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1.
J Cyst Fibros ; 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biofilm-associated pulmonary infections pose therapeutic challenges in cystic fibrosis patients, especially when involving multiple bacterial species. Enzymatic degradation of the biofilm matrix may offer a potential solution to enhance antibiotic efficacy. This study investigated the repurposing of DNase I, commonly used for its mucolytic activity in cystic fibrosis, to target extracellular DNA within biofilms, as well as potential synergies with alginate lyase and broad-spectrum antibiotics in dual-species biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: Dual-species biofilms were grown in artificial sputum medium using S. aureus and P. aeruginosa isolated by pairs from the same patients and exposed to various combinations of enzymes, meropenem, or tobramycin. Activity was assessed by measuring biofilm biomass and viable counts. Matrix degradation and decrease in bacterial load were visualized using confocal microscopy. Biofilm viscoelasticity was estimated by rheology. RESULTS: Nearly complete destruction of the biofilms was achieved only if combining the enzymatic cocktail with the two antibiotics, and if using supratherapeutic levels of DNase I and high concentrations of alginate lyase. Biofilms containing non-pigmented mucoid P. aeruginosa required higher antibiotic concentrations, despite low viscoelasticity. In contrast, for biofilms with pigmented mucoid P. aeruginosa, a correlation was observed between the efficacy of different treatments and the reduction they caused in elasticity and viscosity of the biofilm. CONCLUSIONS: In this complex, highly drug-tolerant biofilm model, enzymes prove useful adjuvants to enhance antibiotic activity. However, the necessity for high enzyme concentrations emphasizes the need for thorough concentration-response evaluations and safety assessments before considering clinical applications.

2.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1869(4): 159467, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382574

RESUMO

Gram-negative bacteria possess an asymmetric outer membrane (OM) primarily composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the outer leaflet and phospholipids on the inner leaflet. The outer membrane functions as an effective permeability barrier to compounds such as antibiotics. Studying LPS biosynthesis is therefore helpful to explore novel strategies for new antibiotic development. Metabolic glycan labeling of the bacterial surface has emerged as a powerful method to investigate LPS biosynthesis. However, the previously reported methods of labeling LPS are based on radioactivity or difficult-to-produce analogs of bacterial sugars. In this study, we report on the incorporation of azido galactose into the LPS of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi via metabolic labeling. As a common sugar analog, azido galactose successfully labeled both O-antigen and core of Salmonella LPS, but not E. coli LPS. This labeling of Salmonella LPS, as shown by SDS-PAGE analysis and fluorescence microscopy, differs from the previously reported labeling of either O-antigen or core of LPS. Our findings are useful for studying LPS biogenesis pathways in Gram-negative bacteria like Salmonella. In addition, our approach is helpful for screening for agents that target LPS biosynthesis as it allows for the detection of newly synthesized LPS that appears in the OM. Furthermore, this approach may also aid in isolating chemically modified LPS for vaccine development or immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Lipopolissacarídeos , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Antígenos O/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Antibacterianos
3.
Cells ; 12(24)2023 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38132106

RESUMO

A specific plasma membrane distribution of the mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo1 is required for cell migration, but the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we addressed this question using WT and Piezo1-silenced C2C12 mouse myoblasts and WT and Piezo1-KO human kidney HEK293T cells. We showed that cell migration in a cell-free area and through a porous membrane decreased upon Piezo1 silencing or deletion, but increased upon Piezo1 activation by Yoda1, whereas migration towards a chemoattractant gradient was reduced by Yoda1. Piezo1 organized into clusters, which were preferentially enriched at the front. This polarization was stimulated by Yoda1, accompanied by Ca2+ polarization, and abrogated by partial cholesterol depletion. Piezo1 clusters partially colocalized with cholesterol- and GM1 ganglioside-enriched domains, the proportion of which was increased by Yoda1. Mechanistically, Piezo1 activation induced a differential mobile fraction of GM1 associated with domains and the bulk membrane. Conversely, cholesterol depletion abrogated the differential mobile fraction of Piezo1 associated with clusters and the bulk membrane. In conclusion, we revealed, for the first time, the differential implication of Piezo1 depending on the migration mode and the interplay between GM1/cholesterol-enriched domains at the front during migration in a cell-free area. These domains could provide the optimal biophysical properties for Piezo1 activity and/or spatial dissociation from the PMCA calcium efflux pump.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeo G(M1) , Canais Iônicos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Movimento Celular , Colesterol , Células HEK293 , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo
4.
Biophys J ; 122(23): 4503-4517, 2023 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37905401

RESUMO

Lipid oxidation is a universal degradative process of cell membrane lipids that is induced by oxidative stress and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in multiple pathophysiological situations. It has been shown that certain oxidized lipids alter membrane properties, leading to a loss of membrane function. Alteration of membrane properties is thought to depend on the initial membrane lipid composition, such as the number of acyl chain unsaturations. However, it is unclear how oxidative damage is related to biophysical properties of membranes. We therefore set out to quantify lipid oxidation through various analytical methods and determine key biophysical membrane parameters using model membranes containing lipids with different degrees of lipid unsaturation. As source for RONS, we used cold plasma, which is currently developed as treatment for infections and cancer. Our data revealed complex lipid oxidation that can lead to two main permeabilization mechanisms. The first one appears upon direct contact of membranes with RONS and depends on the formation of truncated oxidized phospholipids. These lipids seem to be partly released from the bilayer, implying that they are likely to interact with other membranes and potentially act as signaling molecules. This mechanism is independent of lipid unsaturation, does not rely on large variations in lipid packing, and is most probably mediated via short-living RONS. The second mechanism takes over after longer incubation periods and probably depends on the continued formation of lipid oxygen adducts such as lipid hydroperoxides or ketones. This mechanism depends on lipid unsaturation and involves large variations in lipid packing. This study indicates that polyunsaturated lipids, which are present in mammalian membranes rather than in bacteria, do not sensitize membranes to instant permeabilization by RONS but could promote long-term damage.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas , Lipídeos de Membrana , Animais , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Oxigênio , Mamíferos/metabolismo
5.
iScience ; 25(8): 104753, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942089

RESUMO

N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an essential monosaccharide required in almost all organisms. Fluorescent labeling of the peptidoglycan (PG) on N-acetylglucosamine has been poorly explored. Here, we report on the labeling of the PG with a bioorthogonal handle on the GlcNAc. We developed a facile one-step synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-azidoacetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAz) using the glycosyltransferase OleD, followed by in vitro incorporation of GlcNAz into the peptidoglycan precursor Lipid II and fluorescent labeling of the azido group via click chemistry. In a PG synthesis assay, fluorescent GlcNAz-labeled Lipid II was incorporated into peptidoglycan by the DD-transpeptidase activity of bifunctional class A penicillin-binding proteins. We further demonstrate the incorporation of GlcNAz into the PG layer of OleD-expressed bacteria by feeding with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl GlcNAz (GlcNAz-CNP). Hence, our labeling method using the heterologous expression of OleD is useful to study PG synthesis and possibly other biological processes involving GlcNAc metabolism in vivo.

6.
Nature ; 608(7922): 390-396, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922513

RESUMO

Antibiotics that use novel mechanisms are needed to combat antimicrobial resistance1-3. Teixobactin4 represents a new class of antibiotics with a unique chemical scaffold and lack of detectable resistance. Teixobactin targets lipid II, a precursor of peptidoglycan5. Here we unravel the mechanism of teixobactin at the atomic level using a combination of solid-state NMR, microscopy, in vivo assays and molecular dynamics simulations. The unique enduracididine C-terminal headgroup of teixobactin specifically binds to the pyrophosphate-sugar moiety of lipid II, whereas the N terminus coordinates the pyrophosphate of another lipid II molecule. This configuration favours the formation of a ß-sheet of teixobactins bound to the target, creating a supramolecular fibrillar structure. Specific binding to the conserved pyrophosphate-sugar moiety accounts for the lack of resistance to teixobactin4. The supramolecular structure compromises membrane integrity. Atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations show that the supramolecular structure displaces phospholipids, thinning the membrane. The long hydrophobic tails of lipid II concentrated within the supramolecular structure apparently contribute to membrane disruption. Teixobactin hijacks lipid II to help destroy the membrane. Known membrane-acting antibiotics also damage human cells, producing undesirable side effects. Teixobactin damages only membranes that contain lipid II, which is absent in eukaryotes, elegantly resolving the toxicity problem. The two-pronged action against cell wall synthesis and cytoplasmic membrane produces a highly effective compound targeting the bacterial cell envelope. Structural knowledge of the mechanism of teixobactin will enable the rational design of improved drug candidates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Membrana Celular , Depsipeptídeos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/citologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Depsipeptídeos/química , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Difosfatos/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Pirrolidinas/química , Açúcares/química
7.
J Immunol ; 208(9): 2207-2219, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428691

RESUMO

Cleavage of the mammalian plasma protein C4 into C4b initiates opsonization, lysis, and clearance of microbes and damaged host cells by the classical and lectin pathways of the complement system. Dysregulated activation of C4 and other initial components of the classical pathway may cause or aggravate pathologies, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Alzheimer disease, and schizophrenia. Modulating the activity of C4b by small-molecule or protein-based inhibitors may represent a promising therapeutic approach for preventing excessive inflammation and damage to host cells and tissue. Here, we present seven nanobodies, derived from llama (Lama glama) immunization, that bind to human C4b (Homo sapiens) with high affinities ranging from 3.2 nM to 14 pM. The activity of the nanobodies varies from no to complete inhibition of the classical pathway. The inhibiting nanobodies affect different steps in complement activation, in line with blocking sites for proconvertase formation, C3 substrate binding to the convertase, and regulator-mediated inactivation of C4b. For four nanobodies, we determined single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structures in complex with C4b at 3.4-4 Å resolution. The structures rationalize the observed functional effects of the nanobodies and define their mode of action during complement activation. Thus, we characterized seven anti-C4b nanobodies with diverse effects on the classical pathway of complement activation that may be explored for imaging, diagnostic, or therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Complemento C4b , Anticorpos de Domínio Único , Animais , Ativação do Complemento , Convertases de Complemento C3-C5/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Humanos , Mamíferos
8.
EMBO J ; 40(20): e107966, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520050

RESUMO

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is an abundant membrane lipid component in most eukaryotes, including yeast, and has been assigned multiple functions in addition to acting as building block of the lipid bilayer. Here, by isolating S. cerevisiae suppressor mutants that exhibit robust growth in the absence of PC, we show that PC essentiality is subject to cellular evolvability in yeast. The requirement for PC is suppressed by monosomy of chromosome XV or by a point mutation in the ACC1 gene encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Although these two genetic adaptations rewire lipid biosynthesis in different ways, both decrease Acc1 activity, thereby reducing average acyl chain length. Consistently, soraphen A, a specific inhibitor of Acc1, rescues a yeast mutant with deficient PC synthesis. In the aneuploid suppressor, feedback inhibition of Acc1 through acyl-CoA produced by fatty acid synthase (FAS) results from upregulation of lipid synthesis. The results show that budding yeast regulates acyl chain length by fine-tuning the activities of Acc1 and FAS and indicate that PC evolved by benefitting the maintenance of membrane fluidity.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/deficiência , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Cromossomos Fúngicos , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fluidez de Membrana , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Mutação Puntual , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 576887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041822

RESUMO

In this review, we will focus on the activity of ginsenosides on membranes and their related effects, from physicochemical, biophysical, and pharmacological viewpoints. Ginsenosides are a class of saponins with a large structural diversity and a wide range of pharmacological effects. These effects can at least partly be related to their activity on membranes which results from their amphiphilic character. Some ginsenosides are able to interact with membrane lipids and associate into nanostructures, making them possible adjuvants for vaccines. They are able to modulate membrane biophysical properties such as membrane fluidity, permeability or the formation of lateral domains with some degree of specificity towards certain cell types such as bacteria, fungi, or cancer cells. In addition, they have shown antioxidant properties which protect membranes from lipid oxidation. They further displayed some activity on membrane proteins either through direct or indirect interaction. We investigate the structure activity relationship of ginsenosides on membranes and discuss the implications and potential use as anticancer, antibacterial, and antifungal agents.

10.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(28): 5930-5939, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436385

RESUMO

Eukaryotic membranes can be partitioned into lipid-driven membrane microdomains called lipid rafts, which function to sort lipids and proteins in the plane of the membrane. As protein selectivity underlies all functions of lipid rafts, there has been significant interest in understanding the structural and molecular determinants of raft affinity. Such determinants have been described for lipids and single-spanning transmembrane proteins; however, how multipass transmembrane proteins (TMPs) partition between ordered and disordered phases has not been widely explored. Here we used cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) to systematically measure multipass TMP partitioning to ordered membrane domains. Across a set of 24 structurally and functionally diverse multipass TMPs, the large majority (92%) had minimal raft affinity. The only exceptions were two myelin-associated four-pass TMPs, myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL), and proteo lipid protein (PLP). We characterized the potential mechanisms for their exceptional raft affinity and observed that PLP requires cholesterol and sphingolipids for optimal association with ordered membrane domains and that PLP and MAL appear to compete for cholesterol-mediated raft affinity. These observations suggest broad conclusions about the composition of ordered membrane domains in cells and point to previously unrecognized drivers of raft affinity for multipass transmembrane proteins.


Assuntos
Microdomínios da Membrana , Bainha de Mielina , Membrana Celular , Linfócitos , Proteínas de Membrana
11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1805, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717140

RESUMO

In the originally published version of this Article, financial support was not fully acknowledged. The PDF and HTML versions of the Article have now been corrected to include support from National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health grant R01GM124072.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1219, 2017 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089556

RESUMO

Eukaryotic plasma membranes are compartmentalized into functional lateral domains, including lipid-driven membrane rafts. Rafts are involved in most plasma membrane functions by selective recruitment and retention of specific proteins. However, the structural determinants of transmembrane protein partitioning to raft domains are not fully understood. Hypothesizing that protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) determine raft association, here we directly quantify raft affinity for dozens of TMDs. We identify three physical features that independently affect raft partitioning, namely TMD surface area, length, and palmitoylation. We rationalize these findings into a mechanistic, physical model that predicts raft affinity from the protein sequence. Application of these concepts to the human proteome reveals that plasma membrane proteins have higher raft affinity than those of intracellular membranes, consistent with raft-mediated plasma membrane sorting. Overall, our experimental observations and physical model establish general rules for raft partitioning of TMDs and support the central role of rafts in membrane traffic.


Assuntos
Microdomínios da Membrana/química , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Ratos
13.
Sci Adv ; 3(11): eaao1193, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29134198

RESUMO

Mammalian cells produce hundreds of dynamically regulated lipid species that are actively turned over and trafficked to produce functional membranes. These lipid repertoires are susceptible to perturbations from dietary sources, with potentially profound physiological consequences. However, neither the lipid repertoires of various cellular membranes, their modulation by dietary fats, nor their effects on cellular phenotypes have been widely explored. We report that differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts or adipocytes results in extensive remodeling of the plasma membrane (PM), producing cell-specific membrane compositions and biophysical properties. The distinct features of osteoblast PMs enabled rational engineering of membrane phenotypes to modulate differentiation in MSCs. Specifically, supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a lipid component characteristic of osteoblast membranes, induced broad lipidomic remodeling in MSCs that reproduced compositional and structural aspects of the osteoblastic PM phenotype. The PM changes induced by DHA supplementation potentiated osteogenic differentiation of MSCs concurrent with enhanced Akt activation at the PM. These observations prompt a model wherein the DHA-induced lipidome leads to more stable membrane microdomains, which serve to increase Akt activity and thereby enhance osteogenic differentiation. More broadly, our investigations suggest a general mechanism by which dietary fats affect cellular physiology through remodeling of membrane lipidomes, biophysical properties, and signaling.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Microdomínios da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
14.
J Phys Chem B ; 120(46): 11930-11941, 2016 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27797198

RESUMO

Biological membranes contain a broad variety of lipid species whose individual physicochemical properties and collective interactions ultimately determine membrane organization. A key aspect of the organization of cellular membranes is their lateral subdivision into domains of distinct structure and composition. The most widely studied membrane domains are lipid rafts, which are the biological manifestations of liquid-ordered phases that form in sterol-containing membranes. Detailed studies of biomimetic membrane mixtures have yielded wide-ranging insights into the physical principles behind lipid rafts; however, these simplified models do not fully capture the diversity and complexity of the mammalian lipidome, most notably in their exclusion of polyunsaturated lipids. Here, we assess the role of lipid acyl chain unsaturation as a driving force for phase separation using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations validated by model membrane experiments. The clear trends in our observations and good qualitative agreements between simulations and experiments support the conclusions that highly unsaturated lipids promote liquid-liquid domain stability by enhancing the differences in cholesterol content and lipid chain order between the coexisting domains. These observations reveal the important role of noncanonical biological lipids in the physical properties of membranes, showing that lipid polyunsaturation is a driving force for liquid-liquid phase separation.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Lipídeos/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
15.
Planta Med ; 82(18): 1532-1539, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27574896

RESUMO

In perspective of reducing the mortality of cancer, there is a high interest in compounds which act on multiple cellular targets and therefore prevent the appearance of cancer resistances. Saponins and α-hederin, an oleanane-type saponin, induce cancer cell death through different pathways, including apoptosis and membrane permeabilization. Unfortunately, the mechanism by which cell death is induced is unknown. We hypothesized that the activity of α-hederin mainly depends on its interaction with membrane cholesterol and therefore investigated the cholesterol and saponin-structure dependency of apoptosis and membrane permeabilization in two malignant monocytic cell lines. Apoptotic cell death and membrane permeabilization were significantly reduced in cholesterol-depleted cells. Permeabilization further depended upon the osidic side chain of α-hederin and led to extracellular calcium influx and nuclear fragmentation, with only the latter being susceptible to caspase inhibitors. Membrane order, measured by laurdan generalized polarization imaging, was neither reduced by α-hederin nor its aglycone hederagenin suggesting that their activity was not related to membrane cholesterol extraction. However, a radical change in morphology, including the disappearance of pseudopodes was observed upon incubation with α-hederin. Our results suggest that the different activities of α-hederin mainly depend on its interaction with membrane cholesterol and consequent pore formation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Colesterol/química , Humanos , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Saponinas/química , Células U937
16.
Biophys J ; 110(8): 1800-1810, 2016 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27119640

RESUMO

The plasma membrane (PM) serves as the functional interface between a cell and its environment, hosting extracellular signal transduction and nutrient transport among a variety of other processes. To support this extensive functionality, PMs are organized into lateral domains, including ordered, lipid-driven assemblies termed lipid rafts. Although the general requirements for ordered domain formation are well established, how these domains are regulated by cell-endogenous mechanisms or exogenous perturbations has not been widely addressed. In this context, an intriguing possibility is that dietary fats can incorporate into membrane lipids to regulate the properties and physiology of raft domains. Here, we investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fats on the organization of membrane domains across a spectrum of membrane models, including computer simulations, synthetic lipid membranes, and intact PMs isolated from mammalian cells. We observe that the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid is robustly incorporated into membrane lipids, and this incorporation leads to significant remodeling of the PM lipidome. Across model systems, docosahexaenoic acid-containing lipids enhance the stability of ordered raft domains by increasing the order difference between them and coexisting nonraft domains. The relationship between interdomain order disparity and the stability of phase separation holds for a spectrum of different perturbations, including manipulation of cholesterol levels and high concentrations of exogenous amphiphiles, suggesting it as a general feature of the organization of biological membranes. These results demonstrate that polyunsaturated fats affect the composition and organization of biological membranes, suggesting a potential mechanism for the extensive effects of dietary fat on health and disease.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/farmacologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/síntese química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ratos , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Lipossomas Unilamelares/metabolismo
17.
Org Biomol Chem ; 12(44): 8803-22, 2014 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25295776

RESUMO

Saponins, amphiphiles of natural origin with numerous biological activities, are widely used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Some saponins exhibit relatively selective cytotoxic effects on cancer cells but the tendency of saponins to induce hemolysis limits their anticancer potential. This review focused on the effects of saponin activity on membranes and consequent implications for red blood and cancer cells. This activity seems to be strongly related to the amphiphilic character of saponins that gives them the ability to self-aggregate and interact with membrane components such as cholesterol and phospholipids. Membrane interactions of saponins with artificial membrane models, red blood and cancer cells are reviewed with respect to their molecular structures. The review considered the mechanisms of these membrane interactions and their consequences including the modulation of membrane dynamics, interaction with membrane rafts, and membrane lysis. We summarized current knowledge concerning the mechanisms involved in the interactions of saponins with membrane lipids and examined the structure activity relationship of saponins regarding hemolysis and cancer cell death. A critical analysis of these findings speculates on their potential to further develop new anticancer compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Artificiais , Neoplasias/patologia , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/química , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Saponinas/efeitos adversos , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Tensoativos/efeitos adversos , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/uso terapêutico
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