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1.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-964923

RESUMO

Background Gastrointestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and dietary factors have a great impact on intestinal micro ecology. At present, few studies focus on red meat and PD, especially prodromal PD (pPD). Objective To understand the relationships of the intake of red meat and processed meat products with pPD and the number of risk/prodromal markers, and to explore the association of dietary factors with pPD. Methods Based on the data of Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Disease in 2018 and 2020, adults aged 55 years and older with complete demographic information, dietary survey information, and information on risk factors related to PD were selected from four provinces of China. After excluding those reporting abnormal total energy intake or those reporting alcohol drinking or abused drugs for a long period of time, and confirmed mental diseases with prescribed drugs, a total of 10003 subjects were included. Food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the intake of red meat and processed meat products. The pPD-related risk/prodromal markers were selected following the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society criteria for pPD, and the risk level and the number of markers of pPD were then calculated. The relationship between the intake of red meat and processed meat and the risk level of pPD was analyzed by multiple linear regression. The relationship between the intake of red meat and processed meat and the pPD marker number groups was analyzed by multinomial logit regression model. Results In 2018, the intake of red meat and processed meat was 28.57 g·d−1 in the target population. In 2020, the median of the number of risk/prodromal markers was 3, and the median M (P25, P75) of the posterior probability of pPD was 0.74% (0.42%, 1.49%). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the higher the intake of red meat and processed meat, the higher the risk level of pPD in follow-up (b=0.021, P<0.05). The multiple logit regression model showed that compared with the lowest quartile (Q1), the highest quartile (Q4) group of red meat and processed meat intake were more likely reporting 3−5 risk/prodromal markers than ≤ 2 risk/prodromal markers (OR=1.185, 95%CI: 1.015−1.382). Conclusion The intake level of red meat and processed meat is related to the risk level of pPD, and a higher intake of red meat and processed meat may be a potential risk factor of pPD.

2.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-979187

RESUMO

Background Excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is harmful to health. In recent decades, the consumption of SSBs by Chinese residents has increased rapidly, increasing the risk of death and burden of disease. Objective To analyze the knowledge level and influencing factors of SSBs for Chinese residents aged 18-64 years in 2021. Methods A multi-stage cluster random sampling approach was used to conduct a questionnaire survey among residents aged 18-64 years in 302 survey sites across the country in 2021, and 98567 valid questionnaires were obtained. Four questions are about SSBs among the questionnaire's 5 dimensions. Respondents who answered 3 or more questions correctly were considered to have a basic understanding of SSBs. Frequency and weighted proportion were used for description. With individual as level 1 and resident council (village council) as level 2, a two-level logistic regression model was applied to examine the influencing factors. A null model was used to determine whether the two-level logistic regression model was appropriate. Results The knowledge awareness rate of SSBs was 57.0% among the Chinese residents aged 18-64 years in 2021. The knowledge point with the lowest correct rate was "It is best to consume no more than 25 grams of added sugar per day" (22.6%), while the one with the highest correct rate was "Excessive intake of SSBs can increase the risk of obesity and diabetes" (81.1%). The results of the null model showed that SSBs knowledge level had a clustering effect at resident council (village council) level (t=25.00, P<0.0001), so a two-level model fit better than a one-level model. The results of the two-level logistic model revealed that residents who were female (OR=1.14, 95%CI: 1.11, 1.18) or working in medical and health (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.27, 1.45) and education institutions (OR=1.16, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.24) had a higher knowledge level compared to males or residents of other occupations. The knowledge level was lower among residents in central (OR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.77, 0.97) and western (OR=0.85, 95%CI: 0.75, 0.94) areas than in eastern areas. Those with chronic diseases (OR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.78, 0.84) and who did not know if they had a chronic disease (OR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.72, 0.78) had a lower knowledge level than those without chronic diseases. Compared with 18-24 years, the knowledge level was higher in ages 35-44 years (OR=1.07, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.12) and lower in ages 55-64 years (OR=0.92, 95%CI: 0.86, 0.97), and not different from the ages 25-34 years and 45-54 years. The knowledge level increased with the level of education, the trend was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion Only about half of Chinese adults aged 18-64 years had a basic understanding of SSBs in 2021. The awareness rate of added sugar intake was low in particular. The knowledge levels of male, central and western, or less educated populations were even lower. Awareness of the negative health outcomes of SSBs was high among the population.

3.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-960512

RESUMO

Background Magnesium plays an important physiological role in human, but the association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension is unclear. Few studies have reported the dose-response relationship in Chinese population. Objective To analyze the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension in Chinese adults aged 18-64 years, and to explore the dose-response relationship. Methods A total of 13082 adults aged 18-64 years who participated in at least two rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 2000 to 2018 were selected. Dietary data were obtained by consecutive 3-day 24-hour dietary recall and weighting & bookkeeping method. Blood pressure was measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Hypertension was diagnosed when systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or self-reported hypertension history or using antihypertensive drugs. The mean of dietary magnesium intake in all survey years (excluding the last survey) was used as the dietary magnesium intake of the subject, and the mean of dietary magnesium intake was divided into 5 equal groups. Cox proportional risk model with adjustments for socio-demographic factors, body mass index (BMI), smoking and drinking, sleep time, physical activity, and dietary factors, was used to analyze the association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by excluding baseline diabetes patients and adjusting for baseline blood pressure. In addition, a restricted cubic spline model was used to analyze the dose-response relationship between them. Results In this study, male participants accounted for 47.70%, and those aged 18-44 years accounted for 72.47%. The mean follow-up time was 12.56 years and the prevalence of hypertension was 13.86%. Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with the risk of hypertension at the 4th quintile (median 333.56 mg·d−1) and the 5th quintile (median 420.07 mg·d−1) compared with the 1st quintile (median 189.06 mg·d–1), and the hazard risk (HR) values and associated 95%CIs were 0.81 (0.67-0.97) and 0.81 (0.66-0.99) respectively. After eliminating baseline diabetes and adjusting baseline blood pressure, dietary magnesium intake remained negatively associated with the risk of hypertension, which was consistent with the population-wide HR. The association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension was non-linear (χ2=11.07, P=0.01). When dietary magnesium intake was higher than 339 mg·d−1, the risk of hypertension decreased, and the HR value was the lowest in 375-418 mg·d−1 (HR=0.65, 95%CI: 0.45-0.94), and then gradually tended to 1. There was no statistically significant association at 467 mg·d−1 and above. Conclusion Magnesium intake in the range of 339-467 mg·d−1 is negatively associated with the risk of hypertension in Chinese adults, presenting a U-shaped dose-response relationship.

4.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-960511

RESUMO

Background Magnesium is an important nutrient, and participates in most metabolic processes. Many studies show an association between dietary magnesium intakes and nutrition-related diseases such as diabetes. However, the data of dietary magnesium intakes and secular trends among the whole life cycle of Chinese residents are not available. Objective To investigate the dietary magnesium intakes and associated secular trends over the past three decades in residents of all ages and China, to identify the high-risk residents of magnesium deficiency and plan nutritional interventions, and provide basic data support for the revision of dietary magnesium reference intake. Method The data came from the 10 rounds of the "China Health and Nutrition Survey" from 1991 to 2018, and the participants with complete sociodemographic and dietary data wereselected. The median intakes, insufficient rates, and secular trends of dietary magnesium intakes were analyzed in different survey years. Analysis of multiple linear regression was used to analyze the annual change characteristics of dietary magnesium intakes controlling gender, age, education, urban-rural stratum, and north-south region. Wilcoxon trend test was used to analyze the secular trends of dietary magnesium intakes in different characteristic groups. The trends of insufficient rate were analyzed by Cochran-Armitage trend test among different characteristic groups. Results A total of 127169 residents were included in the present study. The medians of dietary magnesium intakes in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011, 2015, and 2018 were 283.70, 283.38, 304.26, 285.50, 283.64, 275.49, 267.92, 242.93, 240.51, and 238.89 mg·d−1, respectively, showing a significant downward trend (F=2931.81, P<0.001). Dietary magnesium intakes showed significant differences in gender, age, education level, income level, urban-rural stratum, and north-south region in almost all survey years, except that there was no significant difference among different income groups in 1991. Insufficient rate of dietary magnesium intake showed a significant upward trend (Z=62.62, P<0.001), approximate 60% of Chinese residents consumed insufficient magnesium. The insufficient rate was 53.94% for male and 65.35% for female, and the insufficient rate in the 14-17 age group was as high as 71.29%. Conclusion The dietary magnesium intake shows a significant downward trend and insufficient intake of dietary magnesium is prevalent among Chinese population. It is necessary to observe the high-risk population and conduct relevant nutritional interventions, as well as to further assess the recommended intake of magnesium.

5.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-960510

RESUMO

Background Global dietary magnesium insufficiency is widespread and seriously harmful to human health. There are few studies on dietary magnesium intake in China, and associated dietary intervention lacks scientific support. Objective To explore the dietary magnesium intake level and food sources of Chinese adults aged 18-64 in 2018, and to identify the problems of dietary magnesium intake. Methods A total of 9181 residents in the 2018 "China Health and Nutrition Survey" were selected as the study subjects. Types and intake of food collected from consecutive 3-day 24-hour dietary recalls and by household condiment weighing and counting method. The average daily dietary magnesium intake and the composition of main food sources were calculated using the food composition table. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic factors and insufficient dietary magnesium intake. Results In 2018, the daily intake of magnesium in P50 (P25, P75) of adults aged 18-64 in 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) of China was 252.28 (196.25, 326.27) mg. The proportion of residents with insufficient dietary magnesium intake was 60.9%. The proportions of women, adults aged 18-49, urban residents, southern region residents, and western regions residents with insufficient dietary magnesium intake were 66.4%, 63.4%, 62.4%, 65.2%, and 68.3%, respectively. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the risks of insufficient dietary magnesium intake were 64.6%, 24.6%, and 43.6% higher in women, urban residents, and southern region residents than those in men, rural residents, and northern region residents, respectively (OR=1.646, 95%CI: 1.509-1.794; OR=1.246, 95%CI: 1.126-1.379; OR=1.436, 95%CI: 1.311-1.573); the risk of insufficient dietary magnesium intake in residents aged 50-64 was 15.7% lower than that in residents aged 18-49 (OR=0.843, 95%CI: 0.771-0.921); the risks of insufficient magnesium intake in residents in middle and western areas were 1.202 times and 1.590 times of that in residents in eastern area (OR=1.202, 95%CI: 1.079-1.340; OR=1.590, 95%CI: 1.424-1.776). The effect of education level and income level on magnesium intake insufficiency was not observed (P>0.05). In addition, 41.4% of dietary magnesium of the subjects came from cereals and products (ranking first in food sources), and only 2.4% from dark vegetables with rich magnesium content (ranking sixth place). The top six dietary magnesium sources of men and women were the same. The proportion of dietary magnesium from cereals and products was 6.3% higher in rural residents than in urban residents, and 9.3% higher in residents living in northern regions than those in southern regions. The proportion of dietary magnesium from livestock meat and products was 1.3% higher in the 18-49 age group than in the 50-64 age group, 0.9% higher in urban residents than in rural residents, and 1.6% higher in western region residents than in eastern region residents. Conclusion The dietary magnesium intake of Chinese residents is generally insufficient, and the source of dietary magnesium is irrational. Women, residents aged 18-49, residents in southern, middle, and western areas are high-risk populations of dietary magnesium insufficiency. Chinese residents are encouraged to eat more dark vegetables and whole grain food; women should improve their dietary quality and intake diverse magnesium-rich food; southern region residents and urban residents should increase the intake of whole grains and avoid over refining food; residents aged 18-49, urban residents, and those in western regions should adjust their dietary structure and reduce meat intake.

6.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-960434

RESUMO

Background Overweight and obesity are on the rise all over the world and are related to a variety of chronic diseases. There is a lack of such research on the population aged 18-35. Objective To explore the trends of overweight and obesity in adults aged 18-35 from 1989 to 2018 and the epidemiological characteristics in 2018. Methods A total of 22425 adults aged 18-35 enrolled in the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011, 2015, and 2018 were selected as study subjects. Overweight and obesity were judged in accordance with WST 428-2013 Determination of adult weight. The trend analysis of body mass index (BMI) level adopted a general linear model, and the trend analysis of overweight and obesity rate adopted a chi-square test for trend. A joinpoint regression model was used to calculate the average annual percentage change (AAPC) and annual percentage change (APC). A log-binomial regression model was used to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic factors and overweight/obesity, and a model with sex stratification was also constructed. Results In the period of 1989–2018, the BMI, overweight rate, and obesity rate of adults aged 18-35 all showed an upward trend. The BMI increased from (21.3±2.3) kg·m−2 to (23.3±4.0) kg·m−2, and the rate of overweight and obesity increased from 12.1% to 36.8%. The results of joinpoint regression model showed that 2000 was a joinpoint, and the APCs of overweight rates of 1989–2000 and 2000–2018 were 4.1% and 2.4% respectively (P < 0.05), and the APCs of obesity rates were 15.2% and 7.5% respectively (P < 0.05). From 1989 to 2018, the overweight rate increased at an average annual rate of 3.1% (AAPC=3.1%, 95%CI: 2.4%-3.7%, P<0.05), and the obesity rate increased at an average annual rate of 10.3% (AAPC=10.3%, 95%CI: 7.6%-13.2%, P<0.05). The overweight and obesity rates of men, the 25-35 age group, and northerners were 49.5%, 38.7%, and 45.4% respectively. About 52.6% of men aged 25-35 were overweight and obese. The results of log-binomial regression analysis showed that the risks of overweight and obesity were lower in women (with men as reference, RR=0.54, 95%CI: 0.44-0.65) and in southerners (with northerners as reference, RR=0.74, 95%CI: 0.61-0.91), but was higher in the 25-35 year old group (with the 18-24 year old group as reference, RR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.07-1.87). After stratification by sex, the results of log-binomial regression analysis showed that compared with men aged 18-34, men aged 25-35 had an increased risk of overweight and obesity (RR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.04-2.14), and compared with women in the north, women in the south had a lower risk of overweight and obesity (RR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.46-0.87). Conclusion The problem of overweight and obesity of Chinese adults aged 18-35 is serious. We should give priority to intervene and prevent the overweight and obesity of men, people aged 25-35, and northerners, especially men aged 25-35.

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