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1.
Gland Surg ; 13(5): 669-683, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845839

RESUMO

Background: Mammographic architectural distortion (AD) is usually subtle and has variable presentations and causes, which poses a diagnostic challenge for breast radiologists and consequently a complex decision-making challenge for clinicians and patients. Presently, there is no reliable imaging standard to differentiate between malignant and benign ADs preoperatively. This study aimed to perform a comprehensive analysis of detailed mammographic and ultrasonographic features and clinical characteristics to enhance the diagnostic and differential efficacy for AD lesions. The findings have the potential to boost the diagnostic confidence of breast radiologists when encountering with AD lesions and could be instrumental in refining clinical management strategies for ADs. Methods: This retrospective study included consecutive female patients with ADs on screening or diagnostic mammography from January 6, 2015, to December 28, 2018. The patient's clinical data, mammographic and ultrasonographic or "second look" ultrasonographic findings, and pathological results were reviewed. The continuous variables were analyzed using the t-test. The categorical variables were assessed using the Chi-square test or two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential risk factors for pathologically proven malignant ADs. Machine learning model based on multimodal clinical and imaging features was constructed using R software. Results: Ultimately, 344 patients with 346 AD lesions were enrolled in the study (mean age: 47.40±10.07 years; range, 19-84 years). Of the ADs, 228 were malignant and 118 were non-malignant. Palpable AD on mammography was more likely to indicate malignancy than non-palpable AD (83.43% vs. 49.15%, P<0.001). AD associated with other mammographic findings was more likely to be malignant than pure AD (73.58% vs. 59.36%, P=0.005). Ultrasonography (US) correlates were observed in 345 of these 346 AD lesions. Among these US correlates, 63 (18.26%, 63/345) were detected by "second look" ultrasound. For the US correlates, the mammographic ADs that appeared as non-mass-like hypoechoic areas and masses on US were more likely to be malignant than those that appeared as other abnormalities (P<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model based on clinical and comprehensive imaging features in differentiation of AD lesions in the validation set were 66.46%, 94.23% and 78.9%, respectively, and the AUC was 0.886 (95% confidence interval: 0.825-0.947). Conclusions: The application of mammograms-guided "second-look" ultrasound could enhance the detection of US correlates, particularly non-mass-like features. The comprehensive analysis based on clinical and multimodal imaging features could be beneficial in improving the diagnostic and differential efficacy for AD lesions detected on mammography and instrumental in refining clinical management strategies for ADs.

2.
Gland Surg ; 13(5): 640-653, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845837

RESUMO

Background: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) stands as the favored modality for treating early-stage breast cancer. Accurately forecasting the feasibility of BCS preoperatively can aid in surgical planning and reduce the rate of switching of surgical methods and reoperation. The objective of this study is to identify the radiomics features and preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics that are linked with positive margins following BCS in patients with breast cancer, with the ultimate aim of creating a predictive model for the feasibility of BCS. Methods: This study included a cohort of 221 pretreatment MRI images obtained from patients with breast cancer. A total of seven MRI semantic features and 1,561 radiomics features of lesions were extracted. The feature subset was determined by eliminating redundancy and correlation based on the features of the training set. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression was then trained with this subset to classify the final BCS positive and negative margins and subsequently validated using the test set. Results: Seven features were significant in the discrimination of cases achieving positive and negative margins. The radiomics signature achieved area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.760 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.630, 0.891], 0.712 (95% CI: 0.569, 0.829), 0.882 (95% CI: 0.623, 0.979) and 0.629 (95% CI: 0.449, 0.780) in the test set, respectively. The combined model of radiomics signature and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) demonstrated an AUC, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.759 (95% CI: 0.628, 0.890), 0.654 (95% CI: 0.509, 0.780), 0.679 (95% CI: 0.476, 0.834) and 0.625 (95% CI: 0.408, 0.804). Conclusions: The combination of preoperative MRI radiomics features can well predict the success of breast conserving surgery.

3.
mLife ; 3(1): 129-142, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827505

RESUMO

Kluyveromyces marxianus is a food-safe yeast with great potential for producing heterologous proteins. Improving the yield in K. marxianus remains a challenge and incorporating large-scale functional modules poses a technical obstacle in engineering. To address these issues, linear and circular yeast artificial chromosomes of K. marxianus (KmYACs) were constructed and loaded with disulfide bond formation modules from Pichia pastoris or K. marxianus. These modules contained up to seven genes with a maximum size of 15 kb. KmYACs carried telomeres either from K. marxianus or Tetrahymena. KmYACs were transferred successfully into K. marxianus and stably propagated without affecting the normal growth of the host, regardless of the type of telomeres and configurations of KmYACs. KmYACs increased the overall expression levels of disulfide bond formation genes and significantly enhanced the yield of various heterologous proteins. In high-density fermentation, the use of KmYACs resulted in a glucoamylase yield of 16.8 g/l, the highest reported level to date in K. marxianus. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of cells containing KmYACs suggested increased flavin adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis, enhanced flux entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and a preferred demand for lysine and arginine as features of cells overexpressing heterologous proteins. Consistently, supplementing lysine or arginine further improved the yield. Therefore, KmYAC provides a powerful platform for manipulating large modules with enormous potential for industrial applications and fundamental research. Transferring the disulfide bond formation module via YACs proves to be an efficient strategy for improving the yield of heterologous proteins, and this strategy may be applied to optimize other microbial cell factories.

4.
Plant Commun ; : 100983, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845197

RESUMO

Whole-genome genotyping (WGG) stands as a pivotal element in genomic-assisted plant breeding. Nevertheless, sequencing-based approaches for WGG continue to be costly, primarily attributed to the high expenses associated with library preparation and the laborious protocol. During the prior development of Foreground and Background Integrated genotyping by sequencing (FBI-seq), we discovered that any sequence specific primer (SP) inherently possessed the capability to amplify a massive array of stable and reproducible non-specific PCR product across the genome. Here we further improved the FBI-seq by replacing the adapter ligated by Tn5 transposase with arbitrary degenerate (AD) primer. The protocol for the enhanced FBI-seq unexpectedly mirrors a simplified Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced (TAIL)-PCR, a technique widely employed for isolating flanking sequences. However, the improved TAIL-PCR maximizes the PTMA capabilities of both SP and AD primers. Additionally, leveraging next-generation sequencing enhances its ability to assay tens of thousands of genome-wide loci for any species. This cost-effective, user-friendly, and powerful WGG tool, TAIL-PCR by sequencing (TAIL-peq), holds great potential for widespread application in breeding programs, thereby facilitating genome-assisted crop improvement.

5.
World J Stem Cells ; 16(4): 389-409, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis (OP) has become a major public health problem worldwide. Most OP treatments are based on the inhibition of bone resorption, and it is necessary to identify additional treatments aimed at enhancing osteogenesis. In the bone marrow (BM) niche, bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are exposed to a hypoxic environment. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha (HIF-2α) is involved in BMSC osteogenic differentiation, but the molecular mechanism involved has not been determined. AIM: To investigate the effect of HIF-2α on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs and the hematopoietic function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the BM niche on the progression of OP. METHODS: Mice with BMSC-specific HIF-2α knockout (Prx1-Cre;Hif-2αfl/fl mice) were used for in vivo experiments. Bone quantification was performed on mice of two genotypes with three interventions: Bilateral ovariectomy, semilethal irradiation, and dexamethasone treatment. Moreover, the hematopoietic function of HSCs in the BM niche was compared between the two mouse genotypes. In vitro, the HIF-2α agonist roxadustat and the HIF-2α inhibitor PT2399 were used to investigate the function of HIF-2α in BMSC osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Finally, we investigated the effect of HIF-2α on BMSCs via treatment with the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) agonist MHY1485 and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. RESULTS: The quantitative index determined by microcomputed tomography indicated that the femoral bone density of Prx1-Cre;Hif-2αfl/fl mice was lower than that of Hif-2αfl/fl mice under the three intervention conditions. In vitro, Hif-2αfl/fl mouse BMSCs were cultured and treated with the HIF-2α agonist roxadustat, and after 7 d of BMSC adipogenic differentiation, the oil red O staining intensity and mRNA expression levels of adipogenesis-related genes in BMSCs treated with roxadustat were decreased; in addition, after 14 d of osteogenic differentiation, BMSCs treated with roxadustat exhibited increased expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The opposite effects were shown for mouse BMSCs treated with the HIF-2α inhibitor PT2399. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin was used to confirm that HIF-2α regulated BMSC osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation by inhibiting the mTOR pathway. Consequently, there was no significant difference in the hematopoietic function of HSCs between Prx1-Cre;Hif-2αfl/fl and Hif-2αfl/fl mice. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that inhibition of HIF-2α decreases bone mass by inhibiting the osteogenic differentiation and increasing the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs through inhibition of mTOR signaling in the BM niche.

6.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e28876, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707353

RESUMO

Exposure to anesthesia in early life may cause severe damage to the brain and lead to cognitive impairment. The underlying mechanisms, which have only been investigated in a limited scale, remains largely elusive. We performed translatome and transcriptome sequencing together for the first time in hippocampus of neonatal mice that were exposed to sevoflurane. We treated a group of neonatal mice with 2.5 % sevoflurane for 2 h on day 6, 7, 8, 9 and treated another group on day 6, 7. We performed behavioral study after day 30 for both groups and the control to evaluate the cognitive impairment. On day 36, we collected translatome and transcriptome from the hippocampus in the two groups, compared the gene expression levels between the groups and the control, and validated the results with RT-qPCR. We identified 1750 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from translatome comparison and 1109 DEGs from transcriptome comparison. As expected, translatome-based DEGs significantly overlapped with transcriptome-based DEGs, and functional enrichment analysis generated similar enriched cognition-related GO terms and KEGG pathways. However, for many genes like Hspa5, their alterations in translatome differed remarkably from those in transcriptome, and Western blot results were largely concordant with the former, suggesting that translational regulation plays a significant role in cellular response to sevoflurane. Our study revealed global alterations in translatome and transcriptome of mice hippocampus after neonatal exposure to sevoflurane anesthesia and highlighted the importance of translatome analysis in understanding the mechanisms responsible for anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment.

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0379223, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809029

RESUMO

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana provides an eco-friendly substitute to chemical insecticides for mosquito control. Nevertheless, its widespread application has been hindered by its comparatively slow efficacy in eliminating mosquitoes. To augment the potency of B. bassiana against Aedes mosquitoes, a novel recombinant strain, Bb-Cyt1Aa, was developed by incorporating the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene Cyt1Aa into B. bassiana. The virulence of Bb-Cyt1Aa was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus using insect bioassays. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the median lethal time (LT50) for A. aegypti larvae infected with Bb-Cyt1Aa decreased by 33.3% at a concentration of 1 × 108 conidia/mL and by 22.2% at 1 × 107 conidia/mL. The LT50 for A. aegypti adults infected with Bb-Cyt1Aa through conidia ingestion was reduced by 37.5% at 1 × 108 conidia/mL and by 33.3% at 1 × 107 conidia/mL. Likewise, the LT50 for A. aegypti adults infected with Bb-Cyt1Aa through cuticle contact decreased by 33.3% and 30.8% at the same concentrations, respectively. Furthermore, the Bb-Cyt1Aa strain also demonstrated increased toxicity against both larval and adult A. albopictus, when compared to the WT strain. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the expression of B. thuringiensis toxin Cyt1Aa in B. bassiana enhanced its virulence against Aedes mosquitoes. This suggests that B. bassiana expressing Cyt1Aa has potential value for use in mosquito control. IMPORTANCE: Beauveria bassiana is a naturally occurring fungus that can be utilized as a bioinsecticide against mosquitoes. Cyt1Aa is a delta-endotoxin protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis that exhibits specific and potent insecticidal activity against mosquitoes. In our study, the expression of this toxin Cyt1Aa in B. bassiana enhances the virulence of B. bassiana against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, thereby increasing their effectiveness in killing mosquitoes. This novel strain can be used alongside chemical insecticides to reduce dependence on harmful chemicals, thereby minimizing negative impacts on the environment and human health. Additionally, the potential resistance of B. bassiana against mosquitoes in the future could be overcome by acquiring novel combinations of exogenous toxin genes. The presence of B. bassiana that expresses Cyt1Aa is of significant importance in mosquito control as it enhances genetic diversity, creates novel virulent strains, and contributes to the development of safer and more sustainable methods of mosquito control.

8.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 34: 100762, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779655

RESUMO

Background: Immigrants in high-income countries experienced inequities in COVID-19 severe outcomes. We examined hospitalization and death throughout the pandemic, and change during the vaccine era, in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We conducted a population-based study using linked immigration and health data, following two cohorts for 20 months from January 1, 2020 (pre-vaccine) and September 1, 2021 (vaccine era). We used multivariable Poisson generalized estimating equation regression to estimate adjusted rate ratios (aRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), accounting for age, sex and co-morbidities. We calculated age-standardized years of life lost (ASYRs) rates by immigrant category. Findings: Of 11,692,387 community-dwelling adults in the pre-vaccine era cohort and 11,878,304 community-dwelling adults in the vaccine era cohort, 21.6% and 21.4% of adults in each era respectively were immigrants. Females accounted for 57.9% and 57.8% of sponsored family, and 68.4% and 67.6% of economic caregivers, in each era respectively. Compared to other Ontarians in the pre-vaccine era cohort, hospitalization rates were highest for refugees (aRR [95% CI] 3.41 [3.39-3.44]) and caregivers (3.13 [3.07-3.18]), followed by sponsored family and other economic immigrants. Compared to other Ontarians, aRRs were highest for immigrants from Central America (5.00 [4.92-5.09]), parts of South Asia (3.95 [3.89-4.01]) and Jamaica (3.56 [3.51-3.61]) with East Asians having lower aRRs. Mortality aRRs were similar to hospitalization aRRs. In the vaccine era, all aRRs were attenuated and most were similar to or lower than other Ontarians, with refugees and a few regions maintaining higher rates. In the pre-vaccine era ASYRs were higher for all immigrant groups. ASYRs dropped in the vaccine era with only refugees continuing to have higher rates. Interpretation: Immigrants, particularly refugees, experienced greater premature mortality. aRRs for most immigrant groups dropped substantially after high vaccine coverage was achieved. Vaccine outreach and improvements in the social determinants of health are needed. Funding: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canada Research Chairs Program.

10.
Nano Lett ; 24(22): 6585-6591, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785400

RESUMO

The gallium-doped hafnium oxide (Ga-HfO2) films with different Ga doping concentrations were prepared by adjusting the HfO2/Ga2O3 atomic layer deposition cycle ratio for high-speed and low-voltage operation in HfO2-based ferroelectric memory. The Ga-HfO2 ferroelectric films reveal a finely modulated coercive field (Ec) from 1.1 (HfO2/Ga2O3 = 32:1) to an exceptionally low 0.6 MV/cm (HfO2/Ga2O3 = 11:1). This modulation arises from the competition between domain nucleation and propagation speed during polarization switching, influenced by the intrinsic domain density and phase dispersion in the film with specific Ga doping concentrations. Higher Ec samples exhibit a nucleation-dominant switching mechanism, while lower Ec samples undergo a transition from a nucleation-dominant to a propagation-dominant reversal mechanism as the electric field increases. This work introduces Ga as a viable dopant for low Ec and offers insights into material design strategies for HfO2-based ferroelectric memory applications.

11.
Exp Cell Res ; 439(1): 114088, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744409

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia plays an important role in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3) exerts anti-inflammatory effects and may act as a potential new inducer of neuroprotective phenotypes in microglia. However, whether RND3 can be used to regulate microglia activation or reduce neuroinflammation in PD remains elusive. The study investigated the microglia modulating effects and potential anti-inflammatory effects of RND3 in vivo and in vitro, using animal models of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD and cell models of BV-2 cells stimulated by LPS plus IFN-γ with or without RND3-overexpression. The results showed that RND3 was highly expressed in the MPTP-induced PD mouse model and BV-2 cells treated with LPS and IFN-γ. In vivo experiments confirmed that RND3 overexpression could modulate microglia phenotype and ameliorate MPTP-induced neuroinflammation through inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). In vitro study showed that RND3 overexpression could attenuate the production of pro-inflammatory factors in BV2 cells stimulated by LPS and IFN-γ. Mechanistically, RND3 reduced the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome upon LPS and IFN-γ stimulation. Taken together, these findings suggest that RND3 modulates microglial polarization and alleviates neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Doença de Parkinson , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Camundongos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Polaridade Celular , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo
12.
Food Nutr Res ; 682024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716355

RESUMO

Anthocyanin (ACN) is a natural antioxidant with multiple biological activities, and the aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of ACN on the development and progression of lung cancer and to further explore its possible mechanism of action. In vivo, we fed C57BL/6J mice a 0.5%ACN diet or a control diet to observe their effects on the development and progression of urethane-induced lung cancer. In vitro, multiple lung cancer cell lines were used to investigate the effects of C3G on cell viability. The results showed a reduction in lung tumor burden and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid degradation pathways in lung tissue of urethane-administrated ACN-fed mice compared with control diet-fed mice. In vitro, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride (C3G) intervention treatment significantly inhibited proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells. This process is likely due to the modulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway by C3G to regulate cellular fatty acid metabolism and reduce intracellular lipid accumulation which affects the growth of lung cancer cells. These results suggest that ACN can inhibit the development and progression of urethane-induced lung tumors and alter the lipid metabolism of tumors in C57BL/6J mice.

13.
Small Methods ; : e2301657, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708670

RESUMO

Memristor possesses great potential and advantages in neuromorphic computing, while consistency and power consumption issues have been hindering its commercialization. Low cost and accuracy are the advantages of human brain, so memristors can be used to construct brain-like synaptic devices to solve these problems. In this work, a five-layer AlOx device with a V-shaped oxygen distribution is used to simulate biological synapses. The device simulates synapse structurally. Further, under electrical stimulation, O2- moves to the Ti electrode and oxygen vacancy (Vo) moves to the Pt electrode, thus forming a conductive filament (CF), which simulates the Ca2+ flow and releases neurotransmitters to the postsynaptic membrane, thus realizing the transmission of information. By controlling applied voltage, the regulation of Ca2+ gated pathway is realized to control the Ca2+ internal flow and achieve different degrees of information transmission. Long-term Potentiation (LTP)/Long-term Depression (LTD), Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP), these basic synaptic performances can be simulated. The AlOx device realizes low power consumption (56.7 pJ/392 fJ), high switching speed (25 ns/60 ns), and by adjusting the window value, the nonlinearity is improved (0.133/0.084), a high recognition accuracy (98.18%) is obtained in neuromorphic simulation. It shows a great prospect in multi-value storage and neuromorphic computing.

14.
bioRxiv ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798535

RESUMO

Pharmacological inhibition of megalin (also known as low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2: LRP2) attenuates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. Since megalin is abundant in renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs), PTC-LRP2 +/+ and -/- littermates in an LDL receptor -/- background were generated and fed a Western diet to determine effects of PTC-derived megalin on atherosclerosis. PTC-specific megalin deletion did not attenuate atherosclerosis in LDL receptor -/- mice in either sex. Serendipitously, we discovered that PTC-specific megalin deletion led to interstitial infiltration of CD68+ cells and tubular atrophy. The pathology was only evident in male PTC-LRP2 -/- mice fed the Western diet, but not in mice fed a normal laboratory diet. Renal pathologies were also observed in male PTC-LRP2 -/- mice in an LDL receptor +/+ background fed the same Western diet, demonstrating that the renal pathologies were dependent on diet and not hypercholesterolemia. By contrast, female PTC-LRP2 -/- mice had no apparent renal pathologies. In vivo multiphoton microscopy demonstrated that PTC-specific megalin deletion dramatically diminished albumin accumulation in PTCs within 10 days of Western diet feeding. RNA sequencing analyses demonstrated the upregulation of inflammation-related pathways in kidney. Overall, PTC-specific megalin deletion leads to tubulointerstitial nephritis in mice fed Western diet, with severe pathologies in male mice.

15.
Malar J ; 23(1): 171, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nigeria is facing a severe malaria crisis, accounting for a significant proportion of global cases and deaths of malaria. This study aimed to investigate the differences between female-headed households (FHHs) and male-headed households (MHHs) and their impact on malaria risk among children under five (U5) in Nigeria. METHODS: Data from the 2021 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey (NMIS) were used for this cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 10,988 households was analysed, with key variables subjected to frequency calculations, descriptive statistics, and bivariate analyses using t-tests and chi-square analyses to compare the differences between FHHs and MHHs. RESULTS: Among all participants, 92.1% (N = 10,126) reported residing in male-headed households, while 7.8% (N = 862) reported living in female-headed households. MHHs were significantly more likely to own insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) than FHHs (64.7% vs. 53.6%, P < 0.001). U5 children in MHHs had a greater likelihood of sleeping under a bed net the night before the survey than U5 children in FHHs (35.3% vs. 30.0%, P < 0.05). The prevalence of fever in the previous two weeks among U5 children was similar in MHHs and FHHs (35.4% vs. 31.4%), and the testing rates for malaria among U5 children who experienced febrile episodes were higher in MHHs than FHHs (22.4% vs. 15.4%, P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, FHHs exhibited a higher percentage of U5 children testing positive for malaria compared to MHHs (87.8% vs. 78.9%). On the other hand, FHHs had higher education levels, overall wealth index scores, and a larger presence in urban areas compared to MHHs (P < 0.001). Moreover, FHHs reported higher adherence to malaria prevention awareness (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In Nigeria, FHHs enjoy relatively better socioeconomic conditions and stronger awareness of malaria prevention compared to their male-headed counterparts. Contrary to expectations, FHHs are at an increased risk of malaria in children under 5 years old. This phenomenon is associated with entrenched gender inequality and the challenges women face in accessing critical assets. As women in FHHs bear the responsibility of income generation while caring for their children, it is crucial to prioritize interventions that address malaria management in FHHs to reduce both malaria incidence and mortality rates.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Malária , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Feminino , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Lactente , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4505, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802413

RESUMO

Avian influenza A virus H7N9 causes severe human infections with >30% fatality. Currently, there is no H7N9-specific prevention or treatment for humans. Here, from a 2013 H7N9 convalescent case in Hong Kong, we isolate four hemagglutinin (HA)-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), with three directed to the globular head domain (HA1) and one to the stalk domain (HA2). Two clonally related HA1-directed mAbs, H7.HK1 and H7.HK2, potently neutralize H7N9 and protect female mice from lethal H7N9/AH1 challenge. Cryo-EM structures reveal that H7.HK1 and H7.HK2 bind to a ß14-centered surface and disrupt the 220-loop that makes hydrophobic contacts with sialic acid on an adjacent protomer, thereby blocking viral entry. Sequence analysis indicates the lateral patch targeted by H7.HK1 and H7.HK2 to be conserved among influenza subtypes. Both H7.HK1 and H7.HK2 retain HA1 binding and neutralization capacity to later H7N9 isolates from 2016-2017, consistent with structural data showing that the antigenic mutations during this timeframe occur at their epitope peripheries. The HA2-directed mAb H7.HK4 lacks neutralizing activity but when used in combination with H7.HK2 moderately augments female mouse protection. Overall, our data reveal antibodies to a conserved lateral HA1 supersite that confer neutralization, and when combined with a HA2-directed non-neutralizing mAb, augment protection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Feminino , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Epitopos/imunologia
17.
Nano Lett ; 24(22): 6617-6624, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717095

RESUMO

The mapping of long-wavelength phonons is important to understand and manipulate the thermal transport in multilayered structures, but it remains a long-standing challenge due to the collective behaviors of phonons. In this study, an experimental demonstration of mapping the long-wavelength phonons in an alloyed Al0.1Ga0.9As/Al0.9Ga0.1As superlattice system is reported. Multiple strategies to filter out the short- to mid-wavelength phonons are used. The phonon mean-free-path-dependent thermal transport properties directly demonstrate both the suppression effect of the ErAs nanoislands and the contribution of long-wavelength phonons. The contribution from phonons with mean free path longer than 1 µm is clearly demonstrated. A model based on the Boltzmann transport equation is proposed to calculate and describe the thermal transport properties, which depicts a clear physical picture of the transport mechanisms. This method can be extended to map different wavelength phonons and become a universal strategy to explore their thermal transport in various application scenarios.

18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 279: 116488, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776782

RESUMO

Organophosphorus flame retardants, such as triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), exist ubiquitously in various environments owing to their widespread usage. Potential toxic effects of residual flame retardants on cultured non-fish species are not concerned commonly. TPhP-induced physiological and biochemical effects in an aquatic turtle were evaluated here by systematically investigating the changes in growth and locomotor performance, hepatic antioxidant ability and metabolite, and intestinal microbiota composition of turtle hatchlings after exposure to different TPhP concentrations. Reduced locomotor ability and antioxidant activity were only observed in the highest concentration group. Several metabolic perturbations that involved in amino acid, energy and nucleotide metabolism, in exposed turtles were revealed by metabolite profiles. No significant among-group difference in intestinal bacterial diversity was observed, but the composition was changed markedly in exposed turtles. Increased relative abundances of some bacterial genera (e.g., Staphylococcus, Vogesella and Lawsonella) probably indicated adverse outcomes of TPhP exposure. Despite having only limited impacts of exposure at environmentally relevant levels, our results revealed potential ecotoxicological risks of residual TPhP for aquatic turtles considering TPhP-induced metabolic perturbations and intestinal bacterial changes.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado , Organofosfatos , Tartarugas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) is a pharmacological inhibitor of LOX (lysyl oxidase) and LOXLs (LOX-like proteins). Administration of BAPN promotes aortopathies, although there is a paucity of data on experimental conditions to generate pathology. The objective of this study was to define experimental parameters and determine whether equivalent or variable aortopathies were generated throughout the aortic tree during BAPN administration in mice. METHODS: BAPN was administered in drinking water for a period ranging from 1 to 12 weeks. The impacts of BAPN were first assessed with regard to dose, strain, age, and sex. BAPN-induced aortic pathological characterization was conducted using histology and immunostaining. To investigate the mechanistic basis of regional heterogeneity, the ascending and descending thoracic aortas were harvested after 1 week of BAPN administration before the appearance of overt pathology. RESULTS: BAPN-induced aortic rupture predominantly occurred or originated in the descending thoracic aorta in young C57BL/6J or N mice. No apparent differences were found between male and female mice. For mice surviving 12 weeks of BAPN administration, profound dilatation was consistently observed in the ascending region, while there were more heterogeneous changes in the descending thoracic region. Pathological features were distinct between the ascending and descending thoracic regions. Aortic pathology in the ascending region was characterized by luminal dilatation and elastic fiber disruption throughout the media. The descending thoracic region frequently had dissections with false lumen formation, collagen deposition, and remodeling of the wall surrounding the false lumen. Cells surrounding the false lumen were predominantly positive for α-SMA (α-smooth muscle actin). One week of BAPN administration compromised contractile properties in both regions equivalently, and RNA sequencing did not show obvious differences between the 2 aortic regions in smooth muscle cell markers, cell proliferation markers, and extracellular components. CONCLUSIONS: BAPN-induced pathologies show distinct, heterogeneous features within and between ascending and descending aortic regions in mice.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719187

RESUMO

Over one year, two KPC-producing and two non-KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were isolated from a patient. Genome and DNA hybridization analyses revealed the first three strains as a clonal lineage, with carbapenem resistance changes due to a Tn2-like transposon on an IncR/IncFII plasmid. The fourth strain, carrying three plasmids, caused a lethal infection and represented a different lineage. All strains belonged to the ST11-SL47-OL101 type. This study highlights the Tn2-like transposon's role in carbapenemase gene spread and the importance of distinguishing between bacterial colonization and infection.

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