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1.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 275, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease depending on etiology. It represents the most frequent non-infectious pulmonary complication of primary immunodeficiencies (PID). We investigated whether bronchiectasis associated with PID had a distinct course in comparison to bronchiectasis of other causes. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study of adult patients diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis with more than 5 years of follow-up and at least 4 pulmonary functional tests available at one year apart. They were divided into three groups: PID- related bronchiectasis, idiopathic/post infectious-related bronchiectasis and other causes of bronchiectasis. Respiratory functional data and clinical outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Of 329 patients with bronchiectasis diagnosed in Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France), 98 patients fulfilled the selected criteria (20 PID-related cases, 39 idiopathic or post-infectious cases, and 39 cases with other causes). Median time of follow-up was 9.5 years. Groups were similar concerning initial characteristics (female 70.4%, never smokers 59.2%, mild severity bronchiectasis according to the FACED score and median FEV1 at diagnosis 73.5% predicted values [Q1-Q3: 53.75-90.5]), except PID patients who were younger (median age of 51.5 vs 62 years, p = 0.02). Eighty-five percent of PID patients received immunoglobulin substitution (median trough level was measured at 10.5 g/dl [10;10.92]). Global median FEV1 annual decline was 25.03 ml/year [8.16;43.9] and 19.82 ml/year [16.08;48.02] in the PID patients group. Forty-five percent of patients had bacterial colonization, pneumoniae occurred in 56% of patients and median exacerbation annual rate was 0.8 [0.3-1.4]. Hemoptysis occurred in 31.6% of patients. Global mortality rate was 11.2%. We did not record any significant difference for all clinical and functional outcomes between patients with PID and other etiologies. The median decline in FEV1 was similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: The course of PID-related bronchiectasis was similar to bronchiectasis of other causes. Provided that patients receive immunoglobulin replacement, the course of PID-related bronchiectasis seems to be independent of the underlying immune disorder.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality. The consensus definitions of the Infectious Diseases Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group have been of immense value to researchers who conduct clinical trials of antifungals, assess diagnostic tests, and undertake epidemiologic studies. However, their utility has not extended beyond patients with cancer or recipients of stem cell or solid organ transplants. With newer diagnostic techniques available, it was clear that an update of these definitions was essential. METHODS: To achieve this, 10 working groups looked closely at imaging, laboratory diagnosis, and special populations at risk of IFD. A final version of the manuscript was agreed upon after the groups' findings were presented at a scientific symposium and after a 3-month period for public comment. There were several rounds of discussion before a final version of the manuscript was approved. RESULTS: There is no change in the classifications of "proven," "probable," and "possible" IFD, although the definition of "probable" has been expanded and the scope of the category "possible" has been diminished. The category of proven IFD can apply to any patient, regardless of whether the patient is immunocompromised. The probable and possible categories are proposed for immunocompromised patients only, except for endemic mycoses. CONCLUSIONS: These updated definitions of IFDs should prove applicable in clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic research of a broader range of patients at high-risk.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(12): 2319-2321, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742513

RESUMO

We report a case of Aspergillus felis infection in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease who had overlapping features of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Identifying the species responsible for aspergillosis by molecular methods can be crucial for directing patient management and selection of appropriate antifungal agents.

4.
Leukemia ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740811

RESUMO

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is frequently associated with eosinophilia. To examine its prevalence and clinical impact in all WHO classification-based subcategories, we analyzed eosinophil counts in 2350 mastocytosis patients using the dataset of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis. Ninety percent of patients had normal eosinophil counts, 6.8% mild eosinophilia (0.5-1.5 × 109/l), and 3.1% hypereosinophilia (HE; >1.5 × 109/l). Eosinophilia/HE were mainly present in patients with advanced SM (17%/19%), and only rarely recorded in patients with indolent and smoldering SM (5%/1%), and some patients with cutaneous mastocytosis. The eosinophil count correlated with organomegaly, dysmyelopoiesis, and the WHO classification, but not with mediator-related symptoms or allergy. Eosinophilia at diagnosis had a strong prognostic impact (p < 0.0001) on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), with a 10-year OS of 19% for patients with HE, 70% for those with mild eosinophilia, and 88% for patients with normal eosinophil counts. In 89% of patients with follow-up data (n = 1430, censored at start of cytoreductive therapy), eosinophils remained stable. In those with changing eosinophil counts (increase/decrease or mixed pattern), OS and PFS were inferior compared with patients with stable eosinophil counts. In conclusion, eosinophilia and HE are more prevalent in advanced SM and are predictors of a worse outcome.

5.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 19(10): 81, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673881

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Defective cell-mediated immunity is a major risk factor for cryptococcosis, a fatal disease if untreated. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), the main presentation of disseminated disease, occurs through hematogenous spread to the brain from primary pulmonary foci, facilitated by yeast virulence factors. We revisit remarkable recent improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and management of CM. RECENT FINDINGS: Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg), main capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus spp. is detectable in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of infected patients with point of care lateral flow assays. Recent World Health Organization guidelines recommend 7-day amphotericin B plus flucytosine, then 7-day high dose (1200 mg/day) fluconazole for induction treatment of HIV-associated CM. Management of raised intracranial pressure, a consequence of CM, should rely mainly on daily therapeutic lumbar punctures until normalisation. In HIV-associated CM, following introduction of antifungal therapy, (re)initiation of antiretroviral therapy should be delayed by 4-6 weeks to prevent immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, common in CM. CM is a fatal disease whose diagnosis has recently been simplified. Treatment should always include antifungal combination therapy and management of raised intracranial pressure. Screening for immune deficiency should be mandatory in all patients with cryptococcosis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427294

RESUMO

Posaconazole diffusion has been documented in various organs, which contrasts with the scarce data available for the human central nervous system (CNS). We analyzed posaconazole concentrations in plasma and multiple CNS specimens taken from a patient who received posaconazole because of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Low posaconazole concentrations were obtained in CNS specimens, with sample-to-plasma ratios between 5% and 22%. This case highlights the role of neurosurgery during cerebral phaeohyphomycoses, even those caused by posaconazole-susceptible black fungi.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405852

RESUMO

We report the cases of a 39-year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and a 21-year-old man with chronic granulomatous disease treated for cerebral aspergillosis. The patients required radical surgery for infection progression despite adequate isavuconazole plasma concentration or neurological complication. We thus decided to measure the brain isavuconazole concentration. These results suggest that the concentrations of isavuconazole obtained in the infected brain tissue clearly differ from those obtained in the normal brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 702-712, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are at risk of serious complications. However, data on the incidence and causes of emergency hospital admissions are scarce. The primary objective of the present study was to describe emergency hospital admissions among patients with PID, with a view to identifying "at-risk" patient profiles. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational 12-month multicenter study in France via the CEREDIH network of regional PID reference centers from November 2010 to October 2011. All patients with PIDs requiring emergency hospital admission were included. RESULTS: A total of 200 admissions concerned 137 patients (73 adults and 64 children, 53% of whom had antibody deficiencies). Thirty admissions were reported for 16 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. When considering the 170 admissions of non-transplant patients, 149 (85%) were related to acute infections (respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections in 72 (36%) and 34 (17%) of cases, respectively). Seventy-seven percent of the admissions occurred during winter or spring (December to May). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8% (12 patients); death was related to a severe infection in 11 cases (8%) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in 1 case. Patients with a central venous catheter (n = 19, 13.9%) were significantly more hospitalized for an infection (94.7%) than for a non-infectious reason (5.3%) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the annual incidence of emergency hospital admission among patients with PID is 3.4%. The leading cause of emergency hospital admission was an acute infection, and having a central venous catheter was associated with a significantly greater risk of admission for an infectious episode.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(33): 16463-16472, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346092

RESUMO

Heterozygous in-frame mutations in coding regions of human STAT3 underlie the only known autosomal dominant form of hyper IgE syndrome (AD HIES). About 5% of familial cases remain unexplained. The mutant proteins are loss-of-function and dominant-negative when tested following overproduction in recipient cells. However, the production of mutant proteins has not been detected and quantified in the cells of heterozygous patients. We report a deep intronic heterozygous STAT3 mutation, c.1282-89C>T, in 7 relatives with AD HIES. This mutation creates a new exon in the STAT3 complementary DNA, which, when overexpressed, generates a mutant STAT3 protein (D427ins17) that is loss-of-function and dominant-negative in terms of tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity. In immortalized B cells from these patients, the D427ins17 protein was 2 kDa larger and 4-fold less abundant than wild-type STAT3, on mass spectrometry. The patients' primary B and T lymphocytes responded poorly to STAT3-dependent cytokines. These findings are reminiscent of the impaired responses of leukocytes from other patients with AD HIES due to typical STAT3 coding mutations, providing further evidence for the dominance of the mutant intronic allele. These findings highlight the importance of sequencing STAT3 introns in patients with HIES without candidate variants in coding regions and essential splice sites. They also show that AD HIES-causing STAT3 mutant alleles can be dominant-negative even if the encoded protein is produced in significantly smaller amounts than wild-type STAT3.

10.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 21(5): e13141, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scedosporium species and Lomentospora prolificans (S/L) are the second most common causes of invasive mold infections following Aspergillus in lung transplant recipients. METHODS: We assessed the current practices on management of S/L colonization/infection of the lower respiratory tract before and after lung transplantation in a large number of lung transplant centers through an international practice survey from October 2016 to March 2017. RESULTS: A total of 51 respondents from 45 lung transplant centers (17 countries, 4 continents) answered the survey (response rate 58%). S/L colonization was estimated to be detected in candidates by 48% of centers. Only 18% of the centers used a specific medium to detect S/L colonization. Scedosporium spp. colonization was a contraindication to transplantation in 10% of centers whereas L prolificans was a contraindication in 31%; 22% of centers declared having had 1-5 recipients infected with S/L in the past 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: This survey gives an overview of the current practices regarding S/L colonization and infection in lung transplant centers worldwide and underscores the need of S/L culture procedure standardization before implementing prospective studies.

11.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275560

RESUMO

The recent development of highly sensitive and specific point-of-care tests has made it possible to diagnose HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis within minutes. However, diagnostic advances have not been matched by new antifungal drugs and treatment still relies on old off-patent drugs: amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole. Cryptococcal meningitis treatment is divided in three phases: induction, consolidation and maintenance. The induction phase, aimed at drastically reducing cerebrospinal fluid fungal burden, is key for patient survival. The major challenge in cryptococcal meningitis management has been the optimisation of induction phase treatment using the limited number of available medications, and major progress has recently been made. In this review, we summarise data from key trials which form the basis of current treatment recommendations for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155650

RESUMO

In Malawi, 236 participants from the ACTA cryptococcal meningitis treatment trial were followed-up for 12 months. The trial outcomes reported at 10 weeks were sustained to 1 year. One-week amphotericinB plus flucytosine was associated with the lowest 1 year mortality (27.5% [95%CI: 16.3 to 44.1]).

13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(Supplement_2): ii16-ii20, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222312

RESUMO

Fungal infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is a challenge for physicians. Our aim was to review progress made within the past decade in managing the most important invasive fungal diseases in SOT recipients. Standards of care for candidosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis and cryptococcosis in this special population are summarized.

15.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e026288, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940760

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcal meningitis is responsible for around 15% of all HIV-related deaths globally. Conventional treatment courses with amphotericin B require prolonged hospitalisation and are associated with multiple toxicities and poor outcomes. A phase II study has shown that a single high dose of liposomal amphotericin may be comparable to standard treatment. We propose a phase III clinical endpoint trial comparing single, high-dose liposomal amphotericin with the WHO recommended first-line treatment at six sites across five counties. An economic analysis is essential to support wide-scale implementation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Country-specific economic evaluation tools will be developed across the five country settings. Details of patient and household out-of-pocket expenses and any catastrophic healthcare expenditure incurred will be collected via interviews from trial patients. Health service patient costs and related household expenditure in both arms will be compared over the trial period in a probabilistic approach, using Monte Carlo bootstrapping methods. Costing information and number of life-years survived will be used as the input to a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a single, high-dose liposomal amphotericin to the standard treatment. In addition, these results will be compared with a historical cohort from another clinical trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The AMBIsome Therapy Induction OptimisatioN (AMBITION) trial has been evaluated and approved by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of Botswana, Malawi National Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Mulago Hospital and Zimbabwe Medical Research Council research ethics committees. All participants will provide written informed consent or if lacking capacity will have consent provided by a proxy. The findings of this economic analysis, part of the AMBITION trial, will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and at international and country-level policy meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 7250 9687; Pre-results.

16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 302, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a leading cause of invasive severe diseases with a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcome observed in staphylococcal illness may be a consequence of both microbial factors and variability of the host immune response. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-years old child developed limb ischemia with gangrene following S. aureus bloodstream infection. Histopathology revealed medium-sized arterial vasculitis. The causing strain belonged to the emerging clone CC1-MSSA and numerous pathogenesis-related genes were identified. Patient's genotyping revealed functional variants associated with severe infections. A combination of virulence and host factors might explain this unique severe form of staphylococcal disease. CONCLUSION: A combination of virulence and genetic host factors might explain this unique severe form of staphylococcal disease.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Amputação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Vasculite/complicações , Vasculite/microbiologia
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(7): 2387-2395.e3, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with mast cell diseases may suffer from various distressing symptoms, which can be insufficiently controlled with available therapies, severely affecting their quality of life. There is a need for new and safe treatment options for these patients. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of omalizumab administration in patients with a symptomatic mast cell disorder. METHODS: We included 55 patients with a mast cell disorder associated with debilitating symptoms who received omalizumab treatment between January 2015 and December 2017, after a multidisciplinary team meeting at the French National Reference Center for Mastocytosis. RESULTS: A complete response was achieved for 1 patient (1.8%), a major response for 30 patients (54.5%), and a partial response for 12 patients (21.8%), resulting in an overall best response rate of 78.2% (43 of 55 patients). The response was persistent at least 3 months in 33 of 43 responding patients (76.7%). At the last follow-up, the final overall response rate was 58.2% (32 of 55 patients). Median time to first response was 2 months and median time to best response was 6 months. Omalizumab was dramatically effective on all superficial and general vasomotor symptoms and on most gastrointestinal or urinary symptoms, and partially effective on most neuropsychiatric symptoms. Safety profile was acceptable, except for one severe adverse event (edema of the larynx and dyspnea after the first injection of omalizumab). Side effects were reported in 16 patients (29%), mainly of low to mild intensity, yet causing interruption of treatment in 5 patients (9%). CONCLUSION: Omalizumab seems to be a useful therapeutic option to control mast cell-mediator symptoms and displays a favorable safety profile.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality from cryptococcal meningitis remains very high in Africa. In the ACTA trial, 2 weeks of fluconazole (FLU) plus flucytosine (5FC) was as effective and less costly than 2-week amphotericin-based regimens. However, many African settings treat with FLU monotherapy and the cost effectiveness of adding 5FC to FLU is uncertain. METHODS: Effectiveness and costs of FLU+5FC were taken from ACTA, which included costing analysis at the Zambian site. Effectiveness of FLU was derived from cohorts of consecutively enrolled patients, managed in respects other than drug therapy, as were participants in ACTA. FLU costs were derived from costs of FLU+5FC in ACTA, by subtraction of 5FC drug and monitoring costs.Cost-effectiveness of FLU+5FC vs FLU alone was measured as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis assessed uncertainties, and a bivariate deterministic sensitivity analysis examined the impact of varying mortality and 5FC drug costs on the ICER. RESULTS: Mean costs per patient were US$847 (95%CI:776-927) for FLU+5FC, and US$628 (95%CI:557-709) for FLU. 10 week mortality was 35.1% (95%CI 28.9-41.7) with FLU+5FC and 53.8% (95%CI: 43.1-64.1) with FLU. At the current 5FC price of $US1.30 per 500mg tablet, the ICER of 5FC+FLU versus FLU alone was US$65 (95%CI: 28-208) per life year saved. Reducing 5FC cost to between US$0.80 and US$0.40 per 500mg resulted in an ICER between US$44 and US$28 per life year saved. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of 5FC to FLU is cost-effective for cryptococcal meningitis treatment in Africa and if made available widely could substantially reduce mortality rates among HIV-infected persons in Africa.

19.
Med Mycol ; 57(Supplement_2): S94-S103, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816963

RESUMO

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) incidence is increasing in several countries like France, and numerous cases are indeed missed and still only diagnosed at autopsy as evidenced by recently published data. Such missed diagnoses are obviously encountered when appropriate diagnostic tools are not available especially in low resource areas or when biologists have not been trained enough in medical mycology (i.e., microscopic examination and culture in most of those areas). Besides logistical issues, which are indeed critical, IA may not be recognized because clinicians failed to consider that risk factors are evolving with the IA burden now observed among patients with chronic lymphoid malignancies or receiving new biotherapies, with diabetes mellitus or liver cirrhosis and/or acute alcoholic hepatitis, with patients from the intensive care unit (ICU) and among patients with some predisposing primary immune deficiencies now reaching the adult's age. This is also the case for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who failed to meet the classical definitions of IA. From the radiology perspective, new entities of IA have also emerged which absolutely need to be recognized especially bronchial-based-IA among allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Finally, from the laboratory side, contribution and limits of indirect blood biomarkers should be integrated to the clinical life in order not to miss IA cases. To conclude, several diagnostic tools should be combined and a constant dialog between laboratory and clinics is crucial to appropriately diagnose IA.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality from cryptoccocal meningitis remains high. The ACTA trial demonstrated that, compared with 2 weeks of amphotericin B (AmB) plus flucystosine (5FC), 1 week of AmB and 5FC was associated with lower mortality and 2 weeks of oral flucanozole (FLU) plus 5FC was non-inferior. Here, we assess the cost-effectiveness of these different treatment courses. METHODS: Participants were randomized in a ratio of 2:1:1:1:1 to 2 weeks of oral 5FC and FLU, 1 week of AmB and FLU, 1 week of AmB and 5FC, 2 weeks of AmB and FLU, or 2 weeks of AmB and 5FC in Malawi, Zambia, Cameroon, and Tanzania. Data on individual resource use and health outcomes were collected. Cost-effectiveness was measured as incremental costs per life-year saved, and non-parametric bootstrapping was done. RESULTS: Total costs per patient were US $1442 for 2 weeks of oral FLU and 5FC, $1763 for 1 week of AmB and FLU, $1861 for 1 week of AmB and 5FC, $2125 for 2 weeks of AmB and FLU, and $2285 for 2 weeks of AmB and 5FC. Compared to 2 weeks of AmB and 5FC, 1 week of AmB and 5FC was less costly and more effective and 2 weeks of oral FLU and 5FC was less costly and as effective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for 1 week of AmB and 5FC versus oral FLU and 5FC was US $208 (95% confidence interval $91-1210) per life-year saved. CONCLUSIONS: Both 1 week of AmB and 5FC and 2 weeks of Oral FLU and 5FC are cost-effective treatments.

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