance: Visual impairment in children with brain tumors has received limited attention, as most pediatric neuro-oncology clinical trials neither require ophthalmologic evaluation on enrollment nor monitor effects of treatment on visual function during and after treatment. Objective: To investigate ophthalmology referral patterns for children with primary brain tumors, the prevalence of visual sequelae, and the association between tumor characteristics and vision-related diagnoses. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 141 children with primary brain tumors treated at Loma Linda University Children's Hospital and Eye Institute, a university-based tertiary referral center, between January 2013 and September 2017. Data analysis was completed in March 2019. Intervention: Comprehensive ophthalmologic evaluation for children with primary brain tumors. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percentage of patients with ophthalmology evaluation, prevalence of abnormal ophthalmic findings, and their association with tumor characteristics. Results: A total of 141 children (73 [52%] male; median [range] age, 7 [0-18] years) with primary brain tumors were enrolled in this study. Seventy-three patients (41 [52%] male; median [range] age, 8 [0-17] years) never had formal ophthalmologic evaluation. Sixty-eight patients (32 [48%] male; median [range] age, 7 [0-18] years) were evaluated by 1 of 4 board-certified, fellowship-trained pediatric and/or neuro-ophthalmologists for any visual impairment over a total of 222 visits. Five-year overall survival for patients who had eye examination was not significantly different from those who did not (mean [SD] survival, 78.3% [6.2%] vs 84.9% [4.7%]). Median (range) time from tumor diagnosis to initial ophthalmologic evaluation was 9 (0-94) months. Only 10 of 68 children (15%) presented with visual symptoms at tumor diagnosis, while 61 of 68 (90%) had abnormal findings on examination, including strabismus (41 [60%]), visual acuity impairment (37 [54%]), amblyopia (26 [38%]), papilledema (24 [35%]), visual field defects (13 [19%]), optic atrophy (12 [18%]), and keratopathy (10 [15%]). Strabismus occurred more frequently in patients with posterior fossa tumors (26 of 68 in posterior fossa vs 15 of 68 in other locations; P = .02). The presence of visual field defects in patients with no visual symptoms was 15% (9 of 58). Radiation was significantly associated with amblyopia (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.2-15.7; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, more than 50% of children with primary brain tumors were not referred for ophthalmologic evaluation. Although visual symptoms were uncommon, visual impairments occurred more frequently than previously reported. Ophthalmologic evaluation is recommended to identify and manage visual impairment and prevent permanent vision loss in children with brain tumors.

18.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519869068, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423882

RESUMO

Extensive evidence suggests that exposure to childhood abuse can lead to harmful health effects across a lifetime. To contribute to the literature, the current study examined whether and how a history of parental childhood abuse affects exposure to and severity appraisal of daily stressors in adulthood, as well as emotional reactivity to these stressors. We analyzed 14,912 daily interviews of 2,022 respondents from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences. Multilevel modeling was utilized to analyze nested data, in that each person provided repeated measures of daily experience for eight consecutive study days. Results showed that more frequent experience of maternal childhood abuse was associated with more severe appraisal of daily stressors. In addition, adults with more frequent maternal childhood abuse exhibited greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. The current study provides evidence that a history of parental childhood abuse may serve as a vulnerability factor in the process of experiencing and responding to stressful events encountered in daily life. Future research should further explore the long-term health effects of daily stress and emotional experience among adults with a history of parental childhood abuse. Interventions for these adults should focus on promoting emotional resilience in the face of daily stress.

19.
Chemistry ; 25(59): 13484-13490, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415126

RESUMO

The controlled formation of complex and functional 1-, 2-, and 3D hierarchical assemblies from molecular building blocks represents a key current challenge. Herein, we report the use of a seeded growth approach for a series of perylenediimide-based molecules (PDIs 1-4) to access otherwise inaccessible self-assembly pathways that yield complex hierarchical structures. The key to the new approach is to use hetero-seeds which possess a different composition and morphology from that of the molecular building block. For example, a nanotube seed (from PDI 3) and a microribbon seed (from PDI 4) were found to initiate different self-assembly pathways for PDI 1, which normally assembles to yield nanocoils. This led to the formation of unprecedented 3D scroll-like and scarf-like hierarchical nanostructures, respectively. Also, the hetero-seeds from PDI 3 initiate hidden self-assembly pathways of PDI 2 to generate 1D tubular heterojunctions. Significantly, this new strategy offers new opportunities to create emergent and functional hierarchical and complex structures from small molecule precursors.

20.
Int J Biometeorol ; 63(9): 1181-1192, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256252

RESUMO

An increasing number of Chinese elders trade family care for institutional elder care, which poses an acute challenge due to the enormous number of elders. The internal garden of care homes is often the only green space supplied for the elderly. To elucidate the microclimate status of these internal gardens, three microclimate parameters (air temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), and solar radiation (SR) were measured in the gardens of eight care homes for the aged in Chengdu City (for 2015 and 2016). The results confirmed that all gardens showed effects of seasonal cooling (from 1.0 ± 0.7 to 2.00 ± 0.8 °C), humidification (from 2.8 ± 1.4 to 4.9 ± 2.0%), and weakening of solar radiation (from 52.3 ± 36.3 to 254.4 ± 124.1 w/m2). Even small internal gardens (130-4000 m2) could yield cooling effects in four seasons. Among garden subareas, the weakest SR, the lowest Ta, and the highest RH were all found in the rest area. Correlation analysis demonstrated that only in summer, the green coverage ratio of the garden significantly affected the microclimate. The observation showed that an average of 29.98% of the elderly used these internal gardens per day. The period of 8:00 am to 10:00 am was the elderly's favorite time to use the gardens. More than 68% of elders preferred to sit in the rest area. Thermal/humidity/radiation sensation votes indicated that the garden microclimate partially deviated from elders' comfortable levels, particularly in winter. The rest area showed the worst comfort level for the elders. A warmer, more humid, and more sun-exposed garden should be supplied to the elderly. Several greening strategies are proposed to improve the garden microclimate for the well-being of the elderly in the care homes.


Assuntos
Jardins , Microclima , Idoso , Cidades , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários
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