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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2107479, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040221

RESUMO

Wearable touch panel, a typical flexible electronic device, can recognize and feedback the information of finger touch and movement. Excellent wearable touch panels are required to accurately and quickly monitor the signals of finger movement as well as the capacity of bearing various deformation. High-performance thermistor materials are one of the key functional components, but to date, a long-standing bottleneck is that inorganic semiconductors are typically brittle while the electrical properties of organic semiconductors are quite low. Herein, we report a high-performance flexible temperature sensor by using plastic Ag2 S with ultrahigh temperature coefficient of resistance of -4.7%/K and resolution of 0.05 K, and rapid response/recovery time of 0.11/0.11 s. Moreover, the temperature sensor shows excellent durability without performance damage or lose during force stimuli tests. In addition, full-flexible intelligent touch panel composed of 16×10 Ag2 S film-based temperature sensor array, as well as flexible printed circuit board and deep learning algorithm is designed for perceive finger touch signals in real-time and intelligent feedback Chinese characters and letters on App. These results strongly show that high-performance flexible inorganic semiconductors can be widely used in flexible electronics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lack of research on the association of trefoil factors (TFFs) with gastric cancer (GC) and premalignant lesions (PMLs) in the general populations is an important obstacle to the application of TFFs for GC screening. We aimed to analyze the association of TFFs with GC and PMLs in a general population. METHODS: We evaluated 3,986 adults residing in Wuwei, China. We collected baseline characteristics and GC risk factors, including TFFs, endoscopic diagnosis, and pathological information. Three logistic regression models were generated to analyze the association between TFFs and GC, as well as PMLs. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to determine the strength of association. RESULTS: Compared with pepsinogen (PG) and anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody (Hp-IgG), TFFs had significant association with GC and PMLs after adjusting for biomarkers and risk factors (P < 0.05). The ORs [95% CI] for TFF1 (1.67 [1.27-2.20]), TFF2 (2.66 [2.01-3.51]), and TFF3 (1.32 [1.00-1.74]) were larger than the ORs for PGI (0.79 [0.61-1.03]), PGI/II (1.00 [0.76-1.31]) and Hp-IgG (0.99 [0.73-1.35]) in the GC group. In intestinal metaplasia (IM) group, not only the TFF3 serum level was the highest, but also the OR (1.92 [1.64-2.25]) was the highest. CONCLUSIONS: Trefoil factor were associated with risk of GC and PMLs. IMPACT: Serum TFFs can improve the screening of high-risk populations for GC.

3.
Trials ; 23(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jiangniaosuan formula (JNSF) is commonly used in China for treating hyperuricemia, but there is little research-based evidence to support its use. This randomized controlled trial aims to assess the efficacy and safety of JNSF. METHODS: A total of 72 patients with hyperuricemia will be selected and randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:2 to receive either Western medicine, i.e., febuxostat 40 mg (WG group; n = 24), or Chinese herbal medicine, i.e., Jiangniaosuan formula + febuxostat 20 mg (WJNSG group; n = 48). After 12 weeks, the WJNSG will be randomly divided into two groups of 24 patients each; one group (WJNSG; n = 24) still will receive febuxostat 20 mg + Jiangniaosuan formula, and the other group (JNSG; n = 24) will continue to receive Jiangniaosuan formula + placebo. Participants will be followed up at 4-week intervals. The primary outcome will be the change in serum uric acid level, and the secondary outcome will be the change in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores. Serum creatinine, blood glucose, and insulin levels will also be measured. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize that patients with hyperuricemia will benefit from JNSF. This study will provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians. DISSEMINATION: The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated by academic conferences. The datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trials Register ChiCTR2000041083 . Registered on 3 May 2021. The protocol version number is V3.0, 20210301.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hiperuricemia , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Úrico
4.
Biotechnol J ; : e2100382, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35072340

RESUMO

Kluyveromyces marxianus is a promising cell factory for producing heterologous proteins. Essential components including partition element, copy number control element, promoter, and terminator in multicopy plasmids applicable for K. marxianus are not extensively characterized. The pKD1 is an endogenous multicopy plasmid identified in K. lactis, and the pKD1-based plasmid is the only multicopy plasmid successfully applied in K. marxianus. The circular plasmid pKD1 contains three major open reading frames, namely A, B and C. Here, we showed that the A gene was responsible for maintaining the high-copy number of pKD1-based plasmid in K. marxianus. Deletion of the B or C gene impaired the stable propagation of pKD1-based plasmid in K. marxianus, and this defect could not be rescued by the trans expression of B and C genes. In a quantitative analysis of a series of promoters and terminators, AFT1 promoter from Pichia pastoris, OM45 promoter and INU1 terminator from K. marxianus, and a set of synthetic terminators, supported high-level expressions. A combination of AFT1 or OM45 promoter with INU1 terminator in a pKD1-based plasmid achieved high-level expressions of four different heterologous proteins. Our study provides valuable elements for high-level episomal expressions in K. marxianus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Cell Death Discov ; 8(1): 10, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013173

RESUMO

Stress cardiomyopathy is a major clinical complication after severe burn. Multiple upstream initiators have been identified; however, the downstream targets are not fully understood. This study assessed the role of the plasma membrane in this process and its relationship with the protease µ-calpain and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Here, third-degree burn injury of approximately 40% of the total body surface area was established in rats. Plasma levels of LDH and cTnI and cardiac cell apoptosis increased at 0.5 h post burn, reached a peak at 6 h, and gradually declined at 24 h. This effect correlated well with not only the disruption of cytoskeletal proteins, including dystrophin and ankyrin-B, but also with the activation of µ-calpain, as indicated by the cleaved fragments of α-spectrin and membrane recruitment of the catalytic subunit CAPN1. More importantly, these alterations were diminished by blocking calpain activity with MDL28170. Burn injury markedly increased the cellular uptake of Evans blue, indicating membrane integrity disruption, and this effect was also reversed by MDL28170. Compared with those in the control group, cardiac cells in the burn plasma-treated group were more prone to damage, as indicated by a marked decrease in cell viability and increases in LDH release and apoptosis. Of note, these alterations were mitigated by CAPN1 siRNA. Moreover, after neutralizing TNF-α with rhTNFR:Fc, calpain activity was blocked, and heart function was improved. In conclusion, we identified µ-calpain as a trigger for severe burn-induced membrane disruption in the heart and provided evidence for the application of rhTNFR:Fc to inhibit calpain for cardioprotection.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 231: 113220, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066435

RESUMO

Many man-made chemicals that are released into water bodies in agricultural landscapes have been identified as endocrine disruptors and can cause serious impacts on the growth and survival of aquatic species living in these environments. However, very little attention has been paid to their toxicological effects in cultured non-fish species, such as aquatic turtles. We exposed hatchlings of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) to different concentrations of vinclozolin (0, 5, 50 and 500 µg/L) for 60 days to assess physiological and metabolic impacts of this fungicide. Despite no death occurrence, hatchling turtles exposed to the highest concentration of vinclozolin consumed less food, grew more slowly (resulting in smaller body size after exposure) and performed more poorly in behavioral swimming tests than controls and turtles exposed to lower concentrations. Hepatic metabolite profiles acquired via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed multiple metabolic perturbations related to amino acid, lipid, and fatty acid metabolism in animals exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations. Specifically, many critical metabolites involved in energy-related metabolic pathways (such as some intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, lactate, and some amino acids) were present in livers of hatchling turtles exposed vinclozolin, though at lower concentrations, reflecting energy metabolism dysregulation induced by exposure to this fungicide. Overall, our results suggest that the changes in growth and behavioral performances caused by chronic vinclozolin exposure may be associated with internal physiological and metabolic disorders mediated at the biochemical level.

7.
Ophthalmic Genet ; : 1-8, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014583

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the penetrance of MYOC gene mutation in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) through systematic review and meta-analysis. To explore the factors affecting the penetrance of MYOC and provide evidence-based medical evidence for clinical work. METHODS: We searched all studies that reported the penetrance of MYOC mutation in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese databases including Wanfang, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and CBM (China Bio-Med). Random effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the penetrance of MYOC mutation in POAG. RESULTS: Fifty-two studies were included in this analysis after screening. Meta-analysis of the penetrance of MYOC mutation showed that the penetrance of MYOC mutation in POAG was 60% (95% CI: 51.0% to 68.0%) and the penetrance of MYOC mutation in POAG and suspected POAG was 68% (95% CI: 60.0% to 75.0%). The penetrance of MYOC mutation increases with age. Among Caucasians, Asians, and Africans, the penetrance of MYOC mutation in POAG was 55%, 71%, 54%, respectively, and the penetrance of MYOC mutation in POAG and suspected POAG was 64%, 83%, and 57%, respectively. Besides, the penetrance of different MYOC mutation sites was significantly discrepant. The penetrance of MYOC mutation in POAG ranged from 10.3% to 100% depending on the mutation sites. Some MYOC mutation sites have a certain population specificity, which is only pathogenic in Caucasians or Asians. CONCLUSIONS: The penetrance of MYOC mutation in POAG showed significant differences due to different mutation sites. The penetrance increased with the accrescent of age. Ethnic difference was an important factor affecting the penetrance of MYOC mutation. Knowing the rules and influencing factors of the penetrance of MYOC mutations is significant for the assessment of the risk of POAG in carriers with the MYOC mutation.

8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA121317058, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045728

RESUMO

AngII (angiotensin II) infusion in mice has been used to provide mechanistic insight into human abdominal aortic aneurysms for over 2 decades. This is a technically facile animal model that recapitulates multiple facets of the human disease. Although numerous publications have reported abdominal aortic aneurysms with AngII infusion in mice, there remain many fundamental unanswered questions such as uniformity of describing the pathological characteristics and which cell type is stimulated by AngII to promote abdominal aortic aneurysms. Extrapolation of the findings to provide insight into the human disease has been hindered by the preponderance of studies designed to determine the effects on initiation of abdominal aortic aneurysms, rather than a more clinically relevant scenario of determining efficacy on the established disease. The purpose of this review is to enhance understanding of AngII-induced abdominal aortic pathologies in mice, thereby providing greater insight into the human disease.

9.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(1): 4, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815756

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is one a disease that seriously endangers human health. Previous studies have demonstrated that transient receptor potential channel-1 (TRPC1)/large conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channel (BK) signal complex is widely distributed in arteries. Therefore, it was hypothesized that TRPC1-BK signal complex may be a new target for the treatment of AS-related diseases. Apolipoprotein E-/- (ApoE-/-) mice were used to establish an atherosclerotic animal model in the present study, and the association between AS and the TRPC1-BK signal complex was examined. The present study aimed to compare the differences in the expression levels of mRNAs and proteins of the TRPC1-BK signal complex expressed in the aortic vascular smooth muscle tissue, between mice with AS and control mice. There were 10 mice in each group. Reverse transcription PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the differences in the mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPC1, BKα (the α subunit of BK) and BKß1 (the ß1 subunit of BK). The mRNA expression level of TRPC1 in AS model mice was significantly higher compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). However, the mRNA expression levels of BKα and BKß1 were lower compared with those in the controls (both P<0.01). The mice in the ApoE-/- group successfully developed AS. In this group, the protein expression level of TRPC1 was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01), while the protein expression levels of BKα and BKß1 were lower compared with those in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Collectively, it was identified that the protein and mRNA expression levels of the TRPC1/BK signal complex in the aortic vascular smooth muscle tissue could be influenced by the development of AS in mice. Hence, the TRPC1/BK signal complex may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of AS-related complications in the future.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; : 152162, 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875327

RESUMO

Anthropogenic pollutants (organic nitrogen and ammonia) can change the dynamic balances of hydrogeochemical components of groundwater, and this can affect the fates of the pollutants and groundwater quality. The aim of this paper is to assess the long-term impact of pollutants on groundwater component concentrations and species in three sites that has been polluted with illegal discharge wastewater containing organic nitrogen and ammonia, in order to reveal the interactions between nitrogen species and Mn. We analyzed semi-monthly groundwater data from three sites in northwestern China over a long period of time (2015-2020) by using statistical analyses, correlation analyses, and a correlation co-occurrence network method. The results showed that wastewater entering groundwater from surface changed the hydrogeochemical component concentrations and species significantly. The main form of inorganic nitrogen species changed from nitrate to ammonia. The Mn concentration increased from undetectable (<0.01 mg/L) to 1.64 mg/L (the maximum), which surpassed the guideline value suggested by China and WHO. The main mechanism for Mn increase is the reductive dissolution of Mn oxide caused by the oxidation of organic nitrogen. Mn­nitrogen species interaction complicates the transformation of nitrogen components. Chemoautotrophic denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) mediated by Mn are the major mechanisms of nitrate attenuation when dissolved oxygen is greater than 2 mg/L. Mn oxides reductive dissolution and reoxidation of Mn by nitrate reduction cause Mn to circulate in groundwater. The results provide field evidence for interactions between nitrogen species transformation and Mn cycle in groundwater. This has important implications for pollution management and groundwater remediation, particularly monitored natural attenuation.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863080

RESUMO

Puerarin (8-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-4', 7-dihydroxyisoflavone), a natural flavonoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Radix puerariae, have been demonstrated has potential anti-tumor effects via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. However, the effect and molecular mechanism of puerarin in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unknown. In this study, the tumor-suppressive effects of puerarin were determined by both in-vitro and in-vivo assays. The effects of puerarin on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs), and tumor growth and metastasis in PDAC xenograft mouse model were performed. Puerarin treatment significantly repressed PCC proliferation. Puerarin induced the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis of PCCs by causing a Bcl-2/Bax imbalance. Moreover, puerarin inhibited PCC migration and invasion by antagonizing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In nude mouse model, PDAC growth and metastasis were reduced by puerarin administration. Mechanistically, puerarin exerted its therapeutic effects on PDAC by suppressing Akt/mTOR signaling. Importantly, puerarin bound to the kinase domain of mTOR protein, affecting the activity of the surrounding amino acid residues associated with the binding of the ATP-Mg2+ complex. Further studies showed that the inhibitory effects of puerarin on PCCs were abolished by a mTOR activator, indicating a crucial role of mTOR in anti-tumor effects of puerarin in PDAC. As a result, puerarin hindered glucose uptake and metabolism by downregulating the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) dependent upon HIF-1α and glucose transporter GLUT1. Therefore, these findings indicated that puerarin has therapeutic potential for the treatment of PDAC by suppressing glucose uptake and metabolism via Akt/mTOR activity.

12.
World J Transplant ; 11(11): 443-465, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868896

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been the mainstay of immunosuppressive therapy in solid organ transplantation (SOT) for decades, due to their potent effects on innate immunity and tissue protective effects. However, some SOT centers are reluctant to administer GCs long-term because of the various related side effects. This review summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of GCs in SOT. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched from 2011 to April 2021 using search syntaxes covering "transplantation" and "glucocorticoids". GCs are used in transplant recipients, transplant donors, and organ perfusate solution to improve transplant outcomes. In SOT recipients, GCs are administered as induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. GCs are also the cornerstone to treat acute antibody- and T-cell-mediated rejections. Addition of GCs to organ perfusate solution and pretreatment of transplant donors with GCs are recommended by some guidelines and protocols, to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury peri-transplant. GCs with low bioavailability and high potency for GC receptors, such as budesonide, nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of GCs to specific organs, and combination use of dexamethasone with inducers of immune-regulatory cells, are new methods of GC application in SOT patients to reduce side effects or induce immune-tolerance instead of immunosuppression. Various side effects involving different non-targeted organs/tissues, such as bone, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, skin and gastrointestinal tract, have been noted for GCs. There are also potential drug-drug interactions for GCs in SOT patients.

13.
Hematology ; 26(1): 995-1006, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis examined the prognostic role of brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC), Ecotropic virus integration site-1 (EVI1) and Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) genes at different time-points during conventional chemotherapy. METHODS: A systematic search of publications indexed in the electronic databases from January 1988 to October 2020 was performed. Over 7525 cases of AML from 25 studies were involved. RESULTS: At diagnosis, overexpression of either BAALC or EVI1 had a negative impact on complete remission achievement (Summary Odds ratios [SORs] for BAALC = 0.32; SORs for EVI1 = 0.49) and survival outcome. The summary hazard ratios of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 1.97 and 2.04 for BAALC and 1.33 and 1.86 for EVI1, respectively. The prognostic value of pretreatment WT1 levels was heterogeneous while subgroup analyses unveiled that overexpressed WT1 may correlate with a favorable outcome (summary hazard ratio [SHR] for OS = 0.42). Both WT1 and BAALC played a role in prognosis assessment at post-induction and the diagnostic performance of WT1 transcript reduction was superior to the absolute WT1 level. Post-consolidation WT1 overexpression consistently indicated an increased risk of relapse, while the combined HR for RFS was statistically insignificant (SHR = 4.22). CONCLUSION: These findings confirm the application of BAALC and EVI1 at diagnosis, WT1 after induction chemotherapy in AML patients throughout conventional chemotherapy.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260809, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine 1-year attributable healthcare costs of bronchiolitis. METHODS: Using a population-based matched cohort and incidence-based cost analysis approach, we identified infants <12 months old diagnosed in an emergency department (ED) or hospitalized with bronchiolitis between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2014. We propensity-score matched infants with and without bronchiolitis on sex, age, income quintile, rurality, co-morbidities, gestational weeks, small-for-gestational-age status and pre-index healthcare cost deciles. We calculated mean attributable 1-year costs using a generalized estimating equation model and stratified costs by age, sex, income quintile, rurality, co-morbidities and prematurity. RESULTS: We identified 58,375 infants with bronchiolitis (mean age 154±95 days, 61.3% males, 4.2% with comorbidities). Total 1-year mean bronchiolitis-attributable costs were $4,313 per patient (95%CI: $4,148-4,477), with $2,847 (95%CI: $2,712-2,982) spent on hospitalizations, $610 (95%CI: $594-627) on physician services, $562 (95%CI: $556-567)] on ED visits, $259 (95%CI: $222-297) on other healthcare costs and $35 ($27-42) on drugs. Attributable bronchiolitis costs were $2,765 (95%CI: $2735-2,794) vs $111 (95%CI: $102-121) in the initial 10 days post index date, $4,695 (95%CI: $4,589-4,800) vs $910 (95%CI: $847-973) in the initial 180 days and $1,158 (95%CI: $1,104-1213) vs $639 (95%CI: $599-679) during days 181-360. Mean 1-year bronchiolitis costs were higher in infants <3 months old [$5,536 (95%CI: $5,216-5,856)], those with co-morbidities [$17,530 (95%CI: $14,683-20,377)] and with low birthweight [$5,509 (95%CI: $4,927-6,091)]. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to no bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis incurs five-time and two-time higher healthcare costs within the initial and subsequent six-months, respectively. Most expenses occur in the initial 10 days and relate to hospitalization.

15.
J Oncol ; 2021: 2721466, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858498

RESUMO

Background: KRASG12C inhibitors have shown promising efficacy in early clinical trials, but drug resistance compromises their long-term benefits. Therefore, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of drug resistance and to design appropriate combinatory treatments to improve efficacy. Methods: To understand the comprehensive mechanisms of drug resistance, we treated lung cancer cells with KRASG12C inhibitors for different periods and performed transcriptional profiling and signaling analysis to identify critical factors and pathways that drive drug tolerance and resistance. We also evaluated several drug combinations in vitro and in vivo to identify potentially effective therapeutics. Results: We found that the feedback activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) may have cooperatively induced intrinsic and adaptive resistance to KRASG12C inhibitors. Notably, continuous KRAS inhibition induced a multidrug-resistant phenotype, implying that upfront combinatory treatment might be required to treat this group of patients. We also demonstrated that concurrently targeting multiple nodes in the RTK/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK axis improved the efficacy of KRASG12C inhibitors, mainly by suppressing the reactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Moreover, the combined use of HSP90 and KRASG12C inhibitors effectively induced tumor regression in lung adenocarcinoma models in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Together, our findings revealed mechanisms underlying KRASG12C inhibitors resistance and provided novel candidate combinatory strategies to improve their anticancer activity.

16.
J Nurs Manag ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894017

RESUMO

AIM: This review aims to demonstrate the current core competencies of the Chinese midwifery workforce, and summarize the influencing factors of core competencies. BACKGROUND: Midwifery core competencies are crucial to providing high-quality maternal and newborn health care, but little is known about the overall status of the core competencies of the Chinese midwifery workforce. EVALUATION: A scoping review was conducted following the latest JBI scoping review methodology and PRISMA-ScR checklist. KEY ISSUES: Forty-one studies were included in this review. Regarding core competency assessment tools, the Midwife Core Competency Scale was used most frequently among 16 identified tools. Generally, the core competencies of the Chinese midwifery workforce were at a moderate or high level, but the competencies in pre-pregnancy, public health care, and integrative competence were relatively inadequate. The main factors influencing the core competencies of the midwifery workforce were their working years, educational level, and training experience. CONCLUSION: This review provides a comprehensive overview of the core competencies of the Chinese midwifery workforce at the national level. Future studies are encouraged to use objective instruments to reflect core competencies and explore the intervenable influencing factors of core competencies. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Core competency assessment tools can be used to select the qualified midwifery workforce. Targeted core competency enhancement programs should be formulated based on the current core competencies level and the factors influencing core competencies.

18.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 236, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kluyveromyces marxianus is a promising cell factory for producing bioethanol and that raised a demand for a high yield of heterologous proteins in this species. Expressions of heterologous proteins usually lead to the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and then cause ER stress. To cope with this problem, a group of ER stress response target genes (ESRTs) are induced, mainly through a signaling network called unfolded protein response (UPR). Characterization and modulation of ESRTs direct the optimization of heterologous expressions. However, ESRTs in K. marxianus have not been identified so far. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized the ER stress response in K. marxianus for the first time, by using two ER stress-inducing reagents, dithiothreitol (DTT) and tunicamycin (TM). Results showed that the Kar2-Ire1-Hac1 pathway of UPR is well conserved in K. marxianus. About 15% and 6% of genes were upregulated during treatment of DTT and TM, respectively. A total of 115 upregulated genes were characterized as ESRTs, among which 97 genes were identified as UPR target genes and 37 UPR target genes contained UPR elements in their promoters. Genes related to carbohydrate metabolic process and actin filament organization were identified as new types of UPR target genes. A total of 102 ESRTs were overexpressed separately in plasmids and their effects on productions of two different lignocellulolytic enzymes were systematically evaluated. Overexpressing genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including PDC1, PGK and VID28, overexpressing a chaperone gene CAJ1 or overexpressing a reductase gene MET13 substantially improved secretion expressions of heterologous proteins. Meanwhile, overexpressing a novel gene, KLMA_50479 (named ESR1), as well as overexpressing genes involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), including HRD3, USA1 andYET3, reduced the secretory expressions. ESR1 and the aforementioned ERAD genes were deleted from the genome. Resultant mutants, except the yet3Δ mutant, substantially improved secretions of three different heterologous proteins. During the fed-batch fermentation, extracellular activities of an endoxylanase and a glucanase in hrd3Δ cells improved by 43% and 28%, respectively, compared to those in wild-type cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results unveil the transcriptional scope of the ER stress response in K. marxianus and suggest efficient ways to improve productions of heterologous proteins by manipulating expressions of ESRTs.

19.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; : 306624X211066827, 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927482

RESUMO

Despite rich literature on public opinion on capital punishment, only a few studies examined people's death penalty support within specific contexts. None have explored if correlates that influence people's opinion would hold the same effect in general questions and specific case scenarios. Similarly, the Marshall hypotheses have not been tested with specific crime scenarios. Based on a sample of 1,077 students in a quasiexperimental design, this study contrasts Chinese students' death penalty opinion in general questions with a specific crime scenario, and tests the Marshall hypotheses with the latter. Compared to their support in general questions, students' support for death sentences dropped significantly in the specific crime scenario. Multivariate analyses showed that different factors influenced people's decisions in the general questions and in the specific case, and respondents' choices of preferred punishment in the specific crime scenario failed to lend support to the Marshall hypotheses.

20.
Neoplasma ; 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962825

RESUMO

RHBDD1 overexpression is found in various malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and it is correlated with NSCLC patients' poor overall survival. This study aims to explore the function of RHBDD1 in regulating the progression of NSCLC and its potential molecular basis. qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and/or western blotting were used to evaluate the expression of RHBDD1 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. RHBDD1 knockdown and overexpression were performed, CCK-8 assay, and cell clone formation were applied to study the function of RHBDD1 in cell proliferation in vitro. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence tests were employed to determine the regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle and endoplasmic reticulum stress by RHBDD1. As a result, RHBDD1 was found significantly upregulated in NSCLC tissues and cells and associated with pathological tumor staging. RHBDD1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo, promoted their apoptosis, caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, characterized with reduced CDK2, suppressed TGF-α secretion, and inhibited the EGFR/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. In contrast, RHBDD1 overexpression showed the opposite effects. These effects of the manipulated expression of RHBDD1 on NSCLC were restored by EGFR or MEK inhibitor. Additionally, RHBDD1 knockdown and overexpression resulted in decreased and increased BIK cleavage, respectively, but the effects could be blocked by a proteasome inhibitor. In conclusion, our research shows that RHBDD1 promotes the progression of NSCLC through enhancement of proliferation and induction of apoptosis by regulating the EGFR/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and the level of BIK protein level.

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