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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 257-264, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have paid a heavy toll during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Routes of transmission remain to be fully understood. METHODS: This prospective study compared a 1500-bed adult and 600-bed pediatric setting of a tertiary-care university hospital located in central Paris. From 24 February until 10 April 2020, all symptomatic HCWs were screened for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on a nasopharyngeal swab. HCWs screened positive were questioned on their profession, symptoms, and occupational and nonoccupational exposures to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Among 1344 HCWs tested, 373 were positive (28%) and 336 (90%) corresponding questionnaires were completed. Three hospitalizations and no deaths were reported. Most HCWs (70%) had patient-facing occupational activities (22% in COVID-19 dedicated units). The total number of HCW cases peaked on 23 March, then decreased slowly, concomitantly with a continuous increase of compliance to preventive measures (including universal medical masking and personal protective equipment [PPE] for direct care to COVID-19 patients). Attack rates were of 3.2% and 2.3% in the adult and pediatric settings, respectively (P = .0022). In the adult setting, HCWs more frequently reported exposure to COVID-19 patients without PPE (25% vs 15%, P = .046). Report of contacts with children attending out-of-home care facilities dramatically decreased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Universal masking, reinforcement of hand hygiene, and PPE with medical masks for patients' care allowed protection of HCWs and containment of the outbreak. Residual transmissions were related to persistent exposures with undiagnosed patients or colleagues and not to contacts with children attending out-of-home care facilities.


Assuntos
Adulto , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Paris/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389261

RESUMO

Antimicrobial stewardship programs aim at reducing the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as carbapenems, but their impact remains unclear. We compared the use of carbapenems between paediatric and adult subjects admitted to a French tertiary hospital and described the intervention of an antibiotic stewardship team (AST). As part of AST routine activity, all adult and paediatric patients receiving carbapenems are identified in real time using a computer-generated alert system and reviewed by the AST. Data associated with carbapenem prescriptions were extracted for 2 years (2014-2015) and were compared between paediatric and adult wards. Prescription appropriateness (i.e. no clinically suitable narrower spectrum alternative to carbapenem for de-escalation) and AST intervention were analysed. In total, 775 carbapenem prescriptions for 291 children and 262 adults were included. Most patients (95%) had a comordity and 52% had known recent carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE). Most carbapenem prescriptions came from intensive care units (n = 269, 35%) and were initiated for urinary tract (n = 200, 27%), sepsis (n = 181, 25%), and lung (n = 153, 21%) infections. Carbapenems were initiated empirically in 537 (70%) cases, and an organism was isolated in 523 (67%) cases. Among the isolated organisms, 47% (n = 246) were ESBLE and 90% (n = 468) were susceptible to carbapenems, but an alternative existed in 61% (n = 320) of cases according to antibiotic susceptibility testing. Among prescriptions reviewed by the AST, 39% (n = 255) were considered non-appropriate and led to either antibiotic discontinuation (n = 47, 7%) or de-escalation (n = 208, 32%). Non-appropriate prescriptions were more frequent in paediatric wards (p = 0.01) and in microbiologically documented infections (p = 0.013), and less observed in immunocompromised patients (p = 0.009) or with a known ESBLE carriage (p < 0.001). Tailored stewardship programs are essential to better control carbapenem use and subsequent antimicrobial resistance.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 257-264, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have paid a heavy toll during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Routes of transmission remain to be fully understood. METHODS: This prospective study compared a 1500-bed adult and 600-bed pediatric setting of a tertiary-care university hospital located in central Paris. From 24 February until 10 April 2020, all symptomatic HCWs were screened for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on a nasopharyngeal swab. HCWs screened positive were questioned on their profession, symptoms, and occupational and nonoccupational exposures to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Among 1344 HCWs tested, 373 were positive (28%) and 336 (90%) corresponding questionnaires were completed. Three hospitalizations and no deaths were reported. Most HCWs (70%) had patient-facing occupational activities (22% in COVID-19 dedicated units). The total number of HCW cases peaked on 23 March, then decreased slowly, concomitantly with a continuous increase of compliance to preventive measures (including universal medical masking and personal protective equipment [PPE] for direct care to COVID-19 patients). Attack rates were of 3.2% and 2.3% in the adult and pediatric settings, respectively (P = .0022). In the adult setting, HCWs more frequently reported exposure to COVID-19 patients without PPE (25% vs 15%, P = .046). Report of contacts with children attending out-of-home care facilities dramatically decreased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Universal masking, reinforcement of hand hygiene, and PPE with medical masks for patients' care allowed protection of HCWs and containment of the outbreak. Residual transmissions were related to persistent exposures with undiagnosed patients or colleagues and not to contacts with children attending out-of-home care facilities.


Assuntos
Adulto , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Paris/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150502

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Management of inflammatory complications of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is challenging. The aim of this study was to assess safety, with a focus on infections, and effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockers in CGD patients. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center cohort study of CGD patients treated by anti-TNF-α agents at Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital (Paris, France) and registered at the French National Reference Center for Primary Immunodeficiencies (CEREDIH). RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2019, 14 (X-linked: n = 10, 71.4%; autosomal-recessive: n = 4, 28.6%) CGD patients with gastrointestinal (n = 12, 85.7%), pulmonary (n = 10, 71.4%), cutaneous (n = 3, 21.4%), and/or genitourinary (n = 2, 14.3%) inflammatory manifestations received one or more doses of infliximab because of steroid-dependent (n = 7, 50%), refractory (n = 4, 28.6%) inflammatory disease or as first-line drug (n = 2, 14.3%; missing data, n = 1). All patients received adequate antimicrobial prophylaxis. Infliximab achieved complete (n = 2, 14.3%) or partial (n = 9, 64.3%) response in 11 (78.6%) patients. Seven (50%) patients were switched to adalimumab. During anti-TNF-α treatment, 11 infections (pneumonia, adenitis, invasive candidiasis, each n = 2; intra-abdominal abscess, bacteremic salmonellosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related folliculitis, cat-scratch disease, proven pulmonary mucormycosis, each n = 1) occurred in 7 (50%) patients. All infectious complications had a favorable outcome. Anti-TNF-α treatment was definitively stopped because of infection in two patients. Nine (64.3%) patients finally underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. No death occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TNF-α treatment could improve the outcome of severe inflammatory complications in CGD patients, but increases their risk of infections. We suggest that anti-TNF-α treatment might be of short-term benefit in selected CGD patients with severe inflammatory complications awaiting hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(11): ofaa175, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204743

RESUMO

We report a case of chronic hepatosplenic aspergillosis following immune reconstitution complicating colic aspergillosis in an AIDS patient with multicentric Castleman disease. Symptoms mimicked the clinical presentation of chronic disseminated candidiasis and responded to corticosteroid. This emerging entity enlarges the spectrum of fungal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the HIV setting.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087436

RESUMO

Background: High cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) titers in blood are associated with subclinical meningitis and mortality in CrAg-positive individuals with advanced HIV-disease (AHD). We evaluated a novel semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA), CryptoPS, that may be able to identify individuals with high CrAg titers in a cohort of AHD patients undergoing CrAg screening.Methods: In a prospective cohort of patients with AHD (CD4 ≤200 cells/µL) receiving CD4 count testing, CryptoPS and IMMY LFA CrAg testing were performed on whole blood by two operators blinded to results of the other assay. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of CryptoPS were assessed against IMMY LFA as a reference. CryptoPS low-titer (T1 band) and high-titer (T2 band) results were compared against IMMY LFA titers obtained through serial dilution.Results: 916 specimens were tested. Sensitivity of the CryptoPS assay was 61.0% (25/41, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 44.5-75.8), specificity 96.6% (845/875, 95%CI: 95.1-97.7), PPV 45.5% (95%CI: 32.0-59.4), and NPV 98.1% (95%CI: 97.0-98.9). All (16/16) CryptoPS false-negatives were samples with IMMY titers ≤1:160. Of 29 patients (30 specimens) who tested positive on CryptoPS but negative on IMMY LFA, none developed cryptococcal meningitis over 3-months follow-up without fluconazole. Median CrAg titers were 1:20 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-1:160) in CryptoPS T1-positive samples and 1:2560 (IQR 1:1280-1:10240) in T2-positives.Conclusions: Diagnostic accuracy of the CryptoPS assay was sub-optimal in the context of CrAg screening, with poor sensitivity at low CrAg titers. However, the CryptoPS assay reliably detected individuals with high titers associated with poor outcomes.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(12): 1532-1543, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963049

RESUMO

Biological therapies have improved the outcomes of several major inflammatory, autoimmune and also neoplastic disorders. Those directed towards cytokines or other soluble mediators, cell-surface molecules or receptors or various components of intracellular signalling pathways may be associated with the occurrence of infections whose diversity depends on the particular immune target. In this context and following a keynote lecture given by one of us at the European League Against Rheumatism meeting on June 2018, a multidisciplinary group of experts deeply involved in the use of targeted and biological therapies in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis decided to summarise their recent vision of the immunological basis and epidemiology of infections occurring during targeted and biological therapies, and provide useful indications for their management and prevention.

8.
J Travel Med ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956441

RESUMO

We report the first case of central nervous system histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii in a patient with no underlying immunodeficiency. African histoplasmosis is an underdiagnosed endemic fungal infection which should be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions in patients originating from Western and Central Africa.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(8): 1144-1155, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nocardiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease. We aimed at describing nocardiosis in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). METHODS: This international retrospective cohort included patients with PID and nocardiosis diagnosed and/or published from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2016. To identify nocardiosis cases, we analyzed PID databases from the French National Reference Center for PID (Paris, France) and the National Institute of Health (NIH, United States of America) and we performed a literature review on PubMed. RESULTS: Forty-nine cases of nocardiosis associated with PID were included: median age at diagnosis of nocardiosis was 19 (0-56) years and most cases were observed among chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients (87.8%). Median time from symptoms to diagnosis of Nocardia infection was 20 (2-257) days. Most frequent clinical nocardiosis presentation was pneumonia (86.7%). Twelve-month mortality rate was 4.2%, and 11.9% of patients experienced a possible recurrence of infection. Nocardiosis more frequently led to the diagnosis of PID among non-CGD patients than in CGD patients. Non-CGD patients experienced more cerebral nocardiosis and more disseminated infections, but mortality and recurrence rates were similar. Highest incidences of nocardiosis among PID cohorts were observed among CGD patients (0.0057 and 0.0044 cases/patient-year in the USA and in France, respectively), followed by IL-12p40 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Among 49 cases of nocardiosis associated with PID, most patients had CGD and lung involvement. Both mortality and recurrence rates were low.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829406

RESUMO

Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) detection could direct timely initiation of antifungal therapy. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies where CrAg detection in serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and CSF fungal culture were done on HIV-positive adults with suspected cryptococcal meningitis (CM). With QUADAS-2, we evaluated risk of bias (RoB) of 11 included studies on 3,600 participants and used random-effects meta-analysis to obtain summary sensitivity and specificity of serum and CSF CrAg as well as agreement between CSF CrAg and CSF culture. Summary sensitivity and specificity of serum CrAg was 99.8% (88.4 - 100) and 95.2% (88.7 - 98), respectively; of CSF CrAg was 98.8% (96.2 - 99.6) and 99.3% (96.7 - 99.9), respectively. Agreement between CSF CrAg and CSF culture was 97% (96 - 99). In HIV-adults with CM symptoms, serum CrAg-negativity may rule out CM, positivity should prompt induction antifungal therapy if lumbar puncture is not feasible. In first episode of CM, CSF CrAg-positivity is diagnostic.

11.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(3): 106083, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659465

RESUMO

Systemic use of voriconazole (VCZ) might be restricted by adverse events, such as hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity, or drug-drug interactions. Topical VCZ application to skin may help to treat local infection more effectively and limit unwanted whole-body exposure. Topical VCZ cream was stable for 90 days when refrigerated. A patient with cutaneous Fusarium solani infection on his right forearm was successfully treated with topical 1% VCZ cream after failure of oral VCZ treatment.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCW) have paid a heavy toll to the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak. Routes of transmission remain to be fully understood. METHODS: This prospective study compared a 1,500-bed adult and a 600-bed pediatric setting of a tertiary-care university hospital located in central Paris. From February 24th until April 10th, 2020, all symptomatic HCW were screened for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on a nasopharyngeal swab. HCW screened positive were questioned on their profession, symptoms, occupational and non-occupational exposures to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Among 1344 HCW tested, 373 were positive (28%) and 336 (90%) corresponding questionnaires were completed. Three hospitalizations and no death were reported. Most HCW (70%) had patient-facing occupational activities (22% in COVID-19 dedicated units). The total number of HCW cases peaked on March 23rd, then decreased slowly, concomitantly with a continuous increase of compliance to preventive measures (including universal medical masking and personal protective equipment (PPE) for direct care to COVID-19 patients). Attack rates were of 3.2% and 2.3% in the adult and pediatric setting, respectively (p=0.0022). In the adult setting, HCW more frequently reported exposure to COVID-19 patients without PPE (25% versus 15%, p=0.046). Report of contacts with children attending out-of-home care facilities dramatically decreased over the study period. CONCLUSION: Universal masking, reinforcement of hand hygiene, and PPE with medical masks for patients' care allowed protection of HCW and containment of the outbreak. Residual transmissions were related to persistent exposures with undiagnosed patients or colleagues and not to contacts with children attending out-of-home care facilities.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614433

RESUMO

Prolonged measles virus detection in maternal saliva and blood was evidenced in 6 pregnant women. Maternal-fetal transmission was evidenced in 2/4 infants who were asymptomatic at birth, 21-24 weeks after maternal infection. Whereas peripartum congenital measles is severe, asymptomatic measles virus vertical transmission can occur earlier in pregnancy.

15.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(8): 1524-1535, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572532

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasingly reported in patients with influenza admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Classification of patients with influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) using the current definitions for invasive fungal diseases has proven difficult, and our aim was to develop case definitions for IAPA that can facilitate clinical studies. METHODS: A group of 29 international experts reviewed current insights into the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of IAPA and proposed a case definition of IAPA through a process of informal consensus. RESULTS: Since IAPA may develop in a wide range of hosts, an entry criterion was proposed and not host factors. The entry criterion was defined as a patient requiring ICU admission for respiratory distress with a positive influenza test temporally related to ICU admission. In addition, proven IAPA required histological evidence of invasive septate hyphae and mycological evidence for Aspergillus. Probable IAPA required the detection of galactomannan or positive Aspergillus culture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or serum with pulmonary infiltrates or a positive culture in upper respiratory samples with bronchoscopic evidence for tracheobronchitis or cavitating pulmonary infiltrates of recent onset. The IAPA case definitions may be useful to classify patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), while awaiting further studies that provide more insight into the interaction between Aspergillus and the SARS-CoV-2-infected lung. CONCLUSION: A consensus case definition of IAPA is proposed, which will facilitate research into the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of this emerging acute and severe Aspergillus disease, and may be of use to study CAPA.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Influenza Humana/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Humanos , Mananas/análise , Pandemias , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/etiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(5): 752-762, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the CYBB gene (located on Xp21.1). Patients with large deletions on chromosome Xp21.1 can present with the McLeod phenotype and also Duchenne muscular dystrophy or retinitis pigmentosa. The objective of the present study was to describe a series of French patients with CGD and the McLeod phenotype. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from the medical records of 8 patients with CGD and the McLeod phenotype registered at the French National Reference Center for blood types. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis of CGD was 1.2 years, the median age at diagnosis of the McLeod phenotype was 4.5 years, and the median length of follow-up was 15.2 years. Four patients displayed allo-immunization, with anti-KEL20 and anti-XK1 (formerly known as anti-KL) antibodies. Five of the 6 patients with available blood smears had acanthocytosis. Neuropsychiatric, muscle-related, and ocular manifestations were present in 4, 2, and 1 of the patients, respectively. Three of the 4 patients having undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are alive. Overall, 5 patients are alive, and 3 are alive and well. CONCLUSION: This is the largest yet descriptive study of a series of patients with X-linked CGD and the McLeod phenotype. Although this disease combination is rare, the timely, accurate diagnosis of the McLeod phenotype is critical because of the serious post-transfusion complications. However, HSCT can be considered in these patients.

17.
Med Mycol ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577733

RESUMO

Though candidiasis is the most frequent invasive fungal infection, Candida spp. central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare but severe. To further describe clinico-patho-radiological presentations of this entity, we report a retrospective study from January 2005 to December 2018 including patients aged ≥ 28 days with proven or probable CNS candidiasis in France. Twenty-four patients were included. Seventeen patients (70%) had CNS localization secondary to disseminated candidiasis (10 with hematologic malignancies [HM]; the seven other patients had infective endocarditis [IE]). Among patients with HM, seven previously had lumbar puncture for intrathecal chemotherapy, the three others had IE. Among patients with disseminated infection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidenced meningitis (17%), micro-abscesses (58%), or vascular complications (67%). Seven patients (30%) had isolated CNS involvement related to neurosurgery (n = 2), CARD9 deficiency (n = 2), intravenous drug use, diabetes mellitus, or no identified predisposing condition (n = 1 each). All evaluated patients with isolated CNS involvement had meningitis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and intracranial hypertension. For the latter patients, MRI evidenced meningitis (71%) or abscesses (57%). Among all patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture grew Candida spp. in 31% of cases. CSF ßDGlucan or mannan Ag were positive in respectively 86% and 80% of cases. Mortality attributed to CNS candidiasis was 42%: 53% in case of disseminated infection (70% for HM) and 14% in case of localized infection. CNS candidiasis are isolated or occur during disseminated infection in patients with HM and lumbar puncture for intrathecal chemotherapy or during IE. Clinical, radiological finding and outcome highly vary according to CNS localized versus disseminated candidiasis. LAY SUMMARY: Candida is a yeast and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. Candida central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare, severe, and poorly described. We report a retrospective study from January 2005 to December 2018 including patients aged ≥ 28 days with proven or probable CNS candidiasis in France. Twenty-four patients were included (14 men, median age 51 years). Seventeen patients had CNS localization secondary to disseminated candidiasis from blood to CNS (10 with hematologic malignancies [HM], the seven other patients had infective endocarditis [IE]). Seven patients had isolated CNS involvement related to neurosurgery (n = 2), CARD9 deficiency (n = 2), intravenous drug use (n = 1), diabetes mellitus (n = 1), or no identified risk factor (n = 1).During Candida CNS infections, brain lesions were meningitis abscesses or vascular complications. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture grew Candida spp. in 31% of cases. Forty-two percent of patients died from infection: 53% in case of disseminated infection (70% for HM) and 14% in case of localized infection.

19.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(6): 844-849, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459615

RESUMO

Introduction. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, notably pulmonary aspergillosis.Aim. We describe the emergence of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus infections in STAT3-deficient patients.Methodology. During a retrospective study of 13 pulmonary aspergillosis cases in STAT3-deficient patients conducted in France, we identified patients infected with azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates.Results. Two out of the 13 STAT3-deficient patients with aspergillosis had azole-resistant A. fumigatus infection, indicating an unexpectedly high prevalence of resistance. The first patient with STAT3 deficiency presented several flares of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis-like episodes. He was chronically infected with two azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates (TR34/L98). Despite prolonged antifungal treatment, including caspofungin and amphotericin B, the patient was not able to clear the azole-resistant A. fumigatus. The second patient had chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA). The A. fumigatus isolate was initially azole susceptible but harboured three F46Y, M172V and E427K point mutations. Despite prolonged antifungal therapies, lesions worsened and the isolate became resistant to all azoles. Surgery and caspofungin treatments were then required to cure CCPA. Resistance was probably acquired from the environment (TR34/L98) in the first case whereas resistance developed under antifungal treatments in the second case. These infections required long-term antifungal treatments and surgery.Conclusions. The emergence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus infections in STAT3-deficiency dramatically impacts both curative and prophylactic antifungal strategies. Physicians following patients with primary immune-deficiencies should be aware of this emerging problem as it complicates management of the patient.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/deficiência , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Caspofungina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , França , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108419, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study of patients receiving Immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) for secondary immune deficiency (SID) during 2012. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from the first dose of Ig administered in 2012 to 1 year afterward in terms of the indication for IgRT, as well as efficacy and safety. RESULTS: In total, 16 hospitals participated in the study, and 368 patients were included. Indications for IgRT were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (82 [22.3%] patients), multiple myeloma (76 [20.7%]), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (64 [17.4%]) and other (79 [21.5%]). Only 89 (24.2%) patients received IgRT according to 2011 European Medical Agency (EMA) recommendations; 196 (53.3%) received prophylactic antibiotics and 262 (76.2%) had an IgG level < 4 g/L before IgRT initiation. CONCLUSION: In this study, whatever the criteria, only 24.2% of patients with SID who received IgRT met EMA recommendations, which suggests a misuse of IgRT in SID.

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