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1.
Nutr Hosp ; 33(2): 103, 2016 Mar 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27238785

RESUMO

Introducción: el tipo de ácido graso de la dieta presenta diferentes efectos sobre la obesidad y sus complicaciones, pero estos efectos pueden verse influenciados por los genes y sus polimorfismos, tales como los receptores activados por el proliferador de los peroxisomas isoforma γ2 (PPARγ2). Además, no está claro si el grado de insaturación de los lípidos posee diferentes efectos en el metabolismo de los lípidos y de la glucosa y, particularmente, en la pérdida de peso. Objetivos: evaluar la influencia de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGPI) y monoinsaturados (AGMI) en las variables antropométricas y bioquímicas en el peso corporal y el perfil glucémico y lipémico en mujeres obesas con el genotipo Pro12Pro en el gen PPARγ2. Métodos: dieciocho mujeres obesas con genotipo Pro12Pro fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente para una de las dietas, rica en AGPI (n = 8) o AGMI (n = 10). Las variables antropométricas (índice de masa corporal [IMC] y circunferencia de la cintura) y bioquímicas (glucosa, insulina, HOMA-IR, colesterol total, LDL-colesterol, HDL colesterol y triglicéridos) fueron evaluadas antes y después de un periodo de 45 días. Resultados: las variables antropométricas y bioquímicas fueron similares entre los grupos antes y después de la intervención (p > 0,05). El IMC disminuyó después de la ingesta de AGPI (p = 0,01), probablemente debido al menor contenido de lípidos. El AGMI redujo la glucosa (p = 0,03), insulina (p = 0,03) y HOMA-IR (p = 0,02). Conclusión: los AGMI fueron más eficientes para reducir la resistencia a la insulina en mujeres obesas con el genotipo Pro12Pro en el gen PPARγ2, aunque las mujeres presentaran una elevada ingesta de lípidos totales y ácidos grasos saturados.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutr Hosp ; 29(3): 513-8, 2014 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24558992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the adequacy of predictive equations for estimation of energy expenditure (EE), compared with the EE using indirect calorimetry in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study with 92 obese adult women [26 Brazilian -G1- and 66 Spanish - G2- (aged 20-50)]. Weight and height were evaluated during fasting for the calculation of body mass index and predictive equations. EE was evaluated using the open-circuit indirect calorimetry with respiratory hood. RESULTS: In G1 and G2, it was found that the estimates obtained by Harris-Benedict, Shofield, FAO/WHO/ ONU and Henry & Rees did not differ from EE using indirect calorimetry, which presented higher values than the equations proposed by Owen, Mifflin-St Jeor and Oxford. For G1 and G2 the predictive equation closest to the value obtained by the indirect calorimetry was the FAO/WHO/ONU (7.9% and 0.46% underestimation, respectively), followed by Harris-Benedict (8.6% and 1.5% underestimation, respectively). CONCLUSION: The equations proposed by FAO/WHO/ ONU, Harris-Benedict, Shofield and Henry & Rees were adequate to estimate the EE in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight. The other equations underestimated the EE.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Metabolismo Energético , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutr Hosp ; 28(6): 1806-14, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24506355

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several methods of dietetic counseling can be used in the nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The main methods are the traditional method (TM) and the carbohydrate counting (CCM). OBJECTIVE: Presenting a systematic review of the literature on the impact of nutritional therapy in GDM, through TM and CCM, evaluating the results for maternal and child health. METHODS: We searched databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs and CAPES Digital Bank of Thesis. The methodological quality of all the studies included was made using the Jadad score. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We have found five studies that evaluated the effects of nutritional therapy, through the TM, on the maternal and child health. None study evaluating the CCM was detected in pregnant women with GDM Nutritional therapy given during antenatal care was effective in reducing pregnancy complications (preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight gain, necessity for cesarean delivery, for insulin therapy and for shoulder dystocia), perinatal complications (macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and birth weight) and also in better glycemic control. The use of nutritional therapy should be highlighted within the antenatal care for pregnant women with GDM, giving the satisfactory results on metabolic control and on pregnancy outcomes. Studies examining the CCM to GDM patients should be conducted to show its effects on maternal and child health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/dietoterapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Adulto , Carboidratos da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
4.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 33(2): 155-65, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20927142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this paper is to evaluate body composition and energy expenditure in women with excess body weight. METHODS: There was a non-randomized, cross-sectional study with 40 women, [26 with excess weight (G1) and 14 eutrophic (G2)]. The following evaluations were made: dietetic, anthropometric and body composition (electrical bioimpedance), physical activity (three-dimensional accelerometer) and energy expenditure, basal and resting (indirect calorimetry). RESULTS: The energy intake and physical activity did not differ between groups. The parameters of body composition were higher in G1, except total body water. There was a relationship between energy expenditure and body composition. The lean mass was the biggest determinant of energy expenditure. There was no difference in metabolic parameters between groups, but lower nutrient oxidation and increased metabolic efficiency in G1 was suggested. CONCLUSION: Excess weight was associated with body composition and energy expenditure changes that justify the accumulation of body fat.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 14(3): 163-171, jul.-sept. 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-81022

RESUMO

Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la obesidad esuno de los factores que más influye en el riesgo de padecerenfermedades crónicas y morir prematuramente.El tratamiento integral de la obesidad se caracteriza no sólopor la implantación de un régimen dietético moderado, sinotambién por la modificación de los hábitos alimentarios ydel estilo de vida.Debido a que el tratamiento de la obesidad es un procesocrónico, la dieta prescrita deberá ser mantenida a largoplazo. Para asegurar un cumplimiento a largo plazo de ladieta hipocalórica prescrita, además de cumplir los requisitosnecesarios para la creación de un balance energéticonegativo, deberá ser equilibrada, variada, sabrosa y adaptadaa las necesidades del enfermo.A lo largo de los años se han desarrollado, incluso se haninventado, diversos tipos de dietas para conseguir unapérdida de peso rápida que en muchos casos es fruto deuna búsqueda de beneficios económicos, más que de lapromoción de una dieta sana y equilibrada. Estas “dietasmilagro” o “dietas populares” usan estrategias variadasy argumentos pseudo-científicos para convencer de susbondades. El tratamiento de la obesidad es un procesoa largo plazo, en que no sólo está implicada la pérdidade peso, sino también la adquisición de hábitos de vidasaludables, por lo que deberá ser llevado a cabo porun equipo multidisciplinar en el cual deberán tener unpeso importante de implicación la figura del psicólogo,el profesional en materia de actividad física y deporte yel dietista-nutricionista experto en nutrición equilibrada yalimentación saludable(AU)


According to the World Health Organization, obesity is oneof the more important risk factors for chronic diseases andpremature death.Overall treatment of obesity is characterized not only byimplementation of a moderate diet plan, but also by changesin dietary habits and life style.Since treatment of obesity is a chronic process, dietarytreatment should be maintained in the long term. In orderto ensure adherence to a low calorie diet prescription overa long period, apart from considering the requirements tosatisfy a negative energy balance, the dietary prescriptionshould be balanced, varied, pleasant and adapted topatient’s needs.Over the years different types of diets have been developedor even invented, to achieve a rapid weight loss, whichoften seeks economic benefits, rather than the promotionof a healthy and balanced diet. These “miracle diets”or “popular diets” use several strategies and pseudoscientificarguments to convince about their benefits.Obesity treatment is a long term process, involving notonly weight loss, but also acquiring healthier life styles,therefore a multidisciplinary team must be responsible forit with important involvement and contribution psychologists,physical activity experts and experienced dietitiansin balance nutrition and healthy diet(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Dieta Redutora , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia
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