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1.
Diagn Pathol ; 16(1): 1, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with uniform CD56 expression is a rare condition, that has been described in limited literature, and its clinicopathological features have not yet been well illustrated. The aim of our study was to fully investigate the clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of CD56+ ALCL. METHODS: The clinical and histological characteristics of CD56+ ALCL cases were retrospectively evaluated. The immunohistochemical phenotype, status of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement were examined. Overall survival was also analyzed. RESULTS: Eighteen (5.8%) cases with diffuse CD56 expression were identified out of 313 archived ALCL cases with CD56 test. CD56 expression was significantly higher in ALK+ systemic ALCLs (sALCLs) (13/64, 20.3%) than in ALK- sALCLs (3/101, 3.0%) (p < 0.001) as well as primary cutaneous ALCLs (2/148, 1.4%) (p < 0.001). Regarding the CD56+ ALK+ sALCLs, the median age was 20 years (range, 8-60 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 2.3:1, and these cases more frequently affected extranodal sites (11/38, 28.9%) rather than lymph nodes (2/26, 7.7%) (p = 0.038). Eleven (84.6%) cases presented with stage I-II diseases, which was significantly more than their CD56- ALK+ counterparts (45.5%) (p = 0.015). Histologically, 2 ALK+ cases were of small cell variant and all the others displayed characteristic morphology of classic ALCL. Regarding the immunophenotype, both CD30 and CD56 were diffusely positive in all cases. CD3, CD43, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK1), TIA-1, EMA expression was observed in 30.8% (4/13), 90.9% (10/11), 100% (13/13), 100% (9/9), and 80.0% (8/10) cases, respectively. EBV infection was consistently absent. Monoclonal TCR gene rearrangement was found in 100% (5/5) of investigated ALK+ cases. Chemotherapy with a CHOP regimen was most frequently employed. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for CD56+ ALK+ patients was 92.0%, compared with 73.0% for their CD56- counterparts, but there was no significant difference in OS between the two groups (p = 0.264). CONCLUSIONS: Uniform CD56 expression is an unexpected condition in ALCL. Of ALK+ ALCLs, CD56 expression correlated with a high frequency of early stage and an extranodal predominance. It is of great importance to raise awareness of this condition and familiarity with its characteristic features to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls. Further investigations are warranted for a better understanding of this unusual phenotype and the significance of CD56 expression in ALCL.

2.
Chem Rev ; 121(1): 365-411, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543866

RESUMO

Transition-metal-catalyzed decarbonylation via carbon-carbon bond cleavage is an essential synthetic methodology. Given the ubiquity of carbonyl compounds, the selective decarbonylative process offers a distinct synthetic strategy using carbonyl groups as "traceless handles". This reaction has been significantly developed in recent years in many respects, including catalytic system development, mechanistic understanding, substrate scope, and application in the synthesis of complex functional molecules. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the recent progress on transition-metal-catalyzed decarbonylative process, from the discovery of new transformations to the understanding of reaction mechanisms, to reveal the great achievements and potentials in this field. The contents of this review are categorized by the type of chemical bond cleavage in the decarbonylative process. The main challenges and opportunities of the decarbonylative process are also examined with the goal of expanding the application range of decarbonylation reactions.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111524, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129121

RESUMO

As one of the most widespread pollutants worldwide, nitrogen has long been a concern in the environment, including groundwater. However, due to the limitations of investigations and study progress, there is still a poor understanding of groundwater nitrogen pollution and its potential effects on human health in many areas, particularly in developing countries. The spatiotemporal evolution of groundwater nitrate nitrogen levels and potential human health risks in the Songnen Plain, Northeast China were comprehensively studied based on both our own test data and available published data that were collected by us over a study period from 1995 to 2015. Groundwater nitrate nitrogen concentrations exhibited significant temporal and spatial differences: there was an increasing trend with time; and the distribution of high concentration areas expanded from the central and western areas to the east with time. The similar pattern existed in the potential health risks posed to the residents considering the two exposure pathways including drinking water and dermal contact. The effects of groundwater nitrate nitrogen on human health depend on the nitrate concentration but there were also age differences, namely, in the order of infants > children > adult females ≈ adult males, according to the hazard quotient (HQ) used in the human health risk assessment (HHRA) model. The spatiotemporal evolution of groundwater nitrate nitrogen levels and potential human health risks indicate that the issue of nitrogen pollution in groundwater in the study area is worsening and needs further attention. The drivers that increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations in the groundwater of the study area were the increased fertilizer use due to the increased cultivated land area and implementation of a land fertility policy by the local government. It should be acknowledged that the results have uncertainties that not only come from the layout of sampling points and selection of spatial interpolation methods but also come from the parameter settings in the assessment model and assumptions of drinking water scenarios. However, the conclusions still have important reference value for groundwater pollution control and management and human health risk supervision and early warning.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Nitratos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nitrogênio/análise , Medição de Risco
4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(1): 269-283, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Turner syndrome women (monosomy X) have high risk of aortopathies consistent with a role for sex chromosomes in disease development. We demonstrated that sex chromosomes influence regional development of Ang II (angiotensin II)-induced aortopathies in mice. In this study, we determined if the number of X chromosomes regulates regional development of Ang II-induced aortopathies. Approach and Results: We used females with varying numbers of X chromosomes (XX female mice [XXF] or XO female mice [XOF]) on an C57BL/6J (ascending aortopathies) or low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr-/-) background (descending and abdominal aortopathies) compared with XY males (XYM). To induce aortopathies, mice were infused with Ang II. XOF (C57BL/6J) exhibited larger percent increases in ascending aortic lumen diameters than Ang II-infused XXF or XYM. Ang II-infused XOF (Ldlr-/-) exhibited similar incidences of thoracic (XOF, 50%; XYM, 71%) and abdominal aortopathies (XOF, 83%; XYM, 71%) as XYM, which were greater than XXF (XXF, 0%). Abdominal aortic lumen diameters and maximal external diameters were similar between XOF and XYM but greater than XXF, and these effects persisted with extended Ang II infusions. Larger aortic lumen diameters, abdominal aortopathy incidence (XXF, 20%; XOF, 75%), and maximal aneurysm diameters (XXF, 1.02±0.17; XOF, 1.96±0.32 mm; P=0.027) persisted in ovariectomized Ang II-infused XOF mice. Data from RNA-seq demonstrated that X chromosome genes that escape X-inactivation (histone lysine demethylases Kdm5c and Kdm6a) exhibited lower mRNA abundance in aortas of XOF than XXF (P=0.033 and 0.024, respectively). Conversely, DNA methylation was higher in aortas of XOF than XXF (P=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: The absence of a second X chromosome promotes diffuse Ang II-induced aortopathies in females.

5.
Exp Eye Res ; 202: 108350, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227294

RESUMO

Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a multifactorial disease with genetic predisposition. Primary angle closure (PAC) is the early stage of PACG and they share the same anatomical characteristics. We aimed to examine whether the PACG associated-genetic loci identified previously by genome-wide association study (GWAS) were also related to primary angle closure disease (PACD) in Han Chinese. This cross-sectional case-control study consisted of 232 PAC, 264 PACG and 306 controls. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PACG susceptibility loci within PLEKHA7, COL11A1, PCMTD1-ST18, EPDR1, CHAT, GLIS3, FERMT2, DPM2-FAM102A were genotyped using participants' blood samples. We excluded 3 SNPs for PAC analysis because the data has been reported using the same sample set. Anatomical parameters such as axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were included as phenotypes for the association analysis. Allelic and genotypic model tests were performed. Three among the eight SNPs were found to be significantly associated with PACG, e.g. PLEKHA7 rs11024102 in additive, dominant and recessive model; and both CHAT rs1258267 and DPM2-FAM102A rs3739821 in dominant model. CHAT rs1258267 showed marginal association with PAC in dominant model. Anatomical parameters were not found to link to the eight SNPs after Bonferroni multiple test correction. Our data suggest that PLEKHA7 and DPM2-FAM102A might exert effect in the late stage of the PACD, while CHAT may play a broad role in both early and late stages of the PACD.

6.
Hematology ; 26(1): 31-36, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to evaluate initial efficacy, safety, and durable response of eltrombopag in the treatment of Chinese children with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP). METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study including 30 pediatric patients with cITP administered eltrombopag between 1 July 2017 and 1 January 2019. Patients with at least 12 weeks of eltrombopag treatment and available follow-up data were included. Initial response rate, durable response rate, bleeding events, and adverse events were assessed during the follow-up period. RESULTS: The median duration of eltrombopag administration was 6 months (range 3-8 months). The initial response rate was 73.3%. Patients with megakaryocyte count ≥100/slide or Treg <4.5% were more likely to achieve initial response. The median follow-up period was 10 months (range 6-20 months). A total of 53.2% of pediatric patients had a durable response of up to 20 months. Patients with megakaryocyte count ≥100/slide and Treg<4.5% had more than 60% durable response rates compared with individuals with megakaryocyte count<100/slide and Treg≥4.5%, respectively. No serious bleeding events or serious adverse events occurred during the study period. CONCLUSION: Eltrombopag not only shows excellent initial response but also has continued efficacy and safety. Patients with megakaryocyte count ≥100/slide and Treg<4.5% achieve increased initial response and more frequent durable response.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113413, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980484

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl (Lauraceae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, is well known to exert hot property. It is recorded as dispelling cold drug in ancient Chinese monographs, such as Synopsis of golden chamber published in Han dynasty. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015), Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl (Cinnamon) has the functions of dispersing cold, relieving pain, warming meridians and promoting blood circulation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Cinnamon extract (CE) on cold endurance and the mechanism of thermogenesis activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The improving effect of hypothermia were evaluated with body temperature by infrared camera and multi-thermo thermometer. In vivo, the thermogenic effect was observed with energy metabolism and substrate utilization. The activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was evaluated with the histomorphology and expression of thermogenic protein. In vitro, the uncoupling effect on mitochondrial was evaluated with Seahorse and fluorescent staining. The mechanism of thermogenesis was explored in brown adipocyte. RESULTS: The body temperature and energy expenditure were significantly increased by CE administration in cold environment. In morphology, lipid droplets were reduced and the number of mitochondrial was increased. CE significantly increased the non-shivering thermogenesis via upregulating the expression of thermogenic protein. In vitro, the uncoupling effect was obviously along with the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production. It was confirmed that the thermogenesis effect was induced via lipolysis and energy metabolism. In addition, CE also alleviated myocardium injury in the morphology in cold environment. Moreover, the major constituent was identified as (1) coumarin, (2) cinnamic acid, (3) cinnamaldehyde and (4) 2-methoxy cinnamaldehyde. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of improving cold tolerance was related to lipolysis and activation of BAT. Meanwhile, we provided a kind of potential prevention methods for cold injury.

9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(23): 2787-2795, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and is complicated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of first-diagnosed HIV-associated CM after 2-years of follow-up. METHODS: Data from all patients (n = 101) of HIV-associated CM hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from September 2013 to December 2016 were collected and analyzed using logistic regression to identify clinical and microbiological factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Of the 101 patients, 86/99 (86.9%) of patients had CD4 count <50 cells/mm, 57/101 (56.4%) were diagnosed at ≥14 days from the onset to diagnosis, 42/99 (42.4%) had normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts and biochemical examination, 30/101 (29.7%) had concomitant Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) on admission and 37/92 (40.2%) were complicated with cryptococcal pneumonia, 50/74 (67.6%) had abnormalities shown on intracranial imaging, amongst whom 24/50 (48.0%) had more than one lesion. The median time to negative CSF Indian ink staining was 8.50 months (interquartile range, 3.25-12.00 months). Patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) before admission had a shorter time to negative CSF Indian ink compared with ART-naïve patients (7 vs. 12 months, χ = 15.53, P < 0.001). All-cause mortality at 2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 2 years was 10.1% (10/99), 18.9% (18/95), and 20.7% (19/92), respectively. Coinfection with PCP on admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.933; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.166-13.269, P = 0.027) and altered mental status (AOR, 9.574; 95% CI, 2.548-35.974, P = 0.001) were associated with higher mortality at 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: This study described the clinical features and outcomes of first diagnosed HIV-associated CM with 2-year follow-up data. Altered mental status and coinfection with PCP predicted mortality in HIV-associated CM.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23605, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371094

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GEJAC) is a malignant tumor with high mortality. Its incidence has increased sharply all over the world in recent years. The study aims to search for potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of GEJAC based on the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO) database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.Microarray dataset (GSE96668 and GSE74553) of GEJAC was downloaded from the GEO. After screening overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by GEO2R and Wayne map, functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed by the DAVID database. Then, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and the hub gene was identified by using STRING and Cytoscape, as well as the diagnostic value of hub genes was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Finally, the gene transcriptome profiles of gastric cancer named TCGA-STAD were downloaded from TCGA database to screen the potential prognostic genes and construct the prognostic risk model using Cox proportional hazards regression. Meanwhile, the Kaplan-Meier curve and time-dependent ROC curve were adopted to test the prognostic value of the prognostic gene signature.In this study, we identified 10 hub genes that might have high diagnostic value for GEJAC, and inferred that they might be involved in the occurrence and development of GEJAC. Moreover, we conducted a survival prediction model consisting of 6 genes and proved that they have value to some extent in predicting prognosis for GEJAC patients.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study intended to investigate the dynamics of anti-spike (S) IgG and IgM antibodies in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Anti-S IgG/IgM were determined by a semi-quantitative fluorescence immunoassay in the plasma of COVID-19 patients at the manifestation and rehabilitation stages. The immunoreactivity to full-length S proteins,C-terminal domain (CTD) andN-terminal domain (NTD)of S1fragment were determined by an ELISA assay. Clinical properties at admission and discharge were collected simultaneously. RESULTS: The positive rates of anti-S IgG/IgM in COVID-19 patients were elevated after rehabilitation when compared to the in-patients. Anti-S IgG and IgM were not apparent until day 14 and day 10 respectively according to Simple Moving Average analysis with 5 days' slide window deduction. More than 90% of the rehabilitation patients exhibited IgG and IgM responses targeting CTD-S1 fragments. There exhibited the decrease in peripheral total lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts in COVID-19 patients at admission and recovered after therehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-S IgG and IgM do not appear at the onset with the decrease in T cells, making early serological screening less significant. However, the presence of high IgG and IgM to S1-CTD in the recovered patients highlights humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection, which might be associated with efficient immune protection in COVID-19 patients.

12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(12): 5668-5676, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374084

RESUMO

In order to explore the impacts of nitrogen fertilizer and straw returning methods on N2O emissions, a two-factor split-zone design was adopted for experimentation under the winter wheat-summer maize rotation model in the Guanzhong area of Shanxi, China. The main areas of interest were conventional nitrogen (G) and reduced nitrogen (70% G); the sub-areas were straw no return (N), straw return (S), and straw return + biochar (SB); we analyzed their impacts on N2O emissions and crop yield, and the relationships with related impact factors. The results showed that the N2O emissions peaks appeared in the wheat season and maize season treatments within 5-16 days after fertilization, and also appeared after rainfall. The N2O flux was significantly and positively correlated with soil temperature and NH4+-N content. Regardless of the wheat season, maize season, or annual total N2O emissions, the 70% GSB treatment was the lowest and the GS treatment was the highest. At the same level of nitrogen application, S treatment increased N2O emissions, SB treatment could reduce N2O emissions, both S and SB treatments could significantly increase crop yields, and SB production increased more; 70%G-level annual N2O emissions, when compared with the G level, had been reduced by 40% to 48%, while the yield has not decreased significantly. Through comprehensive consideration, a reduction of nitrogen by 30% was achieved through the combination of straw + biochar on the basis of conventional nitrogen application, while ensuring high crop yields and the best N2O emissions reduction.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Solo , Agricultura , China , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Triticum , Zea mays
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(12): e20625, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating behavior has a high impact on the well-being of an individual. Such behavior involves not only when an individual is eating, but also various contextual factors such as with whom and where an individual is eating and what kind of food the individual is eating. Despite the relevance of such factors, most automated eating detection systems are not designed to capture contextual factors. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to (1) design and build a smartwatch-based eating detection system that can detect meal episodes based on dominant hand movements, (2) design ecological momentary assessment (EMA) questions to capture meal contexts upon detection of a meal by the eating detection system, and (3) validate the meal detection system that triggers EMA questions upon passive detection of meal episodes. METHODS: The meal detection system was deployed among 28 college students at a US institution over a period of 3 weeks. The participants reported various contextual data through EMAs triggered when the eating detection system correctly detected a meal episode. The EMA questions were designed after conducting a survey study with 162 students from the same campus. Responses from EMAs were used to define exclusion criteria. RESULTS: Among the total consumed meals, 89.8% (264/294) of breakfast, 99.0% (406/410) of lunch, and 98.0% (589/601) of dinner episodes were detected by our novel meal detection system. The eating detection system showed a high accuracy by capturing 96.48% (1259/1305) of the meals consumed by the participants. The meal detection classifier showed a precision of 80%, recall of 96%, and F1 of 87.3%. We found that over 99% (1248/1259) of the detected meals were consumed with distractions. Such eating behavior is considered "unhealthy" and can lead to overeating and uncontrolled weight gain. A high proportion of meals was consumed alone (680/1259, 54.01%). Our participants self-reported 62.98% (793/1259) of their meals as healthy. Together, these results have implications for designing technologies to encourage healthy eating behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The presented eating detection system is the first of its kind to leverage EMAs to capture the eating context, which has strong implications for well-being research. We reflected on the contextual data gathered by our system and discussed how these insights can be used to design individual-specific interventions.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378193

RESUMO

Two novel selenite oxychlorides Pb2MCu(SeO3)4Cl(H2O) (M = Fe, Ga) were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. They are isostructural and crystallize in the two-dimensional [MCu(SeO3)4Cl(H2O)]4- anionic layer structure mediated with hydrogen bonds and aligned between neighboring layers which assist in building the three-dimensional framework with a polar space group. Optical properties measurements revealed that the optical band gaps are 2.61 and 3.22 eV for Pb2FeCu(SeO3)4Cl(H2O) (1) and Pb2GaCu(SeO3)4Cl(H2O) (2) and the SHG responses are about 0.12 and 0.18 times that of KDP, respectively. Furthermore, 1 exhibits an interesting metamagnetic phenomenon under varied applied fields from around 1 to 4 T at 2 K, and 2 behaves with potential ferromagnetic ordering at low temperature.

15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), but less is known about its specific components, such as metals originating from non-tailpipe emissions. We investigated the associations of long-term exposure to metal components [iron (Fe) and copper (Cu)] in PM2.5 with CVD incidence. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study in Toronto, Canada. Exposures to Fe and Cu in PM2.5 and their combined impact on the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung fluid were estimated using land use regression models. Incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF) and CVD death was ascertained using health administrative datasets. We used mixed-effects Cox regression models to examine the associations between the exposures and health outcomes. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted, including indirect adjustment for individual-level cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. smoking), and adjustment for PM2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). RESULTS: In single-pollutant models, we found positive associations between the three exposures and all three outcomes, with the strongest associations detected for the estimated ROS. The associations of AMI and CHF were sensitive to indirect adjustment, but remained robust for CVD death in all sensitivity analyses. In multi-pollutant models, the associations of the three exposures generally remained unaltered. Interestingly, adjustment for ROS did not substantially change the associations between PM2.5 and CVD, but attenuated the associations of NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to Fe and Cu in PM2.5 and their combined impact on ROS were consistently associated with increased CVD death.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(25): 2982-3021, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309175

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), principally ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, are the leading cause of global mortality and a major contributor to disability. This paper reviews the magnitude of total CVD burden, including 13 underlying causes of cardiovascular death and 9 related risk factors, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019. GBD, an ongoing multinational collaboration to provide comparable and consistent estimates of population health over time, used all available population-level data sources on incidence, prevalence, case fatality, mortality, and health risks to produce estimates for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Prevalent cases of total CVD nearly doubled from 271 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 257 to 285 million) in 1990 to 523 million (95% UI: 497 to 550 million) in 2019, and the number of CVD deaths steadily increased from 12.1 million (95% UI:11.4 to 12.6 million) in 1990, reaching 18.6 million (95% UI: 17.1 to 19.7 million) in 2019. The global trends for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years of life lost also increased significantly, and years lived with disability doubled from 17.7 million (95% UI: 12.9 to 22.5 million) to 34.4 million (95% UI:24.9 to 43.6 million) over that period. The total number of DALYs due to IHD has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 182 million (95% UI: 170 to 194 million) DALYs, 9.14 million (95% UI: 8.40 to 9.74 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 197 million (95% UI: 178 to 220 million) prevalent cases of IHD in 2019. The total number of DALYs due to stroke has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 143 million (95% UI: 133 to 153 million) DALYs, 6.55 million (95% UI: 6.00 to 7.02 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 101 million (95% UI: 93.2 to 111 million) prevalent cases of stroke in 2019. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of disease burden in the world. CVD burden continues its decades-long rise for almost all countries outside high-income countries, and alarmingly, the age-standardized rate of CVD has begun to rise in some locations where it was previously declining in high-income countries. There is an urgent need to focus on implementing existing cost-effective policies and interventions if the world is to meet the targets for Sustainable Development Goal 3 and achieve a 30% reduction in premature mortality due to noncommunicable diseases.

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290257

RESUMO

5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare hereditary disease characterized by defects in folate and homocysteine metabolism. Individuals with inherited MTHFR gene mutations have a higher tendency to develop neurodegeneration disease as Alzheimer' disease and atherosclerosis. MTHFR is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing folate production, various SNPs/mutations in the MTHFR gene have been correlated to MTHFR deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning the pathogenic effects of these SNPs/mutations have not been clearly understood. In the present study, we reported a severe MTHFR deficiency patient with late-onset motor dysfunction and sequenced MTHFR gene exons of the family. The patient carries an MD-associating SNP (rs748289202) in one MTHFR allele and the rs545086633 SNP with unknown disease relevance in the other. The rs545086633 SNP (p.Leu439Pro) results in an L439P substitution in MTHFR protein, and drastically decreases mutant protein expression by promoting proteasomal degradation. L439 in MTHFR is highly conserved in vertebrates. Our study demonstrated that p.Leu439Pro in MTHFR is the first mutation causing significant intracellular defects of MTHFR, and rs545086633 should be examined for the in-depth diagnosis and treatment of MD.

18.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 66(7): 180-185, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287939

RESUMO

In recent years, studies have found that miR-RNA plays a role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism. Among them, miR-196a is closely related to cervical cancer. Therefore, this experiment investigates the effect of mir-196a expression on cervical cancer cells and related mechanisms. The expression level of miR-196a in the cervical cancer cell line was assayed with the RT-PCR method, and liposome transfection was used to investigate its up-regulation or down-regulation in cervical cancer cells. The CCK-8 method and flow cytometry were used to measure cervical cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis, while the Transwell assay was used to determine cell migration and invasion of each transfection group. Bioinformatics was used to predict the target gene of miR-196a, which was verified using dual luciferase report experiment and Western blot, and miR-196a was further transfected with si-LRIG3 to detect its reversal effect on miR-196a regulation. Inhibition of the expression of miR-196a significantly reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, and promoted their apoptosis. Results from dual luciferase assay showed that miR-196a and LRIG3 had direct targeting effects. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were enhanced by a reduction in the expression level of LRIG3 protein after miR-196a inhibitor cells were transfected with si-LRIG3. The expression of miR-196a is up-regulated in cervical cancer, and it promotes the growth of cervical cancer by its targeting effect on LRIG3 expression, resulting in enhancement of the proliferation, migration and invasion ability of cervical cancer cells, and inhibition of apoptosis.

19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(10): 3509-3517, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314841

RESUMO

We explored the application of different feature mining methods combined with genera-lized boosted regression models in digital soil mapping. Environmental covariates were selected by two feature selection methods i.e., recursive feature elimination and selection by filtering. Using the original environmental covariates and the selected optimal variable combination as independent varia-bles, soil pH prediction model of Anhui Province was established and mapped based on the genera-lized boosted regression model and random forest model. The results showed that both kinds of feature mining methods could effectively improve the accuracy of soil pH prediction by generalized boosted regression models and random forest model, and could reduce dimensionality. Compared with the random forest model, the prediction accuracy of the validation set of the generalized boosted regression model was slightly lower. In the training set, the accuracy of the generalized boosted regression models was much higher than that of the random forest model, with higher interpretation and better overall effect. The main parameters of the random forest model, ntree and mtry, had limi-ted effect on the model. Different parameters and their combination could affect the prediction accuracy of the generalized boosted regression models, and thus should be tuned before modeling. The results of spatial mapping showed that soil pH in Anhui Province showed a pattern of "south acid and north alkali".


Assuntos
Mineração , Solo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
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