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1.
Mol Immunol ; 147: 71-80, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis associates with chondrocytes differentiation in inflammatory arthritis. Interleukin (IL)- 1ß stimulated SW1353 cells have a phenotype similar to this kind of chondrocytes. IL-17A, a target in T helper 17 (Th17)/IL-17 signaling pathways, was expressed by SW1353 cells. The study aimed to explore the role of IL-35 on angiogenesis in IL-1ß stimulated SW1353 cells and its related signaling pathways. METHODS: Microarray dataset was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database of arthritis cartilage. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) was analyzed for IL-35, pro-angiogenic factors and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We studied the effects of IL-35 on proliferation and apoptosis in IL-1ß stimulated SW1353 cells using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry. The expression of pro-angiogenic factors and IL-17A were assessed by western blot and real-time PCR. Added plumbagin (inhibitor of IL-17A) to repeat the above experiment. The secretion of IL-17A was assessed by ELISA. RESULTS: IL-35, pro-angiogenic factors interacted with DEGs to affect the function of arthritis chondrocytes. IL-35 promoted IL-1ß-stimulated SW1353 cells proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and decreased pro-angiogenic molecules and IL-17A expression in a concentration dependent manner. IL-35 inhibited IL-17A secretion in the supernatants of these cells. Blocking the Th17/IL-17 related pathways with plumbagin abolished the effects of IL-35 on IL-1ß-stimulated SW1353 cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that IL-35 regulated differentiation and pro-angiogenic molecules expression in IL-1ß stimulated SW1353 cells via Th17/IL-17 related signaling pathways. Our findings may reveal the mechanisms of novel angiogenesis molecules in inflammatory chondrocyte lesion.

2.
Cell Death Discov ; 8(1): 245, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508613

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in diabetes related diseases. However, the role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes with macrovascular complication (DMC) has seldomly been recognized. This study screened lncRNA profiles of leukocytes from DMC patients and explored protective role of lncRNA LYPLAL1-DT in endothelial cells (EC) under high glucose (HG) and inflammatory conditions (IS). Between DMC and healthy controls, 477 differential expression lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs) were identified. The enrichment and pathway analysis showed that most of the DE-lncRNAs belonged to inflammatory, metabolic, and vascular diseases. A total of 12 lncRNAs was validated as significant DE-lncRNAs in expanding cohorts. Furthermore, these DE-lncRNAs were shown to be significantly related to hypoxia, HG, and IS in EC, especially lncRNA LYPLAL1-DT. LYPLAL1-DT overexpression results in the promotion of the proliferation, and migration of EC, as well as an elevation of autophagy. Overexpressed LYPLAL1-DT reduces the adhesion of monocytes to EC, boosts anti-inflammation, and suppresses inflammatory molecules secreted in the medium. Mechanistically, LYPLAL1-DT acts as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by downregulating miR-204-5p, therefore enhancing SIRT1 and protecting EC autophagy function; thus, alleviating apoptosis. Finally, exosome sequencing revealed LYPLAL1-DT expression was 4 times lower in DMC cells than in healthy samples. In general, we identified LYPLAL1-DT having protective effects on EC as ceRNA mediated through the miR-204-5p/SIRT1 pathway. Therefore, it inhibits the autophagy of EC as well as modulating systemic inflammation. This approach could be regarded as a new potential therapeutic target in DMC.

3.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(5): 559-564, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) added to conventional drug therapy on cardiac autonomic nervous CANS in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) after the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY:  Department of Cardiology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei, China, from May 2018 to September 2019. METHODOLOGY: The study included 50 patients with CHD after a successful PCI who received trimetazidine plus conventional therapy were included as cases (exposed group), and 50 matched patients were identified as controls (non-exposed group). Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters including sympathetic activity (SDNN, LF), parasympathetic activity (RMSSD, pNN50, SDSD, HF), and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF ratio) were used to evaluate CANS function. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in the HR and HRV parameters before and after PCI (p>0.05). In the non-exposed group, conventional therapy significantly improved the HRV parameters (all p<0.05), while not affecting HR (p>0.05). In the exposed group, all HRV parameters except HR were improved after 4 weeks of treatment. After 4 weeks of treatment, the exposed group had higher parasympathetic-nerve activity, lower sympathetic-nerve activity, and LF/HF ratio compared to the non-exposed group (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The application of TMZ based on conventional therapy effectively improved the CANS in CHD patients who underwent PCI. KEY WORDS: Coronary heart disease, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Trimetazidine, Cardiac autonomic nervous system, Heart rate variability.

4.
Front Psychol ; 13: 841372, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548497

RESUMO

In this article, a highly effective Bayesian sampling algorithm based on auxiliary variables is proposed to analyze aberrant response and response time data. The new algorithm not only avoids the calculation of multidimensional integrals by the marginal maximum likelihood method but also overcomes the dependence of the traditional Metropolis-Hastings algorithm on the tuning parameter in terms of acceptance probability. A simulation study shows that the new algorithm is accurate for parameter estimation under simulation conditions with different numbers of examinees, items, and speededness levels. Based on the sampling results, the powers of the two proposed Bayesian assessment criteria are tested in the simulation study. Finally, a detailed analysis of a high-state and large-scale computerized adaptive test dataset is carried out to illustrate the proposed methodology.

5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 296, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570209

RESUMO

Polymyxin antibiotics are often used as a last-line defense to treat life-threatening Gram-negative pathogens. However, polymyxin-induced kidney toxicity is a dose-limiting factor of paramount importance and can lead to suboptimal treatment. To elucidate the mechanism and develop effective strategies to overcome polymyxin toxicity, we employed a whole-genome CRISPR screen in human kidney tubular HK-2 cells and identified 86 significant genes that upon knock-out rescued polymyxin-induced toxicity. Specifically, we discovered that knockout of the inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.2 and Kir5.1 (encoded by KCNJ15 and KCNJ16, respectively) rescued polymyxin-induced toxicity in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, we found that polymyxins induced cell depolarization via Kir4.2 and Kir5.1 and a significant cellular uptake of polymyxins was evident. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations revealed that polymyxin B1 spontaneously bound to Kir4.2, thereby increasing opening of the channel, resulting in a potassium influx, and changes of the membrane potential. Consistent with these findings, small molecule inhibitors (BaCl2 and VU0134992) of Kir potassium channels reduced polymyxin-induced toxicity in cell culture and mouse explant kidney tissue. Our findings provide critical mechanistic information that will help attenuate polymyxin-induced nephrotoxicity in patients and facilitate the design of novel, safer polymyxins.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575689

RESUMO

High-electron-mobility group III-V compounds have been regarded as a promising successor to silicon in next-generation field-effect transistors (FETs). Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is an outstanding member of the III-V family due to its advantage of both good n- and p-type device performance. Monolayer (ML) GaAs is the limit form of ultrathin GaAs. Here, a hydrogenated ML GaAs (GaAsH2) FET is simulated by ab initio quantum-transport methods. The n- and p-type ML GaAsH2 metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs) can well satisfy the on-state current, delay time, power dissipation, and energy-delay product requirements of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors until the gate length is scaled down to 3/4 and 3/5 nm for the high-performance/low-power applications, respectively. Therefore, ultrathin GaAs is a prominent channel candidate for devices in the post-Moore era. The p-type ML GaAsH2 MOSFETs with a 2% uniaxially compressive strain and the unstrained n-type counterparts have symmetrical performance for the high-performance application, making ultrathin GaAs applicable for complementary MOS integrated circuits.

7.
Front Nutr ; 9: 883015, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558748

RESUMO

Background: Sarcopenia is known to be the risk factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, studies evaluating the association of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) with liver fibrosis by transient elastography are limited. Here, we investigated the association of SMM with hepatic steatosis and fibrosis assessed in Chinese adults. Methods: Patients who underwent liver ultrasonography at the Health Promotion Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University between January 2020 to June 2021 were enrolled. We used transient elastography to evaluate the degree of hepatic fat and liver stiffness. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was determined by bioelectrical impedance and was adjusted for body weight to derive the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Results: Of 3,602 finally enrolled individuals, 1,830 had NAFLD and 1,772 did not have NAFLD. SMI gradually decreased as the severity of hepatic steatosis increased (40.47 ± 3.94% vs. 39.89 ± 3.57% vs. 39.22 ± 3.46% vs. 37.81 ± 2.84%, P < 0.001). Individuals with F3-F4 and F2 liver fibrosis groups had significantly lower SMI than individuals with F0-F1 stages (37.51 ± 3.19% vs. 38.06 ± 3.51% vs. 39.36 ± 3.38%, P < 0.001). As the SMI increased, the percentages of subjects with mild and severe NAFLD, and the percentages of subjects in F2 and F3-F4 stage were gradually decreased. SMI was independently associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by logistic regression analysis. Moreover, decreased SMI was an independent risk factor for NAFLD and fibrosis. Conclusion: SMI is closely associated with liver fat content and liver fibrosis in Chinese adults with NAFLD.

8.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 208(1): 1-11, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560181

RESUMO

Although B cells are essential for humoral immunity and show noteworthy immunomodulatory activity through antibody-independent functions, the role of B cells in regulating Treg cell responses remains controversial. Tregs (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) are considered to play an immunoprotective role in viral myocarditis (VMC) by controlling autoimmune effector T cells. Here, we proved that B-cell knockout can not only lead to significant reductions in Tregs in the spleen, blood, and heart of VMC mice but also decrease the activation and immune function of splenic Tregs, which was reversed by adoptive transfer of B cells; the transcription levels of TGF-ß and Foxp3 in the myocardium were also significantly reduced. B-cell depletion by anti-CD20 impaired the anti-inflammatory function of splenic Tregs and the homeostasis of myocardial Tregs population. Moreover, B cells can convert CD4+CD25- T cells into Foxp3+ and Foxp3-, two functionally suppressive Treg subgroups. Although the reduction in myocardial inflammation in BKO mice indicates that B cells may play a proinflammatory role, the beneficial side of B cells cannot be ignored, that is, to control autoimmunity by maintaining Treg numbers. The results observed in the animal model of VMC highlight the potential harm of rituximab in the nonselective depletion of B cells in clinical applications.

9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 925: 174987, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. The available treatments are not effective. Phosphodiesterase 9A (PDE9A) is an intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) hydrolase considered to be a promising therapeutic target for brain diseases. This study explored neuroprotective effects and the underlying mechanism of LW33, a novel PDE9A inhibitor, on ischemic stroke in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model was established in human SH-SY5Y cells to mimic ischemia-reperfusion injury in vitro. RESULTS: LW33 increased cell viability, reduced lactate dehydrogenase activity, and OGD/R-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. The protective effects of LW33 against stroke occurred in the recovery phase. LW33 administration significantly reduced cerebral infarction volume in MCAO rats, without causing significant deformation or necrosis of neurons in the cortex. LW33 also improved learning and cognitive dysfunction and reduced other pathological changes in MCAO rats in the recovery period. Moreover, LW33 stimulated the cGMP/PKG/CREB pathway and up-regulated the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins, and this effect was reversed by KT5823 treatment. CONCLUSION: LW33 inhibited cell apoptosis and promoted neuronal repair to alleviate OGD/R and MCAO induced pathological alterations via the cGMP/PKG/CREB pathway, indicating that LW33 may be a promising therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.

10.
Langmuir ; 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544765

RESUMO

Discrimination of nucleotides serves as the basis for DNA sequencing using solid-state nanopores. However, the translocation of DNA is usually too fast to be detected, not to mention nucleotide discrimination. Here, we utilized polyphenolic TA and Fe3+, an attractive metal-organic thin film, and achieved a fast and robust surface coating for silicon nitride nanopores. The hydrophilic coating layer can greatly reduce the low-frequency noise of an original unstable nanopore, and the nanopore size can be finely tuned in situ at the nanoscale by simply adjusting the relative ratio of Fe3+ and TA monomers. Moreover, the hydrogen bonding interaction formed between the hydroxyl groups provided by TA and the phosphate groups of DNAs significantly increases the residence time of a short double-strand (100 bp) DNA. More importantly, we take advantage of the different strengths of hydrogen bonding interactions between the hydroxyl groups provided by TA and the analytes to discriminate between two oligonucleotide samples (oligodeoxycytidine and oligodeoxyadenosine) with similar sizes and lengths, of which the current signal patterns are significantly different using the coated nanopore. The results shed light on expanding the biochemical functionality of surface coatings on solid-state nanopores for future biomedical applications.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 61(19): 7238-7250, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504023

RESUMO

Two Zn-MOFs, namely, {[Zn(L)0.5(bpea)]·0.5H2O·0.5DMF}n [LCU-113 (for Liaocheng University)] and {[Zn(L)0.5(ibpt)]·H2O·DMF}n (LCU-114), were synthesized based on flexible tetracarboxylic acid 1,3-bis(3,5-dicarboxyphenoxy)benzene (H4L) and different N-ligands [bpea = 1,2-dipyridyl ethane; ibpt = 3-(4'-imidazolobenzene)-5-(pyridine-4'-yl)-1,2,4-triazole]. LCU-113 and LCU-114 possess twofold interpenetrating three-dimensional pillared layer structures, in which a two-dimensional layer formed by carboxylic acid and Zn2+ ions was pillared by bpea and ibpt, respectively. The two complexes show high water stability and high luminescence sensing performance toward organic solvents, ions, and antibiotics, as well as chemicals, in simulated urine. The investigation showed that (1) LCU-113 and LCU-114 could detect uric acid (UA, 2,6,8-trihydroxypurine, metabolite of purine) and p-aminophenol (PAP, biomarker of phenamine) in simulated urine by luminescence quenching, respectively, and (2) luminescence quenching of LCU-113 and LCU-114 occurred in aqueous solutions of nitrofurazone (NZF), Fe3+, and CrO42-/Cr2O72-. All the above detections have excellent anti-interference ability and recyclability. The luminescence mechanism analysis indicates that weak interactions between the framework structures and the target analytes as well as the energy competition (inner filter effect) play an important role in sensing the above analytes. The practical application for monitoring NZF/Fe3+ in water samples was also tested.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578780

RESUMO

Developing the chitinase suitable for bioconversion of chitin to chitooligosaccharides has attracted significant attention due to its benefits in environmental protection. In this study, chitinase from Aeromonas media CZW001 (AmChi) was purified and characterized. The molecular weight of the AmChi was approximately 40 kDa. The AmChi exhibited maximum catalytic activity at pH 8.0 with the optimum temperature at 55°C, and showed broad stability between 15 to 65°C and pH 5.0 to 9.0. The AmChi was activated by Mg2+ , Na+ , and K+ and inhibited by Hg+ , Co2+ , Fe2+ , Ca2+ , Ag+ , Zn2+ , and EDTA. The main products of AmChi on colloidal chitin were chitinhexaose and chitinpentaose. The AmChi had better substrate specificity for powdered chitin than colloidal chitin, and had a higher catalytic efficiency toward (GlcNAc)5 than colloidal chitin. AmChi inhibited fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that AmChi could be used for the enzymatic degradation of chitin to produce chitinhexaose and chitinpentaose, which have several industrial applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437655

RESUMO

Quantifying the effect of hydraulic disturbances on sediment phosphate release is a key issue in the water quality assessment of lakes, especially for the shallow lakes which are susceptible to winds and waves. Here, we sampled the original sediment columns from 12 positions in the eastern, central, and western areas of the Chaohu Lake, a representative shallow lake in China, and observed phosphate release under three levels of hydraulic disturbances in the laboratory. When the disturbance was weak and sediment on the surface of bottom mud moved individually (the Individual Motion Mode), sediment phosphate release rate was insignificant (0.24 mg/m2/day). When the disturbance was medium and only a small percentage (< 16%) of surface sediment started to move (the Small Motion Mode), the phosphate release rate sharply increased to 4.81 mg/m2/day. When the disturbance was further strengthened and most (≥ 16%) of the surface sediment moved (the General Motion Mode), the phosphate release rate was more than doubled (10.23 mg/m2/day). With the increase in hydraulic disturbance intensity, the variation range of phosphate release also became wider. Spatial distribution showed that the release rate varies the most in the western area, followed by the eastern and the central areas. By extrapolating the experimental results to the real scale, it was found that the phosphate release fluxes would probably fall within a wide range between 203.43 to 7311.01 kg/day under different levels of hydrodynamic disturbances which considerably affects phosphate release from shallow lakes. This study also has implications for the pollutant management in other shallow lakes.

14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444255

RESUMO

The intricate processes of microbiota-gut-brain communication in modulating human cognition and emotion, especially in the context of mood disorders, have remained elusive. Here we performed faecal metagenomic, serum metabolomics and neuroimaging studies on a cohort of 109 unmedicated patients with depressed bipolar disorder (BD) patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs) to characterise the microbial-gut-brain axis in BD. Across over 12,000 measured metabolic features, we observed a large discrepancy (73.54%) in the serum metabolome between BD patients and HCs, spotting differentially abundant microbial-derived neuroactive metabolites including multiple B-vitamins, kynurenic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid and short-chain fatty acids. These metabolites could be linked to the abundance of gut microbiota presented with corresponding biosynthetic potentials, including Akkermansia muciniphila, Citrobacter spp. (Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter werkmanii), Phascolarctobacterium spp., Yersinia spp. (Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia aleksiciae), Enterobacter spp. (Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter kobei) and Flavobacterium spp. Based on functional neuroimaging, BD-related neuroactive microbes and metabolites were discovered as potential markers associated with BD-typical features of functional connectivity of brain networks, hinting at aberrant cognitive function, emotion regulation, and interoception. Our study combines gut microbiota and neuroactive metabolites with brain functional connectivity, thereby revealing potential signalling pathways from the microbiota to the gut and the brain, which may have a role in the pathophysiology of BD.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to provide a valuable reference for the precise diagnosis and treatment of lip-line canting (LLC) in an orthodontic clinic, determine the average observed LLC that would need treatment, and compare the differences in different populations. METHODS: We took frontal photographs of an adult female with rough facial symmetry and processed them into fully symmetrical frontal images using Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, Calif). After that, the lip line was rotated clockwise with a gradient of 1° to obtain 8 different pictures. Next, without informing the observers of the aim of the study, we randomly selected 60 dentists, 60 orthodontic patients, and 60 non-oral-related practitioners to observe the LLC in the photographs. We numbered all the images randomly, and the evaluators categorized them as a little LLC not requiring treatment and marked LLC requiring treatment. We then analyzed the results statistically. RESULTS: Among the 240 observers, the average perception of LLC was 2.65°, and it was 4.1° for those requiring treatment. Orthodontists were more sensitive to the LLC than dentists and non-oral-related practitioners, and orthodontic patients were more sensitive than non-oral related practitioners (P <0.05). Overall, the tolerance value of the orthodontic patients was the least (P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among all the observers, orthodontic patients had the highest requirement for LLC. This finding could help therapists consider patient expectations when determining treatment plans.

16.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(4): 2751, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461506

RESUMO

In sound zone control, the pressure matching (PM) algorithm is generally considered to achieve relatively low acoustic contrast (AC) regardless of the desired sound field. In this paper, we propose a generalized PM framework to generate a desired sound field with variable AC. The framework indicates that the choice of the desired sound field solely determines the AC performance of PM when the physical setting and acoustic environment remain unchanged. In the extreme, PM obtains the same AC as the acoustic contrast control method, which is widely accepted as the algorithm leading to the maximum AC. Based on the proposed framework, we design a variant coordinate descent algorithm to adjust the desired sound field by maximizing the AC under the constraint of the reconstruction error. Simulation results validate the efficacy and flexibility of the proposed framework in constrained sound zone control.

17.
Opt Express ; 30(9): 14048-14060, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473157

RESUMO

We study the coherent scattering process of photons in two waveguides chiral coupling to a Λ-type three-level system (3LS). The 3LS acts as a few-photon router that can direct photons with unity. By adjusting the classical field applied to the 3LS, the tunneling paths between two waveguides can be turned off and on, but two photons can not be routed simultaneously from one port of the incident waveguide to an arbitrarily selected port of the other waveguide. Moreover, driven field controls the number of the bi-photon bound states and the interference pattern of the bi-photon bound states.

18.
Food Funct ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481558

RESUMO

Apigenin is a kind of natural flavonoid that abundantly exists in fruits and vegetables. Pyroptosis is a new, pro-inflammatory type of programmed necrosis cell death, and the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is the key molecule to induce pyroptosis. Excessive hepatic pyroptosis results in liver injury. In the study, we found for the first time that apigenin could alleviate palmitic acid (PA)-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatic cells. Meanwhile, apigenin could promote the autophagy of hepatocytes. When the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) was added, the data showed that the recovery effect of apigenin on PA-induced pyroptosis was weakened, indicating that apigenin could alleviate PA-induced pyroptosis by activating autophagy. Further mechanistic studies showed that apigenin regulated the NLRP3 inflammasome through two ways, so as to alleviate PA-induced pyroptosis. On the one hand, apigenin eliminated damaged mitochondria by activating autophagy, thereby clearing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibiting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and on the other hand, activation of autophagy could directly degrade the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our study provides a new idea and target for the use of functional factors in food to alleviate liver injury.

19.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452151

RESUMO

Low soil phosphorus (P) bioavailability causes the widespread occurrence of P-limited terrestrial ecosystems around the globe. Exploring the factors influencing soil P bioavailability at large spatial scales is critical for managing these ecosystems. However, previous studies have mostly focused on abiotic factors. In this study, we explored the effects of microbial factors on soil P bioavailability of terrestrial ecosystems using a country-scale sampling effort. Our results showed that soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and acid phosphatase were important predictors of soil P bioavailability of agro- and natural ecosystems across China although they appeared less important than total soil P. The two microbial factors had a positive effect on soil P bioavailability of both ecosystem types and were able to mediate the effects of several abiotic factors (e.g., mean annual temperature). Meanwhile, we revealed that soil phytase could affect soil P bioavailability at the country scale via ways similar to those of soil MBC and acid phosphatase, a pattern being more pronounced in agroecosystems than in natural ecosystems. Moreover, we obtained evidence for the positive effects of microbial genes encoding these enzymes on soil P bioavailability at the country scale although their effect sizes varied between the two ecosystem types. Taken together, this study demonstrated the remarkable effects of microbial factors on soil P bioavailability at a large spatial scale, highlighting the importance to consider microbial factors in managing the widespread P-limited terrestrial ecosystems.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490102

RESUMO

Although the accuracy of chorioamnionicity determination in multiple pregnancy is nearly 100%, some pitfalls do exist. These pitfalls may arise from some confusing sonographic appearance or because of certain rare variations of twinning going against the general principles. Pitfalls in chorionicity determination include (1) the disappearance of the twin peak sign with the regression of chorion frondosum and thinning of the intertwin membrane with advancing gestation; (2) fake twin peak sign because of other structures creeping into the intertwin membrane-placental junction; (3) intrauterine septum or synechia being mistaken as a thick intertwin membrane; (4) bipartite placenta in monochorionic twin being misinterpreted as two separate placentas of dichorionic twin; (5) erroneous fetal sex determination in sex chromosome mosaicism, monogenic disorders, and malformed genitalia in one fetus; and (6) rare twinning types such as dizygotic monochorionic twin and sesquizygotic twin. Pitfalls in amnionicity determination are (1) the lack of correlation between the number of yolk sacs and amnionicity and (2) failure to visualize the intertwin membrane because of technical issues.

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