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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 107: 110333, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761202

RESUMO

The mechanical environment of extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in adjusting the behaviors of cells. Natural ECM are highly viscoelastic materials with stress-relaxion behavior. Hydrogel is considered as a promising and attractive material for cell carrier, but they are typically elastic serving as synthetic ECM. Double-network (DN) hydrogel has an interpenetrating network of special structure combining the advantages of both rigid and ductile components, due to which the mechanical properties of the system can be very different from that of the single-network ones, and some special biological properties can be obtained. In this study, GG/PEGDA DN hydrogel was prepared by combining gellan gum (GG) with polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), and then the influence of the two individual networks on the viscoelasticity of the system were investigated. Furthermore, the effects of viscoelasticity of GG/PEGDA DN hydrogel on the biological behavior of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were explored in vitro and in vivo. The results indicate that the spreading of BMSCs was closely related to the relaxation behavior of the hydrogels. GG/PEGDA DN hydrogel shows excellent mechanical and relaxation properties which provide a favorable physical environment for cell proliferation and spreading, and induce chondrogenic differentiation. Our study demonstrates that this DN hydrogel has bright prospects in the fields of cell carrier and cartilage tissue engineering.

2.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 142: 105100, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669385

RESUMO

Warfarin and ginseng have been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the clinical safety and effectiveness of herb-drug combination treatment are still controversial. Therefore, it is very essential to probe the interaction between warfarin and ginseng. In this study, in vitro and in vivo study was carried out to demonstrate that whether there is an interaction between warfarin and ginsenosides (GS), which is the main component of ginseng. In vitro study showed that the adhesion ability between endothelial cells and matrigel/platelets was enhanced due to the up-regulating expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) proteins by treatment of warfarin+GS combination compared to warfarin/GS treatment alone. Moreover, GS could weaken the anticoagulation effect of warfarin in hyperlipemia rats owning to the increased expression levels of coagulation factors and hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in plasma after long-term co-administration of warfarin with GS. The results of both in vitro and in vivo study demonstrated that there is a serious interaction between warfarin and ginseng, which may deteriorate atherosclerosis and thrombosis after combined use of warfarin and GS.

3.
Brain Res Bull ; 154: 106-115, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722250

RESUMO

Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Alternative splicing (AS) were found to be implicated in certain diseases, nevertheless, the contributions of mRNA SNPs and AS to pathogenesis in developing rat brains with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remained largely vague. Additionally, the disease associated with Tacr3 was normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, while the relationship between HIE and Tacr3 remained largely elusive. The current study was designed to investigate the differentially expressed mRNAs and related SNPs as well as AS in neonatal rats subjected to HIE to identify if the exhibition of AS was associated with SNPs under pathological condition. Firstly, we used postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats to construct neonatal HIE model, and analyzed the expression profiles of SNP mRNA in hypoxic-ischemic (HI) and sham brains by using RNA sequencing. Then four genes, including Mdfic, Lpp, Bag3 and Tacr3, connecting with HIE and exhibiting SNPs and AS were identified by bioinformatics analysis. Moreover, combined with exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) and alternative splice site predictor (ASSP) analysis, we found that Tacr3 is associated specifically with HIE through 258547789 G > A SNP in inside the Alt First Exon and 258548573 G > A SNP in outside the Alt First Exon. Taken together, our study provides new evidence to understand the role of Tacr3 in HIE and it is possibly a potential target for the treatment of HIE in future clinic trial.

4.
Neoplasia ; 22(1): 1-9, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751859

RESUMO

Sorafenib is the first approved systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is the first-line choice in clinic. Sustained activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is associated with low efficacy of sorafenib in HCC. Activation of liver X receptor (LXR) has been reported to inhibit some RTKs. In this study, we found that the LXR agonist enhanced the anti-tumor activity of sorafenib in a subset of HCC cells with high LXR-ß/α gene expression ratio. Mechanically, the activation of LXR suppressed sorafenib dependent recruitment of MET and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in lipid rafts through cholesterol efflux. Our findings imply that LXR agonist can serve as a potential sensitizer to enhance the anti-tumor effect of sorafenib.

5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 172797, 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747547

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction plays important roles in vascular dysfunction under diabetic conditions. The generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which can induce inflammation and oxidative stress, is pivotal in endothelial dysfunction. Salidroside, a major active compound in Rhodiola rosea, exerts protective effects against vascular diseases. To study the effects and mechanism of salidroside in diabetes-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction, an in vitro model was established with AGEs-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Then, cell viability, cell apoptosis, pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative biomarkers were tested to determine the effects of salidroside at 10, 50 and 100 µM doses on AGEs induced HUVECs. Additionally, RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses were used to search for the underlying mechanism of salidroside. The results showed that salidroside promoted cell viability and significantly alleviated cell apoptosis in AGEs-induced HUVECs. Furthermore, salidroside remarkably decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 and impeded the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 induced by AGEs. Additionally, salidroside promoted superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels while inhibiting the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in AGEs-induced HUVECs. Importantly, salidroside alleviated endothelial inflammation and oxidative stress by activating AMPK phosphorylation and inhibiting NF-ĸB p65 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Therefore, we used compound C, an accepted AMPK inhibitor, to further demonstrate the mechanism. Interestingly, the phenomenon produced by salidroside was abolished. Our findings suggest that salidroside ameliorates AGEs-induced endothelial inflammation and oxidative stress, partially via the AMPK/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.

6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 298, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint inhibition, has provided powerful tools against cancer. We aimed to detect the expression of common immune checkpoints and evaluate their prognostic values in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: The expression of 9 immune checkpoints consistent with 13 features was detected in the training cohort (n = 208) by immunohistochemistry and quantified by computational pathology. Then, the LASSO cox regression model was used to construct an immune checkpoint-based signature (ICS), which was validated in a validation cohort containing 125 patients. RESULTS: High positive expression of PD-L1 and B7-H4 was observed in tumour cells (TCs), whereas PD-L1, B7-H3, B7-H4, IDO-1, VISTA, ICOS and OX40 were highly expressed in tumour-associated immune cells (TAICs). Eight of the 13 immune features were associated with patient overall survival, and an ICS classifier consisting of 5 features (B7-H3TAIC, IDO-1TAIC, VISTATAIC, ICOSTAIC, and LAG3TAIC) was established. Patients with high-risk scores in the training cohort had shorter overall (P < 0.001), disease-free (P = 0.002), and distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.004), which were confirmed in the validation cohort. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ICS classifier was an independent prognostic factor. A combination of the ICS classifier and TNM stage had better prognostic value than the TNM stage alone. In addition, the ICS classifier was significantly associated with survivals in patients with high EBV-DNA load. CONCLUSIONS: We determined the expression status of nine immune checkpoints consistent with 13 features in NPC and further constructed an ICS prognostic model, which might add prognostic value to the TNM staging system.

7.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755935

RESUMO

Citrate synthase (CS) is an important enzyme in energy conversion and material circulation, participating in many important biochemical processes. In the present study, CS from Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 (MaCS) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The recombinant MaCS was purified and its enzymological properties were characterized. The results showed that MaCS formed dimers in native status. The optimum temperature and pH of MaCS was 30°C and 8.2, respectively. MaCS displayed relative high thermal stability. Treatment at 50°C for 20 min only decreased 11.30% activity of MaCS and the half-life of MaCS was approximately 35 min at 55°C. The kcat and Km of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetic acid were 17.133 s-1 (kcat) and 11.62 µM (Km), 24.502 s-1 and 103.00 µM, respectively. MaCS activity was not drastically inhibited by monovalent ions and NADH, but depressed by divalent ions and some small molecular compounds, especially Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and DTT. Overall, these data contributed to further understanding of energy metabolism in cyanobacteria and also provided basic information for industrial application of CS.

8.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 102040, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcortical nuclei are important components in the pathology model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and subregions of these structures subserve different functions that may distinctively contribute to OCD symptoms. Exploration of the subregional-level profile of structural abnormalities of these nuclei is needed to develop a better understanding of the neural mechanism of OCD. METHODS: A total of 83 medication-free, non-comorbid OCD patients and 93 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited, and high-resolution T1-weighted MR images were obtained for all participants. The volume and shape of the subcortical nuclei (including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, pallidum, putamen and thalamus) were quantified and compared with an automated parcellation approach and vertex-wise shape analysis using FSL-FIRST software. Sex differences in these measurements were also explored with an exploratory subgroup analysis. RESULTS: Volumetric analysis showed no significant differences between patients and healthy control subjects. Relative to healthy control subjects, the OCD patients showed an expansion of the lateral amygdala (right hemisphere) and right pallidum. These deformities were associated with illness duration and symptom severity of OCD. Exploratory subgroup analysis by sex revealed amygdala deformity in male patients and caudate deformity in female patients. CONCLUSIONS: The lateral amygdala and the dorsal pallidum were associated with OCD. Neuroanatomic evidence of sexual dimorphism was also found in OCD. Our study not only provides deeper insight into how these structures contribute to OCD symptoms by revealing these subregional-level deformities but also suggests that gender effects may be important in OCD studies.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738506

RESUMO

Sensitive fluorescence turn-on response to specific substances is highly desired for development of chemical sensors and switches. Here we utilized a "two-in-one" strategy to prepare ionic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) functionalized with the cationic bipyridinium receptors at the frameworks and anionic fluorescent indicators in the pores. The MOFs are rendered a fluorescence-resting state because the indicator's fluorescence is efficiently quenched by the ground-state charge-transfer (CT) complexation between the indicator and receptor. Addition of an alkylamine efficiently turns on the fluorescence because the indicator is displaced by the CT complexation between alkylamine with receptor. The turn-on response is highly specific to alkylamines. The MOFs can be used as recyclable sensors for selective and sensitive detection of alkylamines, with ultralow detection limits (0.5 nM). The fluorescence in solid state can be reversibly switched on and off with high contrast. The sensitive and high-contrast response can be attributed to the space confinement effects of the porous frameworks. The confined space can significantly enhance indicator-receptor and analyte-receptor interactions, and thereby both the quenching efficiency in the off state and the displacement efficiency in the on state are amplified.

10.
Pharmazie ; 74(11): 671-674, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739835

RESUMO

Gamma-Glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) plays an important role in the disposition of anti-folate analogs. Several studies noted the pharmacological relevance of rs3758149 C/T polymorphism located in the human GGH promoter. The present study aimed to investigate the role of rs3758149 C/T polymorphism and transcription factors in the regulation of GGH expression in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) CEM/C1 cells. Compared with the rs3758149 T allele, the C allele showed significantly higher transcriptional activity in luciferase reporter assays, as well as a stronger binding affinity for the nuclear protein extracts in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Sp1 was identified as the target transcription factor that exhibited allele-specific binding to the location of rs3758149 C/T polymorphism in the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Overexpression of Sp1 led to enhanced GGH promoter activity and GGH mRNA expression in allele-specific manners. These findings suggested that Sp1 acted as a positive regulator of human GGH transcription through the rs3758149 polymorphism in CEM/C1 cells. This study contributed to the present understanding of the mechanisms underlying variable responses of ALL to anti-folates.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672635

RESUMO

"Green" solvent ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim]Ac) was used as a solvent for maize starch (MS) and potato starch (PS). Different scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopy, rapid visco analysis, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to systematically investigate the phase transition, viscosity, crystalline structure and morphology of the two typical starches. The effect of [Emim]Ac/H2O ratio on the behaviors of starch was explored and the difference between native MS and PS in [Emim]Ac/H2O mixtures was compared. The effects of IL were closely related to the starch source and structure. With the increase of [Emim]Ac/H2O ratio, the gelatinization and dissolution of starch occurred competitively and synergistically. DSC results demonstrated that the transition of starch was from a single endotherm to an exotherm/endotherm, and then to a single exotherm with the increase of IL. The gelatinization temperature of MS was as low as 44.4 °C in IL/H2O mixture, which provided a wonderful solvent for MS. RVA, microscopy, XRD and SEM results provided forceful evidence for the effect of [Emim]Ac. This study provided experimental supports and theoretical foundation for understanding the starch behaviors in "green" solvents and expanding industrial applications of starch-based degradable materials in more appropriate solvents.

12.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 29(2): 113-121, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679266

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common debilitating gynecologic disease. Almost 10% of reproductive-age women are affected by this disease; they commonly suffer pelvic pain and/or infertility. Early diagnosis of this multifactorial disease remains difficult because its etiology is not clear and the early symptoms are nonspecific. In addition, many reproductive-age women are unwilling to undergo invasive laparoscopic surgery because of the possibility of decreasing fertility. Thus, identifying biomarkers for the early diagnosis of endometriosis a key focus of current research. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of noncoding transcripts that have length of > 200 nucleotides and lack protein-coding ability but still influence gene expression in various ways. With advances in genome-wide analysis, researchers have determined that lncRNAs play an important role in many human diseases, particularly tumors. Moreover, the role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of endometriosis has been continually recognized. In this review, we discuss the status of current research on dysregulated lncRNAs and their roles in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We aim to stimulate new investigations toward the identification of lncRNAs as biomarkers for the early diagnosis and therapy of this long-term gynecological disease.

13.
Theranostics ; 9(25): 7648-7665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695792

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) has emerged as a key event in tumor development and microenvironment formation. However, comprehensive analysis of AS and its clinical significance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) is urgently required. Methods: Genome-wide profiling of AS events using RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program was performed in a cohort of 464 patients with HNSC. Cancer-associated AS events (CASEs) were identified between paired HNSC and adjacent normal tissues and evaluated in functional enrichment analysis. Splicing networks and prognostic models were constructed using bioinformatics tools. Unsupervised clustering of the CASEs identified was conducted and associations with clinical, molecular and immune features were analyzed. Results: We detected a total of 32,309 AS events and identified 473 CASEs in HNSC; among these, 91 were validated in an independent cohort (n = 15). Functional protein domains were frequently altered, especially by CASEs affecting cancer drivers, such as PCSK5. CASE parent genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to HNSC and the tumor immune microenvironment, such as the viral carcinogenesis (FDR < 0.001), Human Papillomavirus infection (FDR < 0.001), chemokine (FDR < 0.001) and T cell receptor (FDR < 0.001) signaling pathways. CASEs enriched in immune-related pathways were closely associated with immune cell infiltration and cytolytic activity. AS regulatory networks suggested a significant association between splicing factor (SF) expression and CASEs and might be regulated by SF methylation. Eighteen CASEs were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall and disease-free survival. Unsupervised clustering analysis revealed distinct correlations between AS-based clusters and prognosis, molecular characteristics and immune features. Immunogenic features and immune subgroups cooperatively depict the immune features of AS-based clusters. Conclusion: This comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the AS landscape in HNSC revealed novel AS events related to carcinogenesis and immune microenvironment, with implications for prognosis and therapeutic responses.

14.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702387

RESUMO

Chemoresistance is one of the major obstacles for cancer therapy. Abnormal expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was broadly implicated in chemoresistance of multiple cancers. This study was aimed to investigate the function of urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) in multidrug resistance of retinoblastoma and its potential molecular mechanism. In this study, we observed that UCA1 was significantly upregulated in chemoresistant retinoblastoma tissues and multidrug resistant retinoblastoma cell lines and predicted an unfavorable overall survival. Functionally, knockdown of UCA1 remarkably inhibited proliferation and sensitized retinoblastoma cells to multiple chemotherapy drugs, including vincristine (VCR), carboplatin (CBP), cisplatin (DDP), VP-16 (etoposide), and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). Mechanistic studies demonstrated that UCA1 functioned as a miRNA sponge to increase stathmin 1 (STMN1) expression through sponging miR-513a-5p. In addition, silence of miR-513a-5p or STMN1 overexpression could partly reverse UCA1 knockdown-induced inhibitory effects on proliferation and multidrug resistance of retinoblastoma cells. Overall, this study is the first to demonstrate that UCA1 plays a critical role in retinoblastoma chemoresistance, and UCA1 may serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target of retinoblastoma.

15.
Psych J ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722451

RESUMO

Involuntary mental time travel (MTT) refers to the phenomenon of mentally reliving past experiences or pre-living possible future events in an involuntary form. Few studies have explored involuntary MTT in individuals with schizotypal personality features. The present study aimed to first explore the psychometric properties of the Involuntary Autobiographic Memory Inventory (IAMI) in a Chinese sample (Study 1), and then to explore whether individuals with schizotypal personality features experience involuntary MTT more frequently than individuals without schizotypal features. Moreover, the study explored whether the aberrant frequency of involuntary MTT is correlated with positive schizotypal features (Study 2). The results showed that the IAMI had good structural validity and reliability in a Chinese sample. Individuals with schizotypal traits reported a significantly higher frequency, less positive emotion, and stronger emotional intensity for both involuntary memories and future thoughts compared with individuals without schizotypal features. Further analyses in individuals with schizotypal personality features showed that the frequencies of both involuntary memories and future thoughts were significantly correlated with positive schizotypal traits. These results have potential theoretical and clinical implications for a comprehensive understanding of involuntary MTT among individuals with schizotypal personality features.

16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(42): 6311-6321, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that microRNA-30c (miR-30c) has vital functions in the development and progression of multiple cancers. AIM: To investigate the clinical significance and role of miR-30c in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: MiR-30c and twinfilin 1 (TWF1) expression levels were analyzed in Gene Expression Omnibus datasets and validated in human pancreatic cancer by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The effects of miR-30c on pancreatic cancer cell growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle were evaluated by CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays. Furthermore, the in vivo effects were investigated using a subcutaneous xenograft experiment. Target gene prediction software and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify TWF1 as a direct target of miR-30c. RESULTS: The expression of miR-30c was significantly decreased in pancreatic cancer tissues and associated with survival. Gain- and loss-of-function assays showed that miR-30c suppressed pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. RT-qPCR, Western blot, and luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-30c directly targeted TWF1. The expression level of miR-30c was negatively correlated with TWF1 expression in pancreatic cancer tissues. Furthermore, the effects of ectopic miR-30c were rescued by TWF1 overexpression. CONCLUSION: Our results identified the role of the miR-30c/TWF1 axis in pancreatic cancer progression and demonstrated that miR-30c might serve as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

17.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(1): 190024, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765114

RESUMO

Background: The specific role of the corticospinal tract with respect to inattention and impulsive symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored in the past. However, to our knowledge, no study has identified the exact regions of the corticospinal tract that are affected in ADHD. We aimed to determine comprehensive alterations in the white matter microstructure of the corticospinal tract and underlying neuropsychological substrates in ADHD. Methods: We recruited 38 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 34 typically developing controls. We employed a tract-based quantitative approach to measure diffusion parameters along the trajectory of the corticospinal tract, and we further correlated alterations with attention and response inhibition measures. Results: Compared with controls, children with ADHD demonstrated significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity at the level of cerebral peduncle, and higher fractional anisotropy at the level of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in the right corticospinal tract only. As well, increased fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule was negatively correlated with continuous performance test attention quotients and positively correlated with reaction time on the Stroop Colour­Word Test; increased radial diffusivity in the right peduncle region was positively correlated with omissions in the Stroop test. Limitations: The sample size was relatively small. Moreover, we did not consider the different subtypes of ADHD and lacked sufficient power to analyze subgroup differences. Higher-order diffusion modelling is needed in future white matter studies. Conclusion: We demonstrated specific changes in the right corticospinal tract in children with ADHD. Correlations with measures of attention and response inhibition underscored the functional importance of corticospinal tract disturbance in ADHD.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(19): 190401, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765183

RESUMO

Nonclassical correlations can be regarded as resources for quantum information processing. However, the classification problem of nonclassical correlations for quantum states remains a challenge, even for finite-size systems. Although there exists a set of criteria for determining individual nonclassical correlations, a unified framework that is capable of simultaneously classifying multiple correlations is still missing. In this Letter, we experimentally explored the possibility of applying machine-learning methods for simultaneously identifying nonclassical correlations. Specifically, by using partial information, we applied an artificial neural network, support vector machine, and decision tree for learning entanglement, quantum steering, and nonlocality. Overall, we found that, for a family of quantum states, all three approaches can achieve high accuracy for the classification problem. Moreover, the run time of the machine-learning methods to output the state label is experimentally found to be significantly less than that of state tomography.

19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765754

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that pollen and its preparation are ideal herbal remedies for the treatment of prostate diseases. Our previous study found that pollen polysaccharides from Chinese wolfberry (WPPs) can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer DU145 cells. But the antitumor mechanism of WPPs was not clearly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we further investigated the antitumor mechanism of WPPs in DU145 cells and a xenograft mice model. The results showed that WPPs decreased the levels of PI3K, AKT, p-AKT and Bcl-2 proteins, and increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 in DU145 cells (P < 0.05). The in vivo data demonstrated that WPPs resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in the number of apoptotic cells in tumor tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the activated PI3K, AKT, p-AKT and Bcl-2 levels were decreased and the level of caspase-3 was increased in DU145 xenografts mice model. Therefore, the antitumor mechanism of WPPs on DU145 cells may involve regulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which eventually promotes apoptosis. This study provided the experimental basis for further studied of WPPs as a possible functional food or adjuvant agent for prevention or treatment of prostate cancer.

20.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760930

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has remarkably enhanced therapeutic efficacy in treating both newly diagnosed and relapsed patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Unfortunately, whether as a single agent, component of combined chemotherapy, or as a chemosensitizer or radiosensitizer combined with interventional therapy/radiotherapy, it didn't benefit treatment of solid tumor (liver cancer, bladder cancer, glioma, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma) as seen from the clinical trials reported from the published journals or FDA-approved trials in the past decades. The clinical outcome failed to live up to our expectation, which was attributed to severe systemic toxicity and inappropriate pharmacokinetic such as low delivery efficiency and rapid renal elimination. Nanomedicine is designed to fuel up pharmaceuticals and polish off adverse effects by moderation of their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Nevertheless, quite few nanodrugs (such as Doxil, Abraxane) were approved to be used clinically, and "from bench to bedside" it seems to be no easy way for most of them like nano-ATO. Encapusulating ATO into several types of nano-vehicles (liposome, polymer micelle, porous silicon, etc), nano-TO can improve pharmacokinetic and become a prominent candidate to penetrate into tumor tissue, but so far no nano-ATO clinical trials have been approved around the world. On summarizing the clinical trials of ATO on solid tumor and preclinical study of nano-ATO, we believe there is still chance for ATO to play a critical co-helper in a comprehensive therapy to fight with solid tumor.

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