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1.
Heart ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the heart response of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) through continuous follow-up within our large cohort, for which there is a lack of understanding. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data from patients with ECD with cardiac involvement diagnosed at our centre between January 2010 and August 2023. We assessed the heart response by integrating pericardial effusion and metabolic responses. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were included, with a median age of 51.5 years (range: 29-66) and a BRAFV600E mutation rate of 56%. The most common imaging manifestations observed were pericardial effusion (73%), right atrium (70%) and right atrioventricular sulcus infiltration (58%). Among 21 evaluable patients, 18 (86%) achieved a heart response including 5 (24%) complete response (CR) and 13 (62%) partial response (PR). The CR rate of pericardial effusion response was 33%, while the PR rate was 56%. Regarding the cardiac mass response, 33% of patients showed PR. For cardiac metabolic response, 32% and 53% of patients achieved complete and partial metabolic response, respectively. There was a correlation between pericardial effusion response and cardiac metabolic response (r=0.73 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.83), p<0.001). The median follow-up was 50.2 months (range: 1.0-102.8 months). The estimated 5-year overall survival was 78.9%. The median progression-free survival was 59.4 months (95% CI 26.2 to 92.7 months). Patients who received BRAF inhibitors achieved better heart response (p=0.037) regardless of treatment lines. CONCLUSION: We pioneered the evaluation of heart response of ECD considering both pericardial effusion and cardiac metabolic response within our cohort, revealing a correlation between these two indicators. BRAF inhibitors may improve heart response, regardless of the treatment lines.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1367658, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737410

RESUMO

Introduction: Nitrososphaeria, formerly known as Thaumarchaeota, constitute a diverse and widespread group of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) inhabiting ubiquitously in marine and terrestrial environments, playing a pivotal role in global nitrogen cycling. Despite their importance in Earth's ecosystems, the cellular organization of AOA remains largely unexplored, leading to a significant unanswered question of how the machinery of these organisms underpins metabolic functions. Methods: In this study, we combined spherical-chromatic-aberration-corrected cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to unveil the cellular organization and elemental composition of Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, a representative member of marine Nitrososphaeria. Results and Discussion: Our tomograms show the native ultrastructural morphology of SCM1 and one to several dense storage granules in the cytoplasm. STEM-EDS analysis identifies two types of storage granules: one type is possibly composed of polyphosphate and the other polyhydroxyalkanoate. With precise measurements using cryo-ET, we observed low quantity and density of ribosomes in SCM1 cells, which are in alignment with the documented slow growth of AOA in laboratory cultures. Collectively, these findings provide visual evidence supporting the resilience of AOA in the vast oligotrophic marine environment.

3.
Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 14(2): 157-160, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737643

RESUMO

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare salivary gland cancer. Still, its growth and invasion progress is slow, and its hematogenous metastasis is ACC's most common distant metastasis. Because of the broad expression and low background uptake of fibroblast activation protein (FAP) in tumor stroma, FAPI is considered another potential tracer of ACC in addition to FDG. In this case, we report a patient who was diagnosed with metastatic ACC liver cancer by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and underwent PET/CT examination of [18F]FDG and [18F]FAPI-42 to find the primary cancer lesion. Finally, the primary cancer lesion was found in the left submandibular gland and was pathologically confirmed as ACC after resection.

4.
J Cancer ; 15(10): 3034-3044, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706914

RESUMO

Bone metastases is prevalent from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with poor quality of life and prognosis. Our previous proteomics analysis identified dysregulated proteins in the bone-tropism RCC cells. In this study, we further examined the clinical implications of these proteins using multiple clinical cohorts. We identified 6 proteins with significant upregulation in RCC tumor tissue in comparing to tumor adjacent normal tissue (p<0.05). High expression of these 6 protein-encoding genes significantly correlates with a poor survival in the TCGA-KIRC (Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma) cohort (log-rank test p=2.7e-05), and they all individually had a reverse-correlation with the gene expression of VHL and PBRM1 (p<0.001), and positive-correlation with the expression of VEGFA (p<0.001). Further gene set variation analysis (GSVA) revealed positive correlation with Th17 cells enrichment and negative CD8 T cell infiltration in the RCC tumor microenvironment. High expression of these 6 genes in pretreatment tumors favors longer overall survival (OS)(p=0.027) in anti-PDL1 treated patients (n=428). We treated one humeral metastases RCC patient with the anti-PDL1 antibody drug atezolizumab after examined the elevated expression of the 6 proteins in his nephrectomy tumor tissue, the tumor at the fracture site shrunk remarkably after four courses of treatment. These results altogether suggest a clinical implication of the 6-protein signature in RCC bone metastasis prognosis and response to immune-checkpoint inhibitor treatment.

5.
Small ; : e2401253, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713154

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has emerged as a kind of multi-functional green oxidants with extensive industrial utility. Oxidized carbon materials exhibit promises as electrocatalysts in the two-electron (2e-) oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for H2O2 production. However, the precise identification and fabrication of active sites that selectively yield H2O2 present a serious challenge. Herein, a structural engineering strategy is employed to synthesize oxygen-doped carbon quantum dots (o-CQD) for the 2e- ORR. The surface electronic structure of the o-CQDs is systematically modulated by varying isomerization precursors, thereby demonstrating excellent electrocatalyst performance. Notably, o-CQD-3 emerges as the most promising candidate, showcasing a remarkable H2O2 selectivity of 96.2% (n = 2.07) at 0.68 V versus RHE, coupled with a low Tafel diagram of 66.95 mV dec-1. In the flow cell configuration, o-CQD-3 achieves a H2O2 productivity of 338.7 mmol gcatalyst -1 h-1, maintaining consistent production stability over an impressive 120-hour duration. Utilizing in situ technology and density functional theory calculations, it is unveil that edge sites of o-CQD-3 are facilely functionalized by C-O-C groups under alkaline ORR conditions. This isomerization engineering approach advances the forefront of sustainable catalysis and provides a profound insight into the carbon-based catalyst design for environmental-friendly chemical synthesis processes.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748760

RESUMO

In order to investigate the impact of an external electric field on the sensitivity of ß-HMX explosives, we employ first-principles calculations to determine the molecular structure, dipole moment, and electronic properties of both ß-HMX crystals and individual ß-HMX molecules under varying electric fields. When the external electric field is increasing along the [100], [010], and [001] crystallographic directions of ß-HMX, the calculation results indicate that an increase in the bond length (N1-N3/N1'-N3') of the triggering bond, an increase in the main Qnitro (N3, N3') value, an increase in the minimum surface electrostatic potential, and a decrease in band gap all contribute to a reduction in its stability. Among these directions, the [010] direction exhibits the highest sensitivity, which can be attributed to the significantly smaller effective mass along the [010] direction compared with the [001] and [100] directions. Moreover, the application of an external electric field along the Y direction of the coordinate system on individual ß-HMX molecules reveals that the strong polarization effect induced by the electric field enhances the decomposition of the N1-N3 bonds. In addition, due to the periodic potential energy of ß-HXM crystal, the polarization effect of ß-HMX crystal caused by an external electric field is much smaller than that of a single ß-HXM molecule.

7.
8.
Biomater Sci ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742916

RESUMO

The tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment (TIME) and uncontrollable release of antigens can lower the efficacy of nanovaccine-based immunotherapy (NBI). Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new strategy for TIME reshaping and controllable release of antigens to improve the NBI efficacy. Herein, an acidity-responsive Schiff base-conjugated polyphenol-coordinated nanovaccine was constructed for the first time to realize bidirectional TIME reshaping and controllable release of antigens for activating T cells. In particular, an acidity-responsive tannic acid-ovalbumin (TA-OVA) nanoconjugate was prepared via a Schiff base reaction. FeIII was coordinated with TA-OVA to produce a FeIII-TA-OVA nanosystem, and 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT) as an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitor was loaded to form a polyphenol-coordinated nanovaccine. The coordination between FeIII and TA could cause photothermal ablation of primary tumors, and the acidity-triggered Schiff base dissociation of TA-OVA could controllably release OVA to realize lysosome escape, initiating the body's immune response. More importantly, oxidative stress generated by a tumor-specific Fenton reaction of Fe ions could promote the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages from the M2 to M1 phenotype, resulting in the upregulation of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells. Meanwhile, 1-MT could downregulate immunosuppressive regulatory T cells. Overall, such skillful combination of bidirectional TIME reshaping and controllable antigen release into one coordination nanosystem could effectively enhance the NBI efficacy of tumors.

9.
Eur J Nutr ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748287

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dietary fiber (DF) has a good application prospect in effectively restoring the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Ginseng-DF has good physicochemical properties and physiological activity and shows positive effects in enhancing immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Ginseng-DF on intestinal mucosal barrier injury induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX) in immunosuppressed mice and its possible mechanism. METHODS: The effects of Gginseng-DF on immune function in mice were studied by delayed-type hypersensitivy, lymphocyte proliferation assay and NK cytotoxicity assay, the T lymphocyte differentiation and intestinal barrier integrity were analyzed by flow cytometry and western blot. RESULTS: Ginseng-DF (2.5% and 5%) could attenuate the inhibition of DTH response by CTX, promote the transformation and proliferation of lymphocytes, and stimulate NK effector cell activity. At the same time, Ginseng-DF could restore the proportion of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes induced by CTX to different extents, improved spleen tissue damage, promoted the secretion of immunoglobulin IgG, and enhanced body immunity. More importantly, Ginseng-DF could up-regulate the contents of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-1ß in serum and intestine of immunosuppressed mice to maintain the balance between Th1/Th2 cytokines, and improve the permeability of intestinal mucosal barrier. Meanwhile, Ginseng-DF could reduce intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and improve intestinal adaptive immunity in CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice by regulating MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: Ginseng-DF can be used as a safe dietary supplement to enhance body immunity and reduce intestinal mucosal injury caused by CTX.

10.
Chem Rev ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748433

RESUMO

With the ability to maximize the exposure of nearly all active sites to reactions, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) has become a fascinating new class of materials for electrocatalysis. Recently, electrochemical microcells have been developed, and their unique spatial-confined capability enables understanding of catalytic behaviors at a single material level, significantly promoting this field. This Review provides an overview of the recent progress in microcell-based TMD electrocatalyst studies. We first introduced the structural characteristics of TMD materials and discussed their site engineering strategies for electrocatalysis. Later, we comprehensively described two distinct types of microcells: the window-confined on-chip electrochemical microcell (OCEM) and the droplet-confined scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM). Their setups, working principles, and instrumentation were elucidated in detail, respectively. Furthermore, we summarized recent advances of OCEM and SECCM obtained in TMD catalysts, such as active site identification and imaging, site monitoring, modulation of charge injection and transport, and electrostatic field gating. Finally, we discussed the current challenges and provided personal perspectives on electrochemical microcell research.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(19): 24384-24397, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709640

RESUMO

Vascularization and inflammation management are essential for successful bone regeneration during the healing process of large bone defects assisted by artificial implants/fillers. Therefore, this study is devoted to the optimization of the osteogenic microenvironment for accelerated bone healing through rapid neovascularization and appropriate inflammation inhibition that were achieved by applying a tantalum oxide (TaO)-based nanoplatform carrying functional substances at the bone defect. Specifically, TaO mesoporous nanospheres were first constructed and then modified by functionalized metal ions (Mg2+) with the following deferoxamine (DFO) loading to obtain the final product simplified as DFO-Mg-TaO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the product was homogeneously dispersed hollow nanospheres with large specific surface areas and mesoporous shells suitable for loading Mg2+ and DFO. The biological assessments indicated that DFO-Mg-TaO could enhance the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The DFO released from DFO-Mg-TaO promoted angiogenetic activity by upregulating the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Notably, DFO-Mg-TaO also displayed anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the expressions of pro-inflammatory factors, benefiting from the release of bioactive Mg2+. In vivo experiments demonstrated that DFO-Mg-TaO integrated with vascular regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and osteogenic activities significantly accelerated the reconstruction of bone defects. Our findings suggest that the optimized DFO-Mg-TaO nanospheres are promising as multifunctional fillers to speed up the bone healing process.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Desferroxamina , Magnésio , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Óxidos , Tantálio , Desferroxamina/química , Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Tantálio/química , Animais , Óxidos/química , Óxidos/farmacologia , Magnésio/química , Magnésio/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Camundongos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiogênese
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 472: 134498, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733782

RESUMO

Advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of organic pollutants in wastewater suffer from difficulties in mineralization, potential risks of dissolved residues, and high oxidant consumption. In this study, radical-initiated polymerization is dominated in an UV/peroxydisulfate (PDS) process to eliminate organic pollutant of pharmaceutical metoprolol (MTP). Compared with an ideal degradation-based UV/PDS process, the present process can save four fifths of PDS consumption at the same dissolved organic carbon removal of 47.3%. Simultaneously, organic carbon can be recovered from aqueous solution by separating solid polymers at a ratio of 50% of the initial chemical oxygen demand. The chemical structure of products was analyzed to infer the transformation pathways of MTP. Unlike previous studies on simple organic pollutants that the polymerization can occur independently, the polymerization of MTP is dependent on the partial degradation of MTP, and the main monomer in polymerization is a dominant degradation product (4-(2-methoxyethyl)-phenol, denoted as DP151). The separated solid polymers are formed by repeated oxidation and coupling of DP151 or its derivatives through a series of intermediate oligomers. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the advantage of polymerization-dominated mechanism on dealing with large organic molecules with complex structures, as well as the potential of UV/PDS process for simultaneous organic pollution reduction and organic carbon recovery from aqueous solution.

13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2403607, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728594

RESUMO

Graphitic carbon nitride (CN), as a nonmetallic photocatalyst, has gained considerable attention for its cost-effectiveness and environmentally friendly nature in catalyzing solar-driven CO2 conversion into valuable products. However, the photocatalytic efficiency of CO2 reduction with CN remains low, accompanied by challenges in achieving desirable product selectivity. To address these limitations, a two-step hydrothermal-calcination tandem synthesis strategy is presented, introducing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) into CN and forming ultra-thin CQD/CN nanosheets. The integration of CQDs induces a distinct work function with CN, creating a robust interface electric field after the combination. This electric field facilitates the accumulation of photoelectrons in the CQDs region, providing an abundant source of reduced electrons for the photocatalytic process. Remarkably, the CQD/CN nanosheets exhibit an average CO yield of 120 µmol g-1, showcasing an outstanding CO selectivity of 92.8%. The discovery in the work not only presents an innovative pathway for the development of high-performance photocatalysts grounded in non-metallic CN materials employing CQDs but also opens new avenues for versatile application prospects in environmental protection and sustainable cleaning energy.

14.
Cell Rep Med ; 5(5): 101573, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776874

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to various malignancies and autoimmune diseases, posing a significant global health challenge due to the lack of specific treatments or vaccines. Despite its crucial role in EBV infection in B cells, the mechanisms of the glycoprotein gp42 remain elusive. In this study, we construct an antibody phage library from 100 EBV-positive individuals, leading to the identification of two human monoclonal antibodies, 2B7 and 2C1. These antibodies effectively neutralize EBV infection in vitro and in vivo while preserving gp42's interaction with the human leukocyte antigen class II (HLA-II) receptor. Structural analysis unveils their distinct binding epitopes on gp42, different from the HLA-II binding site. Furthermore, both 2B7 and 2C1 demonstrate potent neutralization of EBV infection in HLA-II-positive epithelial cells, expanding our understanding of gp42's role. Overall, this study introduces two human anti-gp42 antibodies with potential implications for developing EBV vaccines targeting gp42 epitopes, addressing a critical gap in EBV research.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Epitopos , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Camundongos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 442, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (preCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer in older people who were classified as "fit" by comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). METHODS: A single-arm, multicenter, phase II trial was designed. Patients were eligible for this study if they were aged 70 years or above and met the standards of "fit" (SIOG1) as evaluated by CGA and of the locally advanced risk category. The primary endpoint was 2-year disease-free survival (DFS). Patients were scheduled to receive preCRT (50 Gy) with raltitrexed (3 mg/m2 on days 1 and 22). RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients were evaluated by CGA, of whom eighty-six, eleven and twelve were classified into the fit, intermediate and frail category. Sixty-eight fit patients with a median age of 74 years were enrolled. Sixty-four patients (94.1%) finished radiotherapy without dose reduction. Fifty-four (79.3%) patients finished the prescribed raltitrexed therapy as planned. Serious toxicity (grade 3 or above) was observed in twenty-four patients (35.3%), and fourteen patients (20.6%) experienced non-hematological side effects. Within a median follow-up time of 36.0 months (range: 5.9-63.1 months), the 2-year overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 89.6% (95% CI: 82.3-96.9), 92.4% (95% CI: 85.9-98.9) and 75.6% (95% CI: 65.2-86.0), respectively. Forty-eight patients (70.6%) underwent surgery (R0 resection 95.8%, R1 resection 4.2%), the corresponding R0 resection rate among the patients with positive mesorectal fascia status was 76.6% (36/47). CONCLUSION: This phase II trial suggests that preCRT is efficient with tolerable toxicities in older rectal cancer patients who were evaluated as fit based on CGA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The registration number on ClinicalTrials.gov was NCT02992886 (14/12/2016).


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 331: 118303, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734390

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Realgar, a traditional mineral Chinese medicine, has been used in China for more than 2000 years. It has been recorded in many ancient and modern works that it has anti-cancer and anti-tumor effects. Of course, colon cancer is also within the scope of its treatment. Realgar needs to be processed into realgar decoction pieces by water grinding before being used for medicine. To ensure the consistency of efficacy and quality of realgar decoction pieces, modern methods need to be used for further quality control. AIM OF THE STUDY: The research of traditional mineral Chinese medicine is relatively difficult, and the related research is less. The purpose of this study is to control the quality of realgar decoction pieces by modern analytical technology and analyze its components. On this basis, its anti-colon cancer activity was discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several batches of realgar decoction pieces were analyzed by XRD, and the components of realgar decoction pieces were obtained. The quality control fingerprints of realgar decoction pieces were established by processing XRD spectra and similarity evaluation. Then, the effects of realgar decoction pieces on apoptosis of CT26 and HTC-116 cells were observed in vitro by Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential and Western blot; In vivo, the mouse model of tumor-in-situ transplantation of colon cancer was established, and the related indexes were observed. RESULT: The explorations showed that the XRD Fourier fingerprints of realgar decoction pieces samples that had the same phase revealed 10 common peaks, respectively. The similarity evaluation of the established XRD Fourier fingerprint was greater than 0.900. We also demonstrated that realgar decoction pieces can promote apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in colon cancer cells, its activating effect on p53 protein, and its safety when used within reasonable limits. CONCLUSION: The quality control of realgar decoction pieces by XRD is scientific and has the inhibitory effect on colon cancer, which has the development potential.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(20): 14832-14838, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721813

RESUMO

Magnetic molecules are promising candidates for quantum information processing (QIP) due to their tunable electron structures and quantum properties. A high spin Co(II) complex, CoH2dota, is studied for its potential to be used as a quantum bit (qubit) utilizing continuous wave (CW) and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at low temperature. On the X-band microwave energy scale, the system can be treated as an effective spin 1/2 with a strongly anisotropic g-tensor resulting from the significant spin-orbital coupling. An experimental and theoretical study is conducted to investigate the anisotropic Rabi oscillations of the two magnetically equivalent spin centres with different orientations in a single crystal sample, which aims to verify the relationship between the Rabi frequency and the orientation of the g-tensor. The findings of this study show that an effective quantum manipulation method is developed for orthorhombic spin systems.

19.
Adv Mater ; : e2401838, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748700

RESUMO

The advent of 2D ferroelectrics, characterized by their spontaneous polarization states in layer-by-layer domains without the limitation of a finite size effect, brings enormous promise for applications in integrated optoelectronic devices. Comparing with semiconductor/insulator devices, ferroelectric devices show natural advantages such as non-volatility, low energy consumption and high response speed. Several 2D ferroelectric materials have been reported, however, the device implementation particularly for optoelectronic application remains largely hypothetical. Here, the linear electro-optic effect in 2D ferroelectrics is discovered and electrically tunable 2D ferroelectric metalens is demonstrated. The linear electric-field modulation of light is verified in 2D ferroelectric CuInP2S6. The in-plane phase retardation can be continuously tuned by a transverse DC electric field, yielding an effective electro-optic coefficient rc of 20.28 pm V-1. The CuInP2S6 crystal exhibits birefringence with the fast axis oriented along its (010) plane. The 2D ferroelectric Fresnel metalens shows efficacious focusing ability with an electrical modulation efficiency of the focusing exceeding 34%. The theoretical analysis uncovers the origin of the birefringence and unveil its ultralow light absorption across a wide wavelength range in this non-excitonic system. The van der Waals ferroelectrics enable room-temperature electrical modulation of light and offer the freedom of heterogeneous integration with silicon and another material system for highly compact and tunable photonics and metaoptics.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identifying the biomarkers for uncontrolled chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is important for directing treatment decisions. Eosinophilia has been reported to be involved in the poor disease control of CRS and mucus eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) is potentially a biomarker of intense eosinophil activation. This study aimed to assess the relationship between mucus EDN levels, disease severity, and degree of CRS control. METHODS: A total of 150 adult patients with CRS and 25 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. The nasal mucus and tissue specimens were collected to analyze EDN levels. Disease severity was assessed by Lund-Mackay score and 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) score. Five CRS symptom severities during the prior month (nasal blockage, rhinorrhoea/postnasal drip, facial pain/pressure, smell, sleep disturbance or fatigue), use of rescue medications in the last six months, and the presence of diseased mucosa on nasal endoscopy were obtained. Consistent with the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2020 CRS control criteria, uncontrolled CRS was defined as meeting at least three items. RESULTS: 40% of patients with CRS presented with uncontrolled status. Patients with uncontrolled CRS had significantly higher nasal mucus EDN levels (P = 0.010), percentage of blood eosinophil (P = 0.015), SNOT-22 score (P < 0.001), Lund-Mackay score (P = 0.008), and a more eosinophilic dominant phenotype of CRS (P < 0.001) than patients with controlled CRS. Furthermore, mucus EDN levels were positively correlated with blood eosinophils (r = 0.541, P = 0.005), SNOT-22 score (r = 0.460, P = 0.021), and Lund-Mackay score (r = 0.387, P = 0.039). Mucus EDN levels were the significant parameter related to uncontrolled CRS in multivariable analysis after adjusting for patient demographics and comorbidities (odds ratio = 1.323; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Mucus EDN levels may be a potential biomarker for identifying the CRS control status.

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