Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.760
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13560, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been recognized as a biomarker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, recently. This study aimed to explore the association of ALP with arterial stiffness and 10-year CVD risk. METHODS: A total of 12 539 participants without CVD who underwent health examinations including serum ALP level were retrospectively analysed. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and 10-year CVD risk was evaluated by Framingham risk score. RESULTS: All participants were stratified into four groups according to the quartile of serum ALP. Participants with high ALP quartiles had higher cardiovascular parameters and baPWV, as well as an increase 10-year CVD risk. There was a dose-response relationship between serum ALP level and baPWV (OR = 1.134, 95% CI 1.103-1.165, P < .001). Logistic regression analysis showed that serum ALP was positively associated with elevated baPWV and 10-year CVD risk after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors in both women and men. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal cut-off point of serum ALP for elevated baPWV was 84U/L and the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) was 0.740 (95% CI 0.726-0.754, P < .001), with 71.2% and 63.4% sensitivity and specificity, respectively, in women. The AUROC of serum ALP in women was larger than that in men [0.575 (95% CI 0.559-0.590), P < .001]. CONCLUSIONS: Serum ALP is independently associated with arterial stiffness and 10-year CVD risk. Our results imply that serum ALP may be a promising marker to identify an increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis in women needing further evaluation.

2.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850276

RESUMO

Aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect, is a hallmark of cancer cell glucose metabolism and plays a crucial role in the activation of various types of immune cells. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate in the 6th critical step in glycolysis. GAPDH exerts metabolic flux control during aerobic glycolysis and therefore is an attractive therapeutic target for cancer and autoimmune diseases. Recently, GAPDH inhibitors were reported to function through common suicide inactivation by covalent binding to the cysteine catalytic residue of GAPDH. Herein, by developing a high-throughput enzymatic screening assay, we discovered that the natural product 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucopyranose (PGG) is an inhibitor of GAPDH with Ki = 0.5 µM. PGG blocks GAPDH activity by a reversible and NAD+ and Pi competitive mechanism, suggesting that it represents a novel class of GAPDH inhibitors. In-depth hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) analysis revealed that PGG binds to a region that disrupts NAD+ and inorganic phosphate binding, resulting in a distal conformational change at the GAPDH tetramer interface. In addition, structural modeling analysis indicated that PGG probably reversibly binds to the center pocket of GAPDH. Moreover, PGG inhibits LPS-stimulated macrophage activation by specific downregulation of GAPDH-dependent glucose consumption and lactate production. In summary, PGG represents a novel class of GAPDH inhibitors that probably reversibly binds to the center pocket of GAPDH. Our study sheds new light on factors for designing a more potent and specific inhibitor of GAPDH for future therapeutic applications.

3.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; : 1-29, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A few former studies suggested there are partial overlaps in abnormal brain structure and cognitive function between Hypochondriasis (HS) and schizophrenia (SZ). But their differences in brain activity and cognitive function were unclear. METHODS: 21 HS patients, 23 SZ patients, and 24 healthy controls (HC) underwent Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) with the regional homogeneity analysis (ReHo), subsequently exploring the relationship between ReHo value and cognitive functions. The support vector machines (SVM) were used on effectiveness evaluation of ReHo for differentiating HS from SZ. RESULTS: Compared with HC, HS showed significantly increased ReHo values in right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and right fusiform gyrus (FG), while SZ showed increased ReHo in left insula, decreased ReHo values in right paracentral lobule. Additionally, HS showed significantly higher ReHo values in FG, MTG and left paracentral lobule but lower in insula than SZ. The higher ReHo values in insula were associated with worse performance in MCCB in HS group. SVM analysis showed a combination of the ReHo values in insula and FG was able to satisfactorily distinguish the HS and SZ patients. CONCLUSION: our results suggested the altered default mode network (DMN), of which abnormal spontaneous neural activity occurs in multiple brain regions, might play a key role in the pathogenesis of HS, and the resting-state alterations of insula closely related to cognitive dysfunction in HS. Furthermore, the combination of the ReHo in FG and insula was a relatively ideal indicator to distinguish HS from SZ.

4.
Arch Virol ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796884

RESUMO

A national surveillance system on hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) was launched in 2008 in China. Since then, millions of HFMD cases have been reported each year, with enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), and coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) as the major causative pathogens. Long-term surveillance of viral infection rates and genetic changes is essential for understanding the disease epidemiology pattern. Here, we analyzed molecular surveillance data on CV-A16 covering a period of 12 years (2008-2019) in Guangdong, China, one of the regions reporting the largest number of HFMD cases. Full VP1 sequences of 456 strains were determined to examine the genetic diversity and changes in the distribution of CV-A16 variants. Our study revealed an irregular pattern of CV-A16 infections in Guangdong. Different from the cyclic epidemics observed in some Asia-Pacific regions, there was a continuously high CV-A16 infection rate from 2008 to 2014, and after a period of lower epidemic activity in 2015-2017, an upsurge of CV-A16 infection was observed in 2018-2019. Cocirculation of subgenotypes B1a and B1b was observed, but while subgenotype B1a was predominant from 2008 to 2012, it appears to have been replaced by B1b, which has circulated as the predominant subgenotype since 2013. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the circulating CV-A16 strains are endemic, with occasional transmission between neighboring regions. The re-emergence of B1a in 2016-2019 in Guangdong was likely the result of introduction(s) from Southeast Asia. These results highlight the importance of continuous molecular surveillance from different areas, which will improve our understanding of the origin of the epidemic and facilitate the development of strategies for HFMD disease control.

5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 596: 12-21, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831749

RESUMO

Low charge separation efficiency of semiconductor materials is the main obstacle for high-performance photocatalyst. Herein, we report surface defects engineered uniform mesoporous TiO2 nanospheres (DMTNSs) through surfactant-mediated self-assembly solvothermal approach combined with hydrogenation strategy to promote charge separation. The surface defects induced charge imbalance result in the formation of built-in field, which can promote photogenerated charge separation efficiently and be confirmed by experimental and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Under AM 1.5G irradiation, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution of DMTNSs is ~3.34 mmol h-1 g-1, almost 3.5 times higher than that of pristine non-defective TiO2 nanospheres (0.97 mmol h-1 g-1), due to the engineered surface defects narrowing the bandgap (~3.01 eV) and inducing charge imbalance to boost spatial charge separation and extend visible-light response. The defect induced charge imbalance strategy opens a new valuable perspective for fabricating other high-efficient oxide photocatalysts.

6.
Food Res Int ; 141: 110148, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642014

RESUMO

Soy peptide solution (40%, w/w) was successfully encapsulated in a W1/O/W2 double emulsion produced by a two-step emulsification process. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) was found to be an effective inner emulsifier compared to Span 60 and lecithin to produce stable W1/O primary emulsion. The primary emulsion was subsequently emulsified into an outer aqueous phase (W2) containing octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch and maltodextrin. The droplet size and encapsulation efficiency of the peptide solution in W1/O/W2 emulsion were found to depend on the W1:O ratio, peptide concentration in the inner W1 phase and homogenization condition of the secondary emulsification step. The double emulsion with the highest encapsulation efficiency (>80%) was prepared by: (i) using 40% (w/w) soy peptide solution as W1 phase; (ii) controlling W1:O ratio at 3:7 (w/w) and (iii) homogenizing the emulsion at 10,000 rpm for 3 min. The freeze-dried microcapsule powder of W1/O/W2 emulsion showed higher encapsulation efficiency (>70%) compared to spray-dried one. The freeze-dried microcapsule of W1/O/W2 double emulsion developed in this study is a promising delivery matrix to encapsulate hydrophilic ingredients including peptides. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of the microcapsule powder indicated good compatibility between peptide and encapsulants.

7.
Food Chem ; 354: 129454, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765463

RESUMO

In order to reveal the color formation mechanism of blood-red edible bird's nests (EBNs) and develop a quick and specific strategy to distinguish the artificial fake one, multiple methods of UPLC-TOF/MS, UV, NMR, FT-IR and 2D IR were used to detect the chemical markers of the reddening reaction, the results showed that the reddening substances were C9H10N2O5 and C9H9NO6, which were verified as products of a phenol-keto tautomerism evolved from l-tyrosine. Moreover, natural and artificial red EBNs with varying degrees of chemical fumigation also can be successfully distinguished using the chemical markers, and the protein variation in SDS-PAGE gel could also support the distinction. This work established a systematic method of chemical identification for both natural and artificial blood-red EBNs, and provided a new identification strategy for food safety control that can promote the development of a healthier market of EBNs.

8.
Rep Prog Phys ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761489

RESUMO

Over the past decade, two-dimensional semiconductors (2DSCs) have aroused wide interest due to their extraordinary electronic, magnetic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties, which hold potential in electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric applications, and so forth. The field-effect transistor (FET), a semiconductor gated with at least three terminals, is pervasively exploited as the device geometry for these applications. For lack of effective and stable substitutional doping techniques, direct metal contact is often used in 2DSC FETs to inject carriers. A Schottky barrier (SB) generally exists in the metal-2DSC junction, which significantly affects and even dominates the performance of most 2DSC FETs. Therefore, low SB or Ohmic contact is highly preferred for approaching the intrinsic characteristics of the 2DSC channel. In this review, we systematically introduce the recent progress made in theoretical prediction of the SB height (SBH) in the 2DSC FETs and the efforts made both in theory and experiments to achieve low SB contacts. From the comparison between the theoretical and experimentally observed SBHs, the emerging first-principles quantum transport simulation turns out to be the most powerful theoretical tool to calculate the SBH of a 2DSC FET. Finally, we conclude this review from the viewpoints of state-of-the-art electrode designs for 2DSC FETs.

9.
Hum Reprod ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764448

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does unplanned spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation affect clinical outcomes after planned artificial frozen-thawed embryo transfer (AC-FET) cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: AC-FET and spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation events resulted in notably better pregnancy outcomes with a significantly higher implantation rate (IR), clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) and live birth rate (LBR) and a significantly lower miscarriage rate. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The AC-FET protocol without GnRH agonist administration is associated with a low incidence of follicular growth and ovulation. In the literature, authors often refer to these types of cycles with concern due to possibly impaired FET outcomes. However, the real impact of such cycles has yet to be elucidated due to the lack of existing data. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a retrospective clinical study involving 2256 AC-FET cycles conducted between January 2017 and August 2019. Propensity score (PS) matching was used to control for confounding variables. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Subjects were divided into two groups: a study group: cycles with spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation (the maximum diameter of follicles in any ovary was ≥14 mm and ovulation was confirmed by consecutive ultrasound examinations) and a control group featuring cycles without growing follicles (the maximum diameter of follicles in both ovaries were <10 mm). The study group was matched by PS with the control group at a ratio of 1:2. The study group consisted of 195 patients before PS matching and 176 patients after matching. The numbers of participants in the control group before and after PS matching were 2061 and 329, respectively. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: This analysis showed that patient age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; P=0.010) and basal FSH level (aOR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11; P=0.012) were significantly and positively related with the spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation event. In addition, this event was negatively correlated with BMI (aOR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87-0.97; P=0.002), AMH level (aOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.59-0.74; P<0.001) and a high starting oestrogen dose (aOR 0.53; 95% CI 0.38-0.76 for 6 mg vs. 4 mg; P<0.001). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups after PS matching. Patients in the study group had a significantly higher IR (28.8% vs. 21.8%, P=0.016), CPR (44.9% vs. 33.4%, P=0.011), OPR (39.2% vs. 26.1%, P=0.002) and LBR (39.2% vs. 24.9%, P=0.001) and a lower miscarriage rate (12.7% vs. 25.5%, P=0.030), compared with those in the control group. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This was a retrospective study carried out in a single centre and was therefore susceptible to bias. In addition, we only analysed patients with normal ovulation patterns and excluded those with follicular growth but without ovulation. Further studies remain necessary to confirm our results. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: It is not necessary to cancel cycles that experience spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation. Our data support promising clinical outcomes after this event. Our findings are important as they can better inform clinicians and patients. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 81701507, 81801404, 81871210, 82071648), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (grant no. BK20171126, BK20201123) and Jiangsu Province '333' project. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

10.
Water Res ; 196: 116990, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725645

RESUMO

Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks. Since 2014, novel genetic variants of NoV have been continuously identified and have caused a sharp increase in the number of AGE outbreaks. The specific geographical distribution and expanding genetic diversity of NoV has posed a challenge to conventional surveillance. Here, we describe the long-term dynamic correlation between NoV distribution in sewage and in the local population through the molecular surveillance of NoV in Guangdong, 2013-2018. The relative viral loads of the GI and GII genotypes in sewage were calculated through RT-PCR. A high-throughput sequencing method and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) clustering pipeline were developed to illustrate the abundances of different genotypes and genetic variants in sewage. Our results showed that the NoV viral loads and the emergence of new variants in sewage were closely associated with NoV outbreak risks in the population. Compared with the outbreaks surveillance, the dominance of the newly emerged variants, GII.P17-GII.17 and GII.P16-GII.2, could be detected one or two months ahead in sewage of a hub city. In addition, the dynamics of pre-epidemic variants, which were rarely detected in clinics, could be captured through sewage surveillance, thus improving our understanding of the origin and evolution of these novel epidemic variants. Our data highlight that sewage surveillance could provide nearly real-time and high-throughput data on NoV circulation in the community. With the advances in sequencing techniques, the sewage surveillance system could also be extended to other related infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Esgotos
11.
Mol Brain ; 14(1): 60, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in different forms of plasticity in the central nervous system. NMDARs are always assembled in tetrameric form, in which two GluN1 subunits and two GluN2 and/or GluN3 subunits combine together. Previous studies focused mainly on the hippocampus. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a key cortical region for sensory and emotional functions. NMDAR GluN2A and GluN2B subunits have been previously investigated, however much less is known about the GluN2C/2D subunits. RESULTS: In the present study, we found that the GluN2C/2D subunits are expressed in the pyramidal cells of ACC of adult mice. Application of a selective antagonist of GluN2C/2D, (2R*,3S*)-1-(9-bromophenanthrene-3-carbonyl) piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (UBP145), significantly reduced NMDAR-mediated currents, while synaptically evoked EPSCs were not affected. UBP145 affected neither the postsynaptic long-term potentiation (post-LTP) nor the presynaptic LTP (pre-LTP). Furthermore, the long-term depression (LTD) was also not affected by UBP145. Finally, both UBP145 decreased the frequency of the miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) while the amplitude remained intact, suggesting that the GluN2C/2D may be involved in presynaptic regulation of spontaneous glutamate release. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidence that the GluN2C/2D contributes to evoked NMDAR mediated currents and mEPSCs in the ACC, which may have significant physiological implications.

12.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(3): e0370, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786446

RESUMO

Objectives: To describe sedative and analgesic drug utilization in a cohort of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and compare standard sedation with an alternative approach using inhaled isoflurane. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study designed to compare doses of sedatives between ICU patients receiving standard IV sedation and patients receiving mixed sedation including inhaled isoflurane. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Setting: ICU at large academic medical center where mechanical ventilation was delivered with Draeger Apollo (Draeger Medical, Telford, PA) anesthesia machines. Patients: Consecutive adult patients (≥ 18 yr) with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to ICU between April 2, 2020, and May 4, 2020. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Thirty-five mechanically ventilated patients were included in the study, with a mean (sd) age of 59.4 (12.8) years. Twenty-three patients (65.7%) were men. Seventeen patients (48.6%) received standard IV sedation, whereas 18 (51.4%) also received isoflurane. The mean duration of mechanical ventilation (sd) was 23.3 (11.6) days in the standard sedation group and 23.8 (12.5) days in the isoflurane group. Mean (sd) duration of isoflurane exposure was 5.61 (2.99) days, representing 29.1% of total sedation time (sd, 20.4). Cumulative opioid exposure did not differ between the standard sedation and isoflurane sedation groups (mean morphine milligram equivalent 6668 [sd, 1,346] vs 6678 [sd, 2,000] mg). However, the initiation of isoflurane in patients was associated with decreased utilization of propofol (mean daily amount 3,656 [sd, 1,635] before vs 950 [sd, 1,804] mg during isoflurane) and hydromorphone (mean daily amount 48 [sd, 30] before vs 23 [sd, 27] mg). Conclusions: In the subjects that received isoflurane, its use was associated with significant decreases in propofol and hydromorphone infusions.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(6): 8817-8834, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is essential to minimize its mortality and improve prognosis. We aimed to develop an accurate and applicable machine learning predictive model based on routine clinical testing results for stratifying acute pancreatitis (AP) severity. RESULTS: We identified 11 markers predictive of AP severity and trained an AP stratification model called APSAVE, which classified AP cases within 24 hours at an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74 +/- 0.04. It was further validated in 568 validation cases, achieving an AUC of 0.73, which is similar to that of Ranson's criteria (AUC = 0.74) and higher than APACHE II and BISAP (AUC = 0.69 and 0.66, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a venous blood marker-based AP severity stratification model with higher accuracy and broader applicability, which holds promises for reducing SAP mortality and improving its clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine hundred and forty-five AP patients were enrolled into this study. Clinical venous blood tests covering 65 biomarkers were performed on AP patients within 24 hours of admission. An SAP prediction model was built with statistical learning to select biomarkers that are most predictive for AP severity.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682057

RESUMO

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a well-known environmental and food contaminant generated as a byproduct of various industrial activities. It is found in a lot of foods, especially in dairy products, eggs, fish, and meat. Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation and cycling process, which plays an important role in lipid metabolism. This study aimed to explore the effects of TCDD on autophagic flux and lipid metabolism in THP-1 macrophages. The data showed that TCDD promoted the accumulation of autophagosomes in THP-1 macrophages, and subsequent findings revealed that this autophagosome accumulation was caused by the inhibition of autophagic flux by testing the expression of LC3II, p62 levels, and mRFP-GFP-LC3. Further, we found that TCDD treatment significantly increased the amount of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) in THP-1 macrophages. Meanwhile, pretreatment with autophagy activator (rapamycin, Rapa) efficiently relieved TCDD-induced lipid accumulation. On the contrary, pretreatment with autophagy inhibitor (Chloroquine, CQ) promoted TCDD-induced lipid accumulation. In the experiment of co-localization of LC3 and lipid droplets, the co-localization of LC3 and lipid droplets increased after TCDD induction. These results indicated that TCDD promoted lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages by inhibiting autophagic flux. Our findings revealed new insights into the toxicity mechanisms of TCDD.

15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 625-634, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645160

RESUMO

Microcystis aeruginosa, a type of algal bloom microalgae, is widely distributed in water, causing serious deteriorated effects on humans and the ecological environment. As a biocontrol microorganism, Bacillus subtilis can synthesize various bioactive substances through non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, to inhibit the growth of M. aeruginosa. Thus, it is imperative to investigate the non-ribosomal peptide (NRP) metabolites of B. subtilis fmb60. Three NRP metabolites from B. subtilis fmb60 including bacillibactin, surfactin and fengycin were extracted and identified by genome mining technology. The growth inhibition of M. aeruginosa was studied by adding various concentrations of NRP metabolites. The half-effect concentration value (EC50.4 d) of M. aeruginosa was 26.5 mg/L after incubation for 4 days. With the increasing concentration, the inhibitory effects of NRP metabolites of B. subtilis fmb60 on M. aeruginosa was enhanced significantly. Compared with the control group, with the addition of 50 mg/L NRP metabolites to the M. aeruginosa, the content of Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and Yield parameter after cultured for 4 days were decreased by 2.8%, 1.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Those findings indicate that the NRP metabolites of B. subtilis fmb60 can significantly inhibit the photosynthesis and metabolism of M. aeruginosa, which provides a theoretical foundation for the development of biological algae inhibitor of B. subtilis.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Bacillus subtilis , Humanos , Peptídeos , Fotossíntese
16.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688887

RESUMO

Fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs) dominate the present Si FETs. However, when the gate length is scaled down to the sub-10 nm region, the experimental Si FinFETs suffer from poor performance due to a large fin width (the minimum value is 3 nm). In this paper, an ultra-thin Si FinFET with a width of 0.8 nm is investigated for the first time by utilizing ab initio quantum transport simulations. Remarkably, even with the gate length down to 5 nm, the on-state current, delay time, power dissipation, and energy-delay product of the optimized perfect ultra-thin Si FinFET still meet the high-performance applications' requirements of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors in the next decade. The overall performance of the simulated ultra-thin Si FinFET is even comparable with that of the typical two-dimensional FETs. Such a good performance can be significantly degraded by the defect. Hence, Si FinFETs have the potential to be scaled down to the sub-10 nm gate length as long as the width is scaled down while keeping a perfect structure.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666331

RESUMO

Iodine-based contrasting agents for computed tomography (CT) have been used for decades in medicine. Agents like Lugol's iodine enhance the contrasts between soft tissues and mineralized (skeletal) tissues. Because a recent study on extant avian heads showed that iodine-ethanol (I2 E) is a better contrast enhancer overall than the standard Lugol's iodine, here, we tested if I2 E could also enhance the CT contrasts of two fossilized skeletal tissues: bone and calcified cartilage. For this, we used a partial ankle joint from an extinct pheasant from the Late Miocene of Northwest China (Linxia Basin). The pre-staining CT scans showed no microstructural details of the sample. After being immersed into a solution of 1% I2 E for 8 days and scanned a second time, the contrasts were drastically enhanced between the mineralized tissues (bony trabeculae and calcified cartilage) and the sediments and minerals inside vascular spaces. After three other staining-scanning cycles in 2%, 3%, and 6% I2 E solutions, the best contrasts were obtained after immersion in 6% I2 E for 7 days. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy showed that iodine was preferentially absorbed by the mineralized tissues and the minerals in the vascular spaces, but not by the sediments. This method not only effectively increased the contrasts of two different fossilized skeletal tissues, it was also non-destructive and reversible because part of the fossil was successfully de-stained after a few days in pure ethanol. These preliminary results indicate that iodine-ethanol has the potential to be used widely in vertebrate paleontology to improve CT imaging of fossilized tissues.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(9): 3647-3654, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646792

RESUMO

We herein report a novel semiorganic NLO material, (C5H6ON)+(H2PO4)-, 4HPP, showing promising excellent properties in the important solar-blind UV region where LAP and its deuterated form DLAP are the only commercialized semiorganic materials. For the first time, the 4-hydroxypyridine (4HP+, (C5H6ON)+) cation is identified as NLO active and how to eliminate the dipole-dipole interaction to avoid the unwanted center-symmetry-trap caused by the polar-induced susceptibility is well demonstrated. Remarkably, 4HPP exhibits competitive and even better properties compared with LAP that include better thermal stability (decomposition at 166 vs 112 °C of LAP); wider transparency range (0.26-1.50 µm); very strong SHG response (3 × KDP); a suitable large birefringence (Δncal = 0.25 vs 0.075 of LAP); and a high laser-induced damage threshold (2.2 × KDP). First-principles calculations show that the π-conjugated organic (4HP)+ cation governs the optical anisotropy, whereas the synergy of the organic and inorganic moieties dominates the SHG process. Our discovery points out a new path for the rational design of high performance semiorganic materials that require an acentric structure.

19.
Acupunct Med ; : 964528421996720, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-17, as a T-helper 17 cell (Th17) cytokine, plays a key role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathophysiology including chronic inflammation and airway obstruction, which lead to decreased pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on IL-17, its receptor (IL-17R) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, in a rat model of COPD. METHODS: The COPD model was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by exposure to cigarette smoke for 12 weeks. The model rats were treated with electroacupuncture (EA) at BL13 and ST36. The lung function and histology of the rats were observed. IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-10 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in plasma. The leukocytes and macrophages in the BALF were counted. The expression levels of IL-17R were assayed in lung tissue by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. MAPK signaling pathway molecules including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38, and their phosphorylated forms, were observed in the lung by western blotting. RESULTS: Compared with the control group rats, lung function decreased and there was a severe inflammatory infiltration of the pulmonary parenchyma in the COPD rats. EA effectively improved lung function and alleviated the inflammatory infiltration in the lungs of COPD rats. EA also reversed the elevated total leukocyte and macrophage counts, the high levels of IL-17 and TNF-α, and the low IL-10 content in COPD rats. Meanwhile, EA downregulated the increased mRNA and protein expression of IL-17R, and significantly inhibited the elevated levels of phosphorylated JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 in the lungs of COPD rats. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the protective effects of acupuncture therapy on the lungs of COPD rats are likely related to inhibition of IL-17/IL-17R and the post-receptor MAPK signaling pathways.

20.
Neurochem Res ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675461

RESUMO

A growing number of studies have shown that air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is closely associated with neuroinflammation in humans. Militarine, a glucosyloxybenzyl 2-isobutylmalate compound isolated from Bletilla striata, has been found to exert significant neuroprotective effects. However, the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of militarine on PM2.5-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of militarine against PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity and its mechanism in BV-2 microglial cells. Our results revealed that pretreatment with 0.31-1.25 µg/mL militarine reversed the morphological changes caused by PM2.5 and decreased proinflammatory cytokine generation and gene expression in PM2.5-treated BV-2 cells. In particular, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expression was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, militarine markedly inhibited the upregulation of Toll-like receptor 4, Toll-like receptor 2, and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels and reduced NF-κB pathway-associated protein expression. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that militarine suppressed NF-κB activity through inhibiting p65 nuclear translocation. Our data suggested that militarine alleviated neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglial cells, possibly by inhibiting the expression of neuroinflammatory cytokines through the TLR/NF-κB signaling pathway. Additionally, militarine significantly reduced PM2.5-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell apoptosis and restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ΔΨm). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that militarine played a protective role against PM2.5-induced damage in BV-2 cells by exerting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...