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2.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057546

RESUMO

This review summarizes the advances in catalytic enantioselective reactions using CO2 as a C1 synthon, introduces major synthetic strategies and discusses their advantages and limitations, highlights the application of known protocols, and outlines the synthetic opportunities.

3.
Syst Biol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057686

RESUMO

Rapid evolutionary radiations are among the most challenging phylogenetic problems, wherein different types of data (e.g., morphology, molecular) or genetic markers (e.g., nuclear, organelle) often yield inconsistent results. The tribe Arundinarieae i.e., the temperate bamboos, is a clade of tetraploid originated 22 million years ago and subsequently radiated in East Asia. Previous studies of Arundinarieae have found conflicting relationships and/or low support. Here, we obtain nuclear markers from ddRAD data for 213 Arundinarieae taxa and parallel sampling of chloroplast genomes from genome-skimming for 147 taxa. We first assess the feasibility of using ddRAD-seq data for phylogenetic estimates of paleopolyploid and rapidly radiated lineages, optimize clustering thresholds and analysis workflow for orthology identification. Reference-based ddRAD data assembly approaches perform well and yield strongly supported relationships that are generally concordant with morphology-based taxonomy. We recover five major lineages, two of which are notable (the pachymorph and leptomorph lineages), in that they correspond with distinct rhizome morphologies. By contrast, the phylogeny from chloroplast genomes differed significantly. Based on multiple lines of evidence, the ddRAD tree is favored as the best species tree estimation for temperate bamboos. Using a time-calibrated ddRAD tree we find that Arundinarieae diversified rapidly around the mid-Miocene corresponding with intensification of the East Asian monsoon and the evolution of key innovations including the leptomorph rhizomes. Our results provide a highly resolved phylogeny of Arundinarieae, shed new light on the radiation and reticulate evolutionary history of this tribe, and provide an empirical example for the study of recalcitrant plant radiations.

4.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 21(1): 69, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel regulatory molecules in breast cancer development. LncRNA LUCAT1 is a potential tumor promoter in human cancers. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of LUCAT1 in human breast cancer tissues and cells. METHODS: A total of 31 breast cancer patients who underwent tumor resection, but without chemo- or radiotherapy or acute lung/heart/kidney diseases, provided tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Bioinformatic analysis, qRT-PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were carried out during the study. RESULTS: qRT-PCR analysis indicated that, compared with the adjacent tissues and MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells, LUCAT1 was markedly up-regulated in the breast cancer tissues and five BC cell lines, including MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-435, SKBR3, and MCF-7. The knockdown of LUCAT1, through the transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to LUCAT1, resulted in inhibition of proliferation in breast cancer cells. The expression levels of miR-181a-5p were decreased in the breast cancer tissues and five BC cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay suggested the interaction between miR-181a-5p and LUCAT1. In addition, the effects of LUCAT1 on promoting cell proliferation were attenuated by overexpression of miR-181a-5p through the transfection of miR-181a-5p mimic. Moreover, bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-181a-5p targeted the 3'-UTR region of KLF6 and KLF15 mRNA, which were two tumor suppressor genes. LUCAT1/miR-181a-5p axis regulated the expression of KLF6 and KLF15 both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that LUCAT1/miR-181a-5p axis can serve as a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer.

5.
J Aerosol Sci ; : 105693, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078030

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an unprecedented crisis to the global health sector. When discharging COVID-19 patients in accordance with throat or nasal swab protocols using RT-PCR, the potential risk of reintroducing the infection source to humans and the environment must be resolved. Here, 14 patients including 10 COVID-19 subjects were recruited; exhaled breath condensate (EBC), air samples and surface swabs were collected and analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in four hospitals with applied natural ventilation and disinfection practices in Wuhan. Here we discovered that 22.2% of COVID-19 patients (n = 9), who were ready for hospital discharge based on current guidelines, had SARS-CoV-2 in their exhaled breath (~105 RNA copies/m3). Although fewer surface swabs (3.1%, n = 318) tested positive, medical equipment such as face shield frequently contacted/used by healthcare workers and the work shift floor were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 (3-8 viruses/cm2). Three of the air samples (n = 44) including those collected using a robot-assisted sampler were detected positive by a digital PCR with a concentration level of 9-219 viruses/m3. RT-PCR diagnosis using throat swab specimens had a failure rate of more than 22% in safely discharging COVID-19 patients who were otherwise still exhaling the SARS-CoV-2 by a rate of estimated ~1400 RNA copies per minute into the air. Direct surface contact might not represent a major transmission route, and lower positive rate of air sample (6.8%) was likely due to natural ventilation (1.6-3.3 m/s) and regular disinfection practices. While there is a critical need for strengthening hospital discharge standards in preventing re-emergence of COVID-19 spread, use of breath sample as a supplement specimen could further guard the hospital discharge to ensure the safety of the public and minimize the pandemic re-emergence risk.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 884, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082322

RESUMO

Resistance to molecular therapies frequently occur due to genetic changes affecting the targeted pathway. In myeloid and lymphoid leukemias/lymphomas resulting from constitutive activation of FGFR1 kinases, resistance has been shown to be due either to mutations in FGFR1 or deletions of PTEN. RNA-Seq analysis of the resistant clones demonstrates expression changes in cell death pathways centering on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) protein. Treatment with different tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) revealed that, in both FGFR1 mutation and Pten deletion-mediated resistance, sustained Akt activation in resistant cells leads to compromised Puma activation, resulting in suppression of TKI-induced apoptosis. This suppression of Puma is achieved as a result of sequestration of inactivated p-Foxo3a in the cytoplasm. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockout of Puma in leukemic cells led to an increased drug resistance in the knockout cells demonstrating a direct role in TKI resistance. Since Puma promotes cell death by targeting Bcl2, TKI-resistant cells showed high Bcl2 levels and targeting Bcl2 with Venetoclax (ABT199) led to increased apoptosis in these cells. In vivo treatment of mice xenografted with resistant cells using ABT199 suppressed leukemogenesis and led to prolonged survival. This in-depth survey of the underlying genetic mechanisms of resistance has identified a potential means of treating FGFR1-driven malignancies that are resistant to FGFR1 inhibitors.

7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 584: 429-438, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091867

RESUMO

The adsorption of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on hydrophobic surfaces is known to cause protein aggregation and degradation. Therefore, surfactants, such as Poloxamer 188, are widely used in therapeutic formulations to stabilize mAbs and protect mAbs from interacting with liquid-solid interfaces. Here, the adsorption of Poloxamer 188, one mAb and their competitive adsorption on a model hydrophobic siliconized surface is investigated with neutron scattering coupled with contrast variation to determine the molecular structure of adsorbed layers for each case. Small angle neutron scattering measurements of the affinity of Poloxamer 188 to this mAb indicate that there is negligible binding at these solution conditions. Neutron reflectometry measurements of the mAb show irreversible adsorption on the siliconized surface, which cannot be washed off with neat buffer. Poloxamer 188 can be adsorbed on the surface already occupied by mAb, which enables partial removal of some adsorbed mAb by washing with buffer. The adsorption of the surfactant introduces significant conformational changes for mAb molecules that remain on the surface. In contrast, if the siliconized surface is first saturated with the surfactant, no adsorption of mAb is observed. Competitive adsorption of mAb and Poloxamer 188 from solution leads to a surface dominantly occupied with surfactant molecules, whereas only a minor amount of mAb absorbs. These findings clearly indicate that Poloxamer 188 can protect against mAb adsorption as well as modify the adsorbed conformation of previously adsorbed mAb.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22633, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031323

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD) is a rare benign lesion primarily consisting of smooth muscle cells, which mostly affects premenopausal females. Here, we reported 3 females with LPD (age, 40-48 years) admitted for pelvic masses. PATIENT CONCERNS: All 3 LPD cases received laparoscopic uterine fibroid morcellation at 3, 8, and 14 years ago, respectively. Two cases were admitted for pelvic masses. One case was admitted for recurrent fibroids with pollakiuria. DIAGNOSES: LPD was considered in 2 cases preoperation according to imaging examination, and one of them received ultrasound-guided biopsy of the lesion in the right lobe of the liver. One case was considered as recurrent fibroids preoperation. After surgery, all cases were pathologically diagnosed as LPD consisting of benign smooth muscle cells. INTERVENTIONS: A total abdominal hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, and debulking was performed for all 3 cases. Intraoperative exploration revealed that the fibroids distributed in the mesentery (3 cases), broad ligament (1 case), omentum (1 case), liver (1 case), and rectus abdominis (1 case). OUTCOMES: No recurrence was found during postoperative following-up (5-12 months). LESIONS: Preoperative diagnosis of LPD is presented as a challenge due to unspecific clinical manifestations. Its diagnosis mainly depends on histopathologic evaluation. Surgery still is the primary treatment for LPD. For patients without reproductive desire, total abdominal hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, and debulking can be performed, and the affected tissue should be removed as much as possible based on the risk assessment.


Assuntos
Cavidade Abdominal/patologia , Leiomiomatose/patologia , Pelve/patologia , Cavidade Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Leiomiomatose/diagnóstico por imagem , Leiomiomatose/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morcelação/efeitos adversos , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Ultrassonografia
9.
J Manuf Syst ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106722

RESUMO

During the current Pandemic, seven and a half million flights worldwide were canceled which disrupted the supply chain of all types of goods such as, personal protective gears, medical health devices, raw materials, food, and other essential equipments. The demand for health and medical related goods increased during this period globally, while the production using classical manufacturing techniques were effected because of the lockdowns and disruption in the transporation system. This created the need of geo scattered, small, and rapid manufacturing units along with a smart computer aided design (CAD) facility. The availability of 3D printing technologies and open source CAD design made it possible to overcome this need. In this article, we present an extensive review on the utilization of 3D printing technology in the days of pandamic. We observe that 3D printing together with smart CAD design show promise to overcome the disruption caused by the lockdown of classical manufacturing units specially for medical and testing equipment, and protective gears. We observe that there are several short communications, commentaries, correspondences, editorials and mini reviews compiled and published; however, a systematic state-of-the-art review is required to identify the significance of 3D printing, design for additive manufacturing (AM), and digital supply chain for handling emergency situations and in the post-COVID era. We present a review of various benefits of 3DP particularly in emergency situations such as a pandemic. Furthermore, some relevant iterative design and 3DP case studies are discussed systematically. Finally, this article highlights the areas that can help to control the emergency situation such as a pandemic, and critically discusses the research gaps that need further research in order to exploit the full potential of 3DP in pandemic and post-pandemic future era.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040290

RESUMO

In recent years, environmental protection issues have come under the spotlight. This paper constructs a corporate environmental responsibility evaluation index and examines the impact of environmental responsibility performance on financial performance in China based on the information of A-share listed companies disclosed in the "Company Annual Report" and "Social Responsibility Report" from 2008 to 2017. The empirical results show that: (1) without considering the quality of environmental information, fulfilling environmental responsibility can significantly improve the corporate financial performance; (2) after incorporating the quality of environmental responsibility performance and classifying corporations into subgroups by region and attribute, the fulfillment of environmental responsibility has a significant positive impact on the corporate financial performance in the sample of eastern region and non-state-holding companies, with a lag effect, while it has a negative impact in the sample of central region. The research above politically suggests that the Chinese government should establish a long-term management mechanism to encourage companies to fulfill their environmental responsibilities, improve the evaluation system of corporate environmental responsibility performance quality, as well as provide matching financial support or other compensation, thereby realize the sound and sustainable development of companies and the society.

11.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044058

RESUMO

Luminescent colloidal CdSe nanorings are a recently developed type of semiconductor structure that have attracted interest due to the potential for rich physics arising from their nontrivial toroidal shape. However, the exciton properties and dynamics of these materials with complex topology are not yet well understood. Here, we use a combination of femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy, temperature-resolved photoluminescence (PL), and single-particle measurements to study these materials. We find that on transformation of CdSe nanoplatelets to nanorings, by perforating the center of platelets, the emission lifetime decreases and the emission spectrum broadens due to ensemble variations in the ring size and thickness. The reduced PL quantum yield of nanorings (∼10%) compared to platelets (∼30%) is attributed to an enhanced coupling between (i) excitons and CdSe LO-phonons at 200 cm-1 and (ii) negatively charged selenium-rich traps, which give nanorings a high surface charge (∼-50 mV). Population of these weakly emissive trap sites dominates the emission properties with an increased trap emission at low temperatures relative to excitonic emission. Our results provide a detailed picture of the nature of excitons in nanorings and the influence of phonons and surface charge in explaining the broad shape of the PL spectrum and the origin of PL quantum yield losses. Furthermore, they suggest that the excitonic properties of nanorings are not solely a consequence of the toroidal shape but also a result of traps introduced by puncturing the platelet center.

12.
Zootaxa ; 4772(2): zootaxa.4772.2.6, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055616

RESUMO

Three species of geckos in the genus Goniurosaurus have been recorded from Hainan Island in China. We describe a new species, Goniurosaurus kwanghua sp. nov. Zhu He, bringing the number of this genus in Hainan Island to four. We conducted phylogenetic analyses with two mitochondrial genes (16S Cytb) and two nuclear genes (RAG1 C-MOS) to validate this new species. The new species is similar to G. hainanensis, but differs in the following characters: (1) middle section of the nuchal loop wide and posteriorly protracted, (2) wider body bands with dark markings, (3) yellow stripes on posterior side of humerus and femur, linked to the first and third body bands, respectively. The type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Ilhas , Masculino , Filogenia
13.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20001, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016624

RESUMO

African wild rice Oryza longistaminata, one of the eight AA- genome species in the genus Oryza, possesses highly valued traits, such as the rhizomatousness for perennial rice breeding, strong tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and high biomass production on poor soils. To obtain the high-quality reference genome for O. longistaminata we employed a hybrid assembly approach through incorporating Illumina and PacBio sequencing datasets. The final genome assembly comprised only 107 scaffolds and was approximately ∼363.5 Mb, representing ∼92.7% of the estimated African wild rice genome (∼392 Mb). The N50 lengths of the assembled contigs and scaffolds were ∼46.49 Kb and ∼6.83 Mb, indicating ∼3.72-fold and ∼18.8-fold improvement in length compared to the earlier released assembly (∼12.5 Kb and 364 Kb, respectively). Aided with Hi-C data and syntenic relationship with O. sativa, these assembled scaffolds were anchored into 12 pseudo-chromosomes. Genome annotation and comparative genomic analysis reveal that lineage-specific expansion of gene families that respond to biotic- and abiotic stresses are of great potential for mining novel alleles to overcome major diseases and abiotic adaptation in rice breeding programs. This reference genome of African wild rice will greatly enlarge the existing database of rice genome resources and unquestionably form a solid base to understand genomic basis underlying highly valued phenotypic traits and search for novel gene sources in O. longistaminata for the future rice breeding programs.


Assuntos
Oryza , Genoma , Genômica , Oryza/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the efficacy of Getong Tongluo Capsule (, GTC, consisted of total flavone of Radix Puerariae) on improving patients' quality of life and lowering blood pressure are superior to the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) for patients with convalescent-phase ischemic stroke and primary hypertension. METHODS: This randomized, positive-drug- and placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted from September 2015 to October 2017. Totally 477 eligible patients from 18 hospitals in China were randomly assigned in a 2:1:1 ratio to the following interventions, twice a day for 12 weeks: (1) GTC 250 mg plus EGB-matching placebo 40 mg (237 cases, GTC group), (2) EGB 40 mg plus GTC-matching placebo 250 mg (120 cases, EGB group) or (3) GTC-matching placebo 250 mg plus EGB-matching placebo 40 mg (120 cases, placebo group). Moreover, all patients were orally administered aspirin enteric-coated tablets 100 mg, once a day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the Barthel Index (BI). The secondary outcomes included the control rate of blood pressure and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. The incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) were calculated and assessed. RESULTS: The BI relative independence rates, the clinical recovery rates of NIHSS, and the total effective rates of NIHSS in the GTC and EGB groups were significantly higher than the placebo group at 12 weeks after treatment (P<0.05), and no statistical significance was found between the GTC and EGB groups (P>0.05). The control rate of blood pressure in the GTC group was significantly higher than the EGB and placebo groups at 12, 18 and 24 weeks after treatment (P<0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in the incidences of AEs, adverse drug reactions, or serious AEs among the 3 groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: GTC exhibited significant efficacy in improving patients' quality of life as well as neurological function and controlling hypertension. (Registration No. ChiCTR1800016667).

16.
Thorac Cancer ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The family of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), an important antioxidant enzyme in human tissues, has been discovered to play a key role in the development of cancers. GPX8 is the most promising molecule of the family in a therapeutic strategy against a variety of cancers. The main purpose of this study was to examine and analyze the function and clinical value of GPX8 in NSCLC. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to assess GPX8 expression and its clinical significance in NSCLC. A series of cell biology experiments and bioinformatic analysis tools were further used to study the function of GPX8. RESULTS: GPX8 expression in tumor tissues was much higher than that in normal lung tissues. High expression of GPX8 in NSCLC was correlated with a worse clinical outcome and prognosis. Furthermore, GPX8 could inhibit the apoptosis of tumor cells and promote its migration and invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Our results conclusively demonstrated that GPX8 could affect the oncogenesis and prognosis of NSCLC via regulating epithelial characteristics. The study also illustrated that GPX8 could serve as a prognostic predictor and potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981308

RESUMO

High-performance photo-triggered electronic devices have already become an abiding target of optoelectronics. Current results, involving high-sensitivity phototransistors with the enhancement of material properties or the modification of electrical field, need an independent external light-source system. Nevertheless, few research studies inform of circuits in which the logic channel can be directly light controlled by a fully integrated photogate. In this paper, nanowire-based photon-effect transistors (PETs) combined with organic light-emitting diode (OLED) gates, and the photo-triggered nanowire circuits (PTNCs) are exhibited. The nanowire channels are manifested as high-quality optical cavities coupled by reflective electrodes for forming standing wave resonance. With the function of resonance, the nanowire channel under the illumination of the OLED gate can reach a high on/off ratio of ∼107, and under the different interconnected configuration of OLED gates, the functions of PETs can separately be realized as P-type and N-type of CMOS-like transistors. Then, a PTNC inverter that includes two nanowire channels with the respective OLED gates is operated utilizing electrical input voltage and logic opposite output signal. NAND and NOR gates as PTNC have also been demonstrated and indicate their corresponding outstanding arithmetic logic operation. PTNCs can effectively represent an innovative step toward multipurpose photonic circuits as to programmable logic components and photo-triggered computing.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(9): 745, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917859

RESUMO

The histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralogue p300 are transcriptional coactivators which are essential for a multitude of signaling pathways and energy homeostasis. However, the role of CBP/p300 HAT domain in regulating energy balance is still unclear. Here, C57BL/6 mice fed with either normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD) were administrated with A-485, a recently reported selective inhibitor of CBP/p300 HAT activity for 1 week and the metabolic change was analyzed. The white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and adipocyte size were reduced in A-485-administrated mice, with decreased expressions of lipogenic genes and transcriptional factors. In the liver of A-485-treated mice, the lipid content and lipogenic gene expressions were lowered while the binding of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) to glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc) promoter was reduced, leading to decreased expression of G6Pc. In primary mouse hepatocytes, A-485 abolished cAMP-elicited mRNA expressions of key gluconeogenic enzymes and promoted FOXO1 protein degradation via increasing its ubiquitination. Thus, A-485 inhibits lipogenesis in WAT and liver as well as decreases hepatic glucose production via preventing FOXO1 acetylation, leading to its protein degradation through a proteasome-dependent pathway. The specific inhibition of CBP/p300 HAT will provide a novel therapeutic approach for metabolic diseases.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936643

RESUMO

The hydrogenation of CO2 into value-added complexes is of great importance for both environmental and economic issues. Metal hydrides are good models for the active sites to explore the nature of CO2 hydrogenation; however, the fundamental insights into C-H bond formation are still far from clear because of the complexity of real-life catalysts. Herein, gas-phase reactions of the Fe2Hn- (n = 0-3) anions with CO2 were investigated using mass spectrometry and quantum chemical calculations. The experimental results showed that the reduction of CO2 into CO dominates all of these reactions, whereas Fe2H- and Fe2H2- can induce the hydrogenation of CO2 effectively to give rise to products Fe(HCO2)- and HFe(HCO2)-, respectively. The mechanistic aspects and the reactivity of Fe2Hn- with an increased number of H atoms in CO2 hydrogenation were rationalized by theoretical calculations.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15310, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943706

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbs with particularly valued roots. Triterpenoid saponins are mainly specialized secondary metabolites, which medically act as bioactive components. Knowledge of the ginsenoside biosynthesis in P. notoginseng, which is of great importance in the industrial biosynthesis and genetic breeding program, remains largely undetermined. Here we combined single molecular real time (SMRT) and Second-Generation Sequencing (SGS) technologies to generate a widespread transcriptome atlas of P. notoginseng. We mapped 2,383 full-length non-chimeric (FLNC) reads to adjacently annotated genes, corrected 1,925 mis-annotated genes and merged into 927 new genes. We identified 8,111 novel transcript isoforms that have improved the annotation of the current genome assembly, of which we found 2,664 novel lncRNAs. We characterized more alternative splicing (AS) events from SMRT reads (20,015 AS in 6,324 genes) than Illumina reads (18,498 AS in 9,550 genes), which contained a number of AS events associated with the ginsenoside biosynthesis. The comprehensive transcriptome landscape reveals that the ginsenoside biosynthesis predominantly occurs in flowers compared to leaves and roots, substantiated by levels of gene expression, which is supported by tissue-specific abundance of isoforms in flowers compared to roots and rhizomes. Comparative metabolic analyses further show that a total of 17 characteristic ginsenosides increasingly accumulated, and roots contained the most ginsenosides with variable contents, which are extraordinarily abundant in roots of the three-year old plants. We observed that roots were rich in protopanaxatriol- and protopanaxadiol-type saponins, whereas protopanaxadiol-type saponins predominated in aerial parts (leaves, stems and flowers). The obtained results will greatly enhance our understanding about the ginsenoside biosynthetic machinery in the genus Panax.

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