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1.
Langmuir ; 40(19): 10261-10269, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693862

RESUMO

Carnosine is a natural bioactive dipeptide with important physiological functions widely used in food and medicine. Dipeptidase (PepD) from Serratia marcescens can catalyze the reverse hydrolytic reaction of ß-alanine with l-histidine to synthesize carnosine in the presence of Mn2+. However, it remains challenging to practice carnosine biosynthesis due to the low activity and high cost of the enzyme. Therefore, the development of biocatalysts with high activity and stability is of significance for carnosine synthesis. Here, we proposed to chelate Mn2+ to polyethylenimine (PEI) that induced rapid formation of calcium phosphate nanocrystals (CaP), and Mn-PEI@CaP was used for PepD immobilization via electrostatic interaction. Mn-PEI@CaP as the carrier enhanced the stability of the immobilized enzyme. Moreover, Mn2+ loaded in the carrier acted as an in situ activator of the immobilized PepD for facilitating the biocatalytic process of carnosine synthesis. The as-prepared immobilized enzyme (PepD-Mn-PEI@CaP) kept similar activity with free PepD plus Mn2+ (activity recovery, 102.5%), while exhibiting elevated thermal stability and pH tolerance. Moreover, it exhibited about two times faster carnosine synthesis than the free PepD system. PepD-Mn-PEI@CaP retained 86.8% of the original activity after eight cycles of batch catalysis without the addition of free Mn2+ ions during multiple cycles. This work provides a new strategy for the co-immobilization of PepD and Mn2+, which greatly improves the operability of the biocatalysis and demonstrates the potential of the immobilized PepD system for efficient carnosine synthesis.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio , Carnosina , Dipeptidases , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Manganês , Nanopartículas , Polietilenoimina , Carnosina/química , Carnosina/metabolismo , Polietilenoimina/química , Manganês/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Dipeptidases/metabolismo , Dipeptidases/química , Serratia marcescens/enzimologia , Biocatálise
2.
Res Sq ; 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766212

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis is crucial for developing effective cancer therapies. Here, we investigate the co-amplification of MED30 and MYC across diverse cancer types and its impact on oncogenic transcriptional programs. Transcriptional profiling of MYC and MED30 single or both overexpression/amplification revealed the over amount of MED30 lead MYC to a new transcriptional program that associate with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, MED30 overexpression/amplification recruits other Mediator components and binding of MYC to a small subset of novel genomic regulatory sites, changing the epigenetic marks and inducing the formation of new enhancers, which drive the expression of target genes crucial for cancer progression. In vivo studies in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) further validate the oncogenic potential of MED30, as its overexpression promotes tumor growth and can be attenuated by knockdown of MYC. Using another cancer type as an example, MED30 knockdown reduces tumor growth particularly in MYC high-expressed glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines. Overall, our study elucidates the critical role of MED30 overexpression in orchestrating oncogenic transcriptional programs and highlights its potential as a therapeutic target for MYC-amplified cancer.

3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 396, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, a renowned traditional Chinese orchid herb esteemed for its significant horticultural and medicinal value, thrives in adverse habitats and contends with various abiotic or biotic stresses. Acid invertases (AINV) are widely considered enzymes involved in regulating sucrose metabolism and have been revealed to participate in plant responses to environmental stress. Although members of AINV gene family have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, detailed information regarding this gene family and its expression patterns remains unknown in D. officinale, despite their significance in polysaccharide biosynthesis. RESULTS: This study systematically analyzed the D. officinale genome and identified four DoAINV genes, which were classified into two subfamilies based on subcellular prediction and phylogenetic analysis. Comparison of gene structures and conserved motifs in DoAINV genes indicated a high-level conservation during their evolution history. The conserved amino acids and domains of DoAINV proteins were identified as pivotal for their functional roles. Additionally, cis-elements associated with responses to abiotic and biotic stress were found to be the most prevalent motif in all DoAINV genes, indicating their responsiveness to stress. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis of transcriptome data, validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), revealed distinct organ-specific expression patterns of DoAINV genes across various tissues and in response to abiotic stress. Examination of soluble sugar content and interaction networks provided insights into stress release and sucrose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: DoAINV genes are implicated in various activities including growth and development, stress response, and polysaccharide biosynthesis. These findings provide valuable insights into the AINV gene amily of D. officinale and will aid in further elucidating the functions of DoAINV genes.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , beta-Frutofuranosidase , Dendrobium/genética , Dendrobium/enzimologia , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Genes de Plantas
4.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 220, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763956

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are an array of age-related disorders, and accumulating evidence suggests a link between cardiac resident macrophages (CRMs) and the age-related disorders. However, how does CRMs alter with aging remains elusive. In the present study, aged mice (20 months old) have been employed to check for their cardiac structural and functional alterations, and the changes in the proportion of CRM subsets as well, followed by sorting of CRMs, including C-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2)+ and CCR2- CRMs, which were subjected to Smart-Seq. Integrated analysis of the Smart-Seq data with three publicly available single-cell RNA-seq datasets revealed that inflammatory genes were drastic upregulated for both CCR2+ and CCR2- CRMs with aging, but genes germane to wound healing were downregulated for CCR2- CRMs, suggesting the differential functions of these two subsets. More importantly, inflammatory genes involved in damage sensing, complement cascades, and phagocytosis were largely upregulated in CCR2- CRMs, implying the imbalance of inflammatory response upon aging. Our work provides a comprehensive framework and transcriptional resource for assessing the impact of aging on CRMs with a potential for further understanding cardiac aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Macrófagos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores CCR2 , Animais , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Receptores CCR2/genética , Transcriptoma , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise de Célula Única , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fagocitose
5.
J Microencapsul ; 41(3): 190-203, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602138

RESUMO

AIMS: To develop Antarctic krill oil emulsions with casein and whey protein concentrate (WPC) and study their physicochemical properties and storage stability. METHODS: Emulsions were prepared by homogenisation and ultrasonication. The properties of the emulsions were investigated via ultraviolet ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, confocal laser scanning microscope, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Fourier transform infra-red spectrometer, and fluorescence spectrum. Shelf life was predicted by the Arrhenius model. RESULTS: Casein- and WPC-krill oil emulsions were well formed; the mean particle diameters were less than 128.19 ± 0.64 nm and 158 ± 1.56 nm, the polymer dispersity indices were less than 0.26 ± 0.01 and 0.27 ± 0.01, and the zeta potential were around -46.88 ± 5.02 mV and -33.51 ± 2.68 mV, respectively. Shelf life was predicted to be 32.67 ± 1.55 days and 29.62 ± 0.65 days (40 °C), 27.69 ± 1.15 days and 23.58 ± 0.14 days (50 °C), 24.02 ± 0.15 days and 20.1 ± 0.08 days (60 °C). CONCLUSION: The prepared krill oil emulsions have great potential to become a new krill oil supplement.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Euphausiacea , Animais , Emulsões/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Óleos
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 275: 116275, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564858

RESUMO

Compound pollution with cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) is common in nature. The effects of compounded Cd and Zn on the growth and development of Iris pseudacorus in the environment and the plant's potential to remediate heavy metals in the environment remain unclear. In this study, the effects of single and combined Cd and Zn stress on I. pseudacorus growth and the enrichment of heavy metals in I. pseudacorus seedlings were investigated. The results showed that under Cd (160 µM) and Zn (800 µM) stress, plant growth was significantly inhibited and photosynthetic performance was affected. Cd+Zn200 (160 µM + 200 µM) reduced the levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and non-protein thiols by 31.29%, 53.20%, and 13.29%, respectively, in the aboveground tissues compared with levels in the single Cd treatment. However, Cd+Zn800 (160 µM + 800 µM) had no effect. Cd and Zn800 inhibited the absorption of mineral elements, while Zn200 had little effect on plants. Compared with that for Cd treatment alone, Cd + Zn200 and Cd+Zn800 reduced the Cd content in aboveground tissues by 54.15% and 49.92%, respectively, but had no significant effect on Cd in the root system. Zn significantly reduced the Cd content in subcellular components and limited the content and proportion of Cd extracted using water and ethanol. These results suggest that a low supply of Zn reduces Cd accumulation in aboveground tissues by promoting antioxidant substances and heavy metal chelating agents, thus protecting the photosynthetic systems. The addition of Zn also reduced the mobility and bioavailability of Cd to alleviate its toxicity in I. pseudacorus.


Assuntos
Gênero Iris , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Zinco/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172342, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608905

RESUMO

A novel polyethyleneimine/polydopamine-functionalized ß-cyclodextrin supported fly ash adsorbent (PEI/PDA/ß-CD/FA) had been synthesized to uptake uranium from polluted water. At pH = 5.0 and T = 298 K, the uranium uptake efficiency and capacity of PEI/PDA/ß-CD/FA reached to 98.7 % and 622.8 mg/g, respectively, which were much higher than those of FA (71.4 % and 206.7 mg/g).The excellent uranium uptake properties of PEI/PDA/ß-CD/FA could be explained by three points: (1) using ß-CD as a supporting material could effectively avoid the aggregation of FA and improve the hydrophily of FA; (2) the unique cavity structure of ß-CD could form chelates with uranyl ions; (3) the formation of PEI/PDA co-deposition coating on FA further enhanced the affinity of FA to UO22+. With the presence of interfering ions, the uptake efficiency of PEI/PDA/ß-CD/FA for uranium was still up to 94.5 % after five cycles, indicating the high selectively and recoverability of PEI/PDA/ß-CD/FA. In terms of the results of characterizations, uranium was captured by PEI/PDA/ß-CD/FA via electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bond, coordination and complexation. To sum up, PEI/PDA/ß-CD/FA was expected to be used for actual sewage treatment owing to its excellent uranium uptake efficiency/capacity, selectivity, cycle stability and feasibility of actual application.

8.
Foods ; 13(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611344

RESUMO

Yanbian cattle have a unique meat flavor, and high-grade meat is in short supply. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to improve the added value of Yanbian cattle low-fat meat and provide a theoretical reference for the subsequent development of an excellent starter. Rump meat from Yanbian cattle was dry-aged and then screened for protease-producing fungi. Three protease-producing fungi (Yarrowia hollandica (D4 and D11), Penicillium oxalicum (D5), and Meesziomyces ophidis (D20)) were isolated from 40 d dry-aged beef samples, and their ability to hydrolyze proteins was determined using bovine sarcoplasmic protein extract. SDS-PAGE showed that the ability of Penicillium oxalicum (D5) to degrade proteins was stronger than the other two fungi. In addition, the volatile component content of sarcoplasmic proteins in the D5 group was the highest (45.47%) and comprised the most species (26 types). Metabolic pathway analysis of the fermentation broth showed that phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis was the most closely related metabolic pathway in sarcoplasmic protein fermentation by Penicillium oxalicum (D5). Dry-aged beef-isolated Penicillium oxalicum serves as a potential starter culture for the fermentation of meat products.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1340566, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601311

RESUMO

It is crucial to estimate the theoretical carrying capacity of grasslands in Xinjiang to attain a harmonious balance between grassland and livestock, thereby fostering sustainable development in the livestock industry. However, there has been a lack of quantitative assessments that consider long-term, multi-scale grass-livestock balance and its impacts in the region. This study utilized remote sensing and empirical models to assess the theoretical livestock carrying capacity of grasslands. The multi-scale spatiotemporal variations of the theoretical carrying capacity in Xinjiang from 1982 to 2020 were analyzed using the Sen and Mann-Kendall tests, as well as the Hurst index. The study also examined the county-level grass-livestock balance and inter-annual trends. Additionally, the study employed the geographic detector method to explore the influencing factors. The results showed that: (1) The overall theoretical livestock carrying capacity showed an upward trend from 1982 to 2020; The spatial distribution gradually decreased from north to south and from east to west. In seasonal scale from large to small is: growing season > summer > spring > autumn > winter; at the monthly scale, the strongest livestock carrying capacity is in July. The different grassland types from largest to smallest are: meadow > alpine subalpine meadow > plain steppe > desert steppe > alpine subalpine steppe. In the future, the theoretical livestock carrying capacity of grassland will decrease. (2) From 1988 to 2020, the average grass-livestock balance index in Xinjiang was 2.61%, showing an overall increase. At the county level, the number of overloaded counties showed an overall increasing trend, rising from 46 in 1988 to 58 in 2020. (3) Both single and interaction factors of geographic detectors showed that annual precipitation, altitude and soil organic matter were the main drivers of spatiotemporal dynamics of grassland load in Xinjiang. The results of this study can provide scientific guidance and decision-making basis for achieving coordinated and sustainable development of grassland resources and animal husbandry in the region.

10.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2334967, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630006

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are vital milk carbohydrates that help promote the microbiota-dependent growth and immunity of infants. Sialic acid (SA) is a crucial component of sialylated milk oligosaccharides (S-MOs); however, the effects of SA supplementation in lactating mothers on S-MO biosynthesis and their breastfed infants are unknown. Probiotic intervention during pregnancy or lactation demonstrates promise for modulating the milk glycobiome. Here, we evaluated whether SA and a probiotic (Pro) mixture could increase S-MO synthesis in lactating mothers and promote the microbiota development of their breastfed neonates. The results showed that SA+Pro intervention modulated the gut microbiota and 6'-SL contents in milk of maternal rats more than the SA intervention, which promoted Lactobacillus reuteri colonization in neonates and immune development. Deficient 6'-SL in the maternal rat milk of St6gal1 knockouts (St6gal1-/-) disturbed intestinal microbial structures in their offspring, thereby impeding immune tolerance development. SA+Pro intervention in lactating St6gal1± rats compromised the allergic responses of neonates by promoting 6'-SL synthesis and the neonatal gut microbiota. Our findings from human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) indicated that the GPR41-PI3K-Akt-PPAR pathway helped regulate 6'-SL synthesis in mammary glands after SA+Pro intervention through the gut - breast axis. We further validated our findings using a human-cohort study, confirming that providing SA+Pro to lactating Chinese mothers increased S-MO contents in their breast milk and promoted gut Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. colonization in infants, which may help enhance immune responses. Collectively, our findings may help alter the routine supplementation practices of lactating mothers to modulate milk HMOs and promote the development of early-life gut microbiota and immunity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico , Feminino , Lactente , Gravidez , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Lactação , Estudos de Coortes , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Leite Humano , Imunidade
11.
Biomimetics (Basel) ; 9(4)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38667215

RESUMO

In today's fast-paced and ever-changing environment, the need for algorithms with enhanced global optimization capability has become increasingly crucial due to the emergence of a wide range of optimization problems. To tackle this issue, we present a new algorithm called Random Particle Swarm Optimization (RPSO) based on cosine similarity. RPSO is evaluated using both the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC) 2022 test dataset and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classification experiments. The RPSO algorithm builds upon the traditional PSO algorithm by incorporating several key enhancements. Firstly, the parameter selection is adapted and a mechanism called Random Contrastive Interaction (RCI) is introduced. This mechanism fosters information exchange among particles, thereby improving the ability of the algorithm to explore the search space more effectively. Secondly, quadratic interpolation (QI) is incorporated to boost the local search efficiency of the algorithm. RPSO utilizes cosine similarity for the selection of both QI and RCI, dynamically updating population information to steer the algorithm towards optimal solutions. In the evaluation using the CEC 2022 test dataset, RPSO is compared with recent variations of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and top algorithms in the CEC community. The results highlight the strong competitiveness and advantages of RPSO, validating its effectiveness in tackling global optimization tasks. Additionally, in the classification experiments with optimizing CNNs for medical images, RPSO demonstrated stability and accuracy comparable to other algorithms and variants. This further confirms the value and utility of RPSO in improving the performance of CNN classification tasks.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 929: 172626, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657823

RESUMO

Despite the wide acknowledgment that plastic pollution and global warming have become serious agricultural concerns, their combined impact on crop growth remains poorly understood. Given the unabated megatrend, a simulated soil warming (SWT, +4 °C) microcosm experiment was carried out to provide a better understanding of the effects of temperature fluctuations on wheat seedlings exposed to nanoplastics (NPs, 1 g L-1 61.71 ± 0.31 nm polystyrene). It was documented that SWT induced oxidative stress in wheat seedlings grown in NPs-contaminated soil, with an 85.56 % increase in root activity, while decreasing plant height, fresh weight, and leaf area by 8.72 %, 47.68 %, and 15.04 % respectively. The SWT also resulted in reduced photosynthetic electron-transfer reaction and Calvin-Benson cycle in NPs-treated plants. Under NPs, SWT stimulated the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism and bio-oxidation process. The decrease in photosynthesis and the increase in respiration resulted in an 11.94 % decrease in net photosynthetic rate (Pn). These results indicated the complicated interplay between climate change and nanoplastic pollution in crop growth and underscored the potential risk of nanoplastic pollution on crop production in the future climate.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Temperatura , Triticum , Triticum/fisiologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Aquecimento Global , Mudança Climática , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/fisiologia , Plásticos/toxicidade
14.
Food Res Int ; 182: 114198, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519196

RESUMO

Whey protein isolates (WPI) are known to have mineral-binding capacity to promote iron absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iron ratio on the conformational structure of iron-bound whey protein isolate (WPI-Fe) and its thermodynamic stability. It was shown that the iron to protein ratio affects both the iron binding capacity of WPI and the iron valence state on the surface of WPI-Fe complexes. As the iron content increases, aggregation between protein molecules occurs. In addition, WPI-Fe nanoparticles have thermodynamic stability and Fe2+ has a high affinity with WPI for spontaneous exothermic reactions. This study demonstrates that WPI-Fe complexes can be used to efficiently deliver high-quality iron source (Fe2+) for future iron supplements.


Assuntos
Ferro , Nanopartículas , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Termodinâmica
15.
Neural Netw ; 174: 106220, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447427

RESUMO

Structured pruning is a representative model compression technology for convolutional neural networks (CNNs), aiming to prune some less important filters or channels of CNNs. Most recent structured pruning methods have established some criteria to measure the importance of filters, which are mainly based on the magnitude of weights or other parameters in CNNs. However, these judgment criteria lack explainability, and it is insufficient to simply rely on the numerical values of the network parameters to assess the relationship between the channel and the model performance. Moreover, directly utilizing these pruning criteria for global pruning may lead to suboptimal solutions, therefore, it is necessary to complement search algorithms to determine the pruning ratio for each layer. To address these issues, we propose ARPruning (Attention-map-based Ranking Pruning), which reconstructs a new pruning criterion as the importance of the intra-layer channels and further develops a new local neighborhood search algorithm for determining the optimal inter-layer pruning ratio. To measure the relationship between the channel to be pruned and the model performance, we construct an intra-layer channel importance criterion by considering the attention map for each layer. Then, we propose an automatic pruning strategy searching method that can search for the optimal solution effectively and efficiently. By integrating the well-designed pruning criteria and search strategy, our ARPruning can not only maintain a high compression rate but also achieve outstanding accuracy. In our work, it is also experimentally concluded that compared with state-of-the-art pruning methods, our ARPruning method is capable of achieving better compression results. The code can be obtained at https://github.com/dozingLee/ARPruning.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Compressão de Dados , Redes Neurais de Computação
16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 664: 500-510, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484518

RESUMO

The efficiency of CO2 photocatalytic reduction is severely limited by inefficient separation and sluggish transfer. In this study, spin polarization was induced and built-in electric field was strengthened via Co doping in the BiVO4 cell to boost photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Results showed that owing to the generation of spin-polarized electrons upon Co doping, carrier separation and photocurrent production of the Co-doped BiVO4 were enhanced. CO production during CO2 photocatalytic reduction from the Co-BiVO4 was 61.6 times of the BiVO4. Notably, application of an external magnetic field (100 mT) further boosted photocatalytic CO2 reduction from the Co-BiVO4, with 68.25 folds improvement of CO production compared to pristine BiVO4. The existence of a built-in electric field (IEF) was demonstrated through density functional theory (DFT) simulations and kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Mechanism insights could be elucidated as follows: doping of magnetic Co into the BiVO4 resulted in increased the number of spin-polarized photo-excited carriers, and application of a magnetic field led to an augmentation of intrinsic electric field due to a dipole shift, thereby extending carrier lifetime and suppressing charges recombination. Additionally, HCOO- was a crucial intermediate in the process of CO2RR, and possible pathways for CO2 reduction were proposed. This study highlights the significance of built-in electric fields and the important role of spin polarization for promotion of photocatalytic CO2 reduction.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 2): 130672, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462095

RESUMO

The long-term application of plant essential oils in food preservation coatings is limited by their poor water solubility and high volatility, despite their recognized synergistic antimicrobial effects in postharvest fruit preservation. To overcome these limitations, a Pickering emulsion loaded with thyme essential oil (TEO) was developed by utilizing hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions to induce cross-linking of chitosan particles. This novel emulsion was subsequently applied in the postharvest storage of strawberries. The shear-thinning behavior (flow index <1) and elastic gel-like characteristics of the emulsion made it highly suitable for spray application. Regarding TEO release, the headspace concentration of TEO increased from 0.21 g/L for pure TEO to 1.86 g/L after two instances of gas release due to the stabilizing effect of the chitosan particles at the oil-water interface. Notably, no phase separation was observed during the 10-day storage of the emulsion. Consequently, the emulsion was successfully employed for the postharvest storage of strawberries, effectively preventing undesirable phenomena such as weight loss, a decrease in firmness, an increase in pH, and microbial growth. In conclusion, the developed Pickering emulsion coating exhibits significant potential for fruit preservation applications, particularly for extending the shelf life of strawberries.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Fragaria , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos de Plantas , Timol , Thymus (Planta) , Quitosana/farmacologia , Emulsões , Conservação de Alimentos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Água
18.
Food Chem ; 447: 139028, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513483

RESUMO

In this study, a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) induced depletion attraction was developed to stabilize high internal phase Pickering emulsions (HIPPEs) as age-friendly 3D printing inks. The results demonstrated that depletion force induced the adsorption of yolk particles at the droplet interface and the formation of osmotic droplet clusters, thereby increasing the stability of HIPPEs. In addition, the rheological properties and nutrient delivery properties of HIPPEs could be adjusted by the mass ratio of yolk/CMC. The HIPPEs stabilized at yolk/CMC mass ratio 20:7.5 showed optimal printability, viscoelastic, structural recovery, and swallowability. HIPPEs have been applied to 3D printing, International Dysphagia Dietary Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) test, and in vitro digestive simulation in the elderly, indicating their attractive appearance, safe swallowability, and enhanced bioaccessibility of ß-carotene. Our work provides new ideas for developing age-friendly foods with plasticity and nutrient delivery capacity by depletion attraction stabilizing HIPPEs.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , beta Caroteno , Idoso , Humanos , Emulsões , Adsorção , Impressão Tridimensional , Tamanho da Partícula
19.
Int J Biol Sci ; 20(5): 1796-1814, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481818

RESUMO

Appropriate fibrosis is required to prevent subsequent adverse remodeling and heart failure post myocardial infarction (MI), and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) play a critical role during the process. Carbonic anhydrase 3 (CAR3) is an important mediator in multiple biological processes besides its CO2 hydration activity; however, the role and underlying mechanism of CAR3 on cardiac repair post MI injury remains unknown. Here, we found that CAR3 expression was up-regulated in cardiac tissue in infarct area at the reparative phase of MI, with a peak at 7 days post MI. The upregulation was detected mainly on fibroblast instead of cardiomyocyte, and primary cardiac fibroblasts treated with TGF-ß1 recaptured our observation. While CAR3 deficiency leads to weakened collagen density, enlarged infarct size and aggravated cardiac dysfunction post-MI. In fibroblast, we observed that CAR3 deficiency restrains collagen synthesis, cell migration and gel contraction of cardiac fibroblasts, whereas overexpression of CAR3 in CFs improves wound healing and cardiac fibroblast activation. Mechanistically, CAR3 stabilizes Smad7 protein via modulating its acetylation, which dampens phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, thus inhibiting fibroblast transformation. In contrast, inhibition of Smad7 acetylation with C646 blunts CAR3 deficiency induced suppression of fibroblast activation and impaired cardiac healing. Our data demonstrate a protective role of CAR3 in cardiac wound repair post MI via promoting fibroblasts activation through Smad7-TGF-ß/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Anidrases Carbônicas , Infarto do Miocárdio , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteína Smad7/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo
20.
Lancet Glob Health ; 12(4): e611-e622, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China has the largest burden of heart failure worldwide. However, large-scale studies on heart failure mortality are scarce. We aimed to investigate mortality and identify risk factors for mortality among patients with heart failure in China. METHODS: This prospective cohort study used data from the China Cardiovascular Association (CCA) Database-Heart Failure Centre Registry, which were linked to the National Mortality Registration Information Management System by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. We included patients enrolled from Jan 1, 2017, to Dec 31, 2021, across 572 CCA Database-Heart Failure Centre certified hospitals in 31 provinces of mainland China. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older (younger than 100 years) with a principal discharge diagnosis of heart failure based on Chinese heart failure guidelines. All-cause mortality at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years for patients with heart failure were calculated and the causes of death were recorded. Multivariable analysis was used to analyse factors associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. This study was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2200066305. FINDINGS: Of the 327 477 patients in the registry, 230 637 eligible adults with heart failure were included in our analyses. Participant mean age was 69·3 years (SD 13·2), 94 693 (41·1%) participants were female, and 135 944 (58·9%) were male. The median follow-up time was 531 days (IQR 251-883). Post-discharge all-cause mortality of patients with heart failure at 30 days was 2·4% (95% CI 2·3-2·5), at 1 year was 13·7% (13·5-13·9), and at 3 years was 28·2% (27·7-28·6). Cardiovascular death accounted for 32 906 (71·5%) of 46 006 all-cause deaths. Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction had the highest all-cause mortality. A lower guideline adherence score was independently associated with the increase of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. INTERPRETATION: In China, mortality for patients with heart failure is still high, especially in patients with reduced ejection fraction. Our findings suggest that guideline-directed medical therapy needs to be improved. FUNDING: National High Level Hospital Clinical Research Funding, the Capital's Funds for Health Improvement and Research, and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Alta do Paciente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Sistema de Registros , China/epidemiologia
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