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1.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4654-4665, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338144

RESUMO

Kindlin-2 is a member of the FERM-containing cytoskeletal protein family that regulates cell-matrix interactions. Previous studies have shown that Kindlin-2 recruits focal adhesion proteins and regulates integration by binding to the focal adhesion region of the integrin ß-segment. Although Kindlin-2 has been reported to be involved in various skin diseases and many kinds of tumors, its role in the skin wound healing process remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Kindlin-2 in the regulation of wound healing. The effects of Kindlin-2 on wound healing were studied by a wound healing model, kindlin-2 (±) mice. The effects of Kindlin-2 on cell migration, cellular tube formation, and cell adhesion and spreading were evaluated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with downregulated Kindlin-2 expression. We found that the expression of kindlin-2 was elevated in wound healing tissues and that interfering with the expression of Kindlin-2 delayed the wound healing process and reduced neovascularization. We found that the wound healing of kindlin-2 (±) mice was delayed, with a decreased number of new blood vessels. Furthermore, depletion of Kindlin-2 impaired HUVEC spreading, migration and tube formation. Intriguingly, we found that kindlin-2 binds to ß-catenin in the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway and cooperates with ß-catenin to enter the nucleus from the cytoplasm, activating the downstream Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, these results help to elucidate the mechanism of Kindlin-2 in the regulation of the wound healing process and provide a theoretical basis for further study of wound healing and abnormal healing.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3242-3252, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212650

RESUMO

Changes in the community stability of freshwater phytoplankton not only induce a series of ecological environment problems but also influence freshwater ecosystem service functions. To understand the changes in community stability and its driving factors, phytoplankton and environmental parameters were analyzed at 11 sample sites in Huaxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Moreover, the resource use efficiency (RUEPP), phytoplankton richness (S), phytoplankton evenness (J), and community turnover (BC) were also determined. Results showed that a total of 8 phyla, including 103 genera and 380 species, were identified in Huaxi River throughout the year. Among them, 264 species were collected in spring, 181 in summer, 197 in autumn, and 183 in winter. The number of Chlorophyta was the largest, followed by Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Cyanophyta. The number of species and cell density in S0 site were the smallest, while those in S2 site were the largest. The RUEPP was fluctuated in four seasons, with the maximum in summer and the minimum in autumn. BC was significantly negatively correlated with RUEPP, phytoplankton richness, total phosphorus (TP), orthophosphate (PO43--P), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3--N), permanganate index, and conductivity (Spc); however, it was significantly positively correlated with phytoplankton evenness and dissolved oxygen (DO). These results suggest that water level regulation in the Three Gorges Reservoir has a significant impact on the structure of phytoplankton community in Huaxi River, which leads to the instability of phytoplankton community and easy replacement, and the degree of community turnover is affected by the combined effect of biological and abiotic factors.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Fitoplâncton , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios , Estações do Ano
3.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(2): 158-160, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231464

RESUMO

Pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas are rare and the diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians. We present a woman suffering from recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiomyopathy, who was finally diagnosed with paraganglioma. Pheochromocytomas or paraganglioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with symptoms possibly referring to acute coronary syndrome and cardiomyopathy.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231597

RESUMO

The strict tolerance space of three-dimensional (3D) crystalline structures is still a significant challenge in the area of switching dielectrics in comparison with lower-dimensional structures. Generally, the function of crystalline materials can be given or adjusted by controlling the environment in which synthesis takes place or the packing rearrangement. Using this method, special functional enhancements or changes in the dielectrics can be realized by improving the synthetic strategies. Here, a 3D switchable dielectric compound [MeHdabco]K(BF4)3 was achieved by employing the temperature selective effect. In particular, its structure is completely different from the usual 3D perovskite structure, which is constructed using two different cation-template frameworks. Moreover, the 3D [MeHdabco]K(BF4)3 shows a structural phase transition at 358 K. The thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)) and X-ray diffractometry results provided evidence of these phase changes. This work provides a feasible strategy that can be used to achieve the different structures of an 'isomer', and enrich the method used for designing diverse functional materials.

5.
Environ Entomol ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240131

RESUMO

Holotrichia oblita (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major soil insect pest that damages forest trees, crops, and lawns. Adults of H. oblita fly, forage, and mate at night but remain underground during the day. We studied the effect of photoperiod on H. oblita reproduction. H. oblita females laid more eggs at 8:16 (L:D) h and 0:24 (L:D) h than other photoperiods. As the scotophase increased, the preoviposition period decreased and the oviposition period increased. Female longevity exceeded that of males at all photoperiods, and both males and females at 0:24 (L:D) h had the shortest longevity. The number of eggs laid per female increased with increasing food consumption. Females at 8:16 (L:D) h had the greatest food consumption and laid the most eggs, while females at 24:0 (L:D) h had the lowest food consumption and laid few eggs. The food intake of adults increased gradually and decreased slowly after reaching a peak. Females began to lay eggs when their food consumption reached a maximum. These results indicate that a scotophase is necessary for the reproduction of H. oblita. A long scotophase promotes greater oviposition. The effect of photoperiod on reproduction is affected by food intake.

6.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of curcumol on NOD-like receptor thermoprotein domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes, and analyze the mechanism underlying curcumol against liver fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty Kunming mice were divided into a control group, a model group and a curcumol group according to a random number table, 10 mice in each group. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4:peanut oil, 2:3 preparation) at 5 mL/kg for 6 weeks, twice a week, for developing a liver fibrosis model. The mice in the control group were given the same amount of peanut oil twice a week for 6 weeks. The mice in the curcumol group were given curcumol (30 mL/kg) intragastrically, and the mice in the model and control groups were given the same amount of normal saline once a day for 6 weeks. Changes in liver structure were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson staining. Liver function, liver fiber indices, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were determined by automatic biochemical analyzer and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. Immunoblotting and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were performed to detect the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome-related molecules, TGF-ß and collagen. RESULTS: HE and Masson staining results showed that the hepatocytes of the model group were arranged irregularly with pseudo-lobular structure and a large amount of collagen deposition. The mice in the curcumol group had a significant decrease in liver function and liver fibers indices compared with the model group (P<0.05); RT-qPCR and Western blotting results reveal that, in the curcumol group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3, IL-1 ß, Caspase 1 and gasdermin D decreased significantly compared with the model group (P<0.05); immunohistochemical results showed that in the curcumol group, the protein expression levels of NLRP3 and IL-1 ß decreased significantly compared with the model group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: A potential anti-liver fibrosis mechanism of curcumol may be associated with the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasomes and decreasing the downstream inflammatory response.

7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259319

RESUMO

Recent studies demonstrate that histones are subjected to a series of short-chain fatty acid modifications that is known as histone acylations. However, the enzymes responsible for histone acylations in vivo are not well characterized. Here, we report that HBO1 is a versatile histone acyltransferase that catalyzes not only histone acetylation but also propionylation, butyrylation and crotonylation both in vivo and in vitro and does so in a JADE or BRPF family scaffold protein-dependent manner. We show that the minimal HBO1/BRPF2 complex can accommodate acetyl-CoA, propionyl-CoA, butyryl-CoA and crotonyl-CoA. Comparison of CBP and HBO1 reveals that they catalyze histone acylations at overlapping as well as distinct sites, with HBO1 being the key enzyme for H3K14 acylations. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrates that HBO1 is highly enriched at and contributes to bulk histone acylations on the transcriptional start sites of active transcribed genes. HBO1 promoter intensity highly correlates with the level of promoter histone acylation, but has no significant correlation with level of transcription. We also show that HBO1 is associated with a subset of DNA replication origins. Collectively our study establishes HBO1 as a versatile histone acyltransferase that links histone acylations to promoter acylations and selection of DNA replication origins.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199515

RESUMO

Leaf senescence is a developmental process induced by various molecular and environmental stimuli that may affect crop yield. The dark-induced leaf senescence-91 (DLS-91) plants displayed rapid leaf senescence, dramatically decreased chlorophyll contents, low photochemical efficiencies, and upregulation of the senescence-associated marker gene BrSAG12-1. To understand DLS molecular mechanism, we examined transcriptomic changes in DLS-91 and control line DLS-42 following 0, 1, and 4 days of dark treatment (DDT) stages. We identified 501, 446, and 456 DEGs, of which 16.7%, 17.2%, and 14.4% encoded TFs, in samples from the three stages. qRT-PCR validation of 16 genes, namely, 7 MADS, 6 NAC, and 3 WRKY, suggested that BrAGL8-1, BrAGL15-1, and BrWRKY70-1 contribute to the rapid leaf senescence of DLS-91 before (0 DDT) and after (1 and 4 DDT) dark treatment, whereas BrNAC046-2, BrNAC029-2/BrNAP, and BrNAC092-1/ORE1 TFs may regulate this process at a later stage (4 DDT). In-silico analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements of BrAGL8-1, BrAGL42-1, BrNAC029-2, BrNAC092-1, and BrWRKY70-3 of B. rapa provides insight into the regulation of these genes. Our study has uncovered several AGL-MADS, WRKY, and NAC TFs potentially worthy of further study to understand the underlying mechanism of rapid DLS in DLS-91.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
9.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197333

RESUMO

In this article, we propose a simple yet effective approach, called point adversarial self mining (PASM), to improve the recognition accuracy in facial expression recognition (FER). Unlike previous works focusing on designing specific architectures or loss functions to solve this problem, PASM boosts the network capability by simulating human learning processes: providing updated learning materials and guidance from more capable teachers. Specifically, to generate new learning materials, PASM leverages a point adversarial attack method and a trained teacher network to locate the most informative position related to the target task, generating harder learning samples to refine the network. The searched position is highly adaptive since it considers both the statistical information of each sample and the teacher network capability. Other than being provided new learning materials, the student network also receives guidance from the teacher network. After the student network finishes training, the student network changes its role and acts as a teacher, generating new learning materials and providing stronger guidance to train a better student network. The adaptive learning materials generation and teacher/student update can be conducted more than one time, improving the network capability iteratively. Extensive experimental results validate the efficacy of our method over the existing state of the arts for FER.

10.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6680883, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211612

RESUMO

Background: Glioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor and is associated with poor prognosis. Identifying effective biomarkers for glioma is particularly important. MXRA5, a secreted glycoprotein, is involved in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling and has been reported to be expressed in many cancers. However, the role and mechanism of action of MXRA5 in gliomas remain unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the role of MXRA5 at the transcriptome level and its clinical prognostic value. Methods: In this study, RNA microarray data of 301 glioma patients from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) were collected as a training cohort and RNA-seq data of 702 glioma samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for validation. We analyzed the clinical and molecular characteristics as well as the prognostic value of MXRA5 in glioma. In addition, the expression level of MXRA was evaluated in 28 glioma tissue samples. Results: We found that MXRA5 expression was significantly upregulated in high-grade gliomas and IDH wild-type gliomas compared to controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that MXRA5 is a potential marker of the mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We found that MXRA5 expression is highly correlated with immune checkpoint molecule expression levels and tumor-associated macrophage infiltration. High MXRA5 expression could be used as an independent indicator of poor prognosis in glioma patients. Conclusion: Our study suggests that MXRA5 expression is associated with the clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis of gliomas. MXRA5 may play an important role in the immunosuppressive microenvironment of glioma. As a secreted glycoprotein, MXRA5 is a potential circulating biomarker for glioma, deserving further investigation.

11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 2079-2088, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212614

RESUMO

The sandy-hilly region of northwest Shanxi is a typical fragile agro-pastoral ecotone in north China. With the artificial Caragana korshinskii at 0 (the uncultivated land), 6, 12, 18, 40 and 50 years-old in the typical sandy-hilly region of northwest Shanxi as the subjects, we investigated soil moisture, aboveground and belowground biomass, individual morphological characteristics, growth, reproduction, and photosynthetic physiological characteristics of different-aged C. korshinskii, with the aim to evaluate the long-term growth and reproductive dynamic characteristics of artificial C. korshinskii. The results showed that soil moisture was significantly affected by stand ages. Soil moisture was low under the 6-year-old C. korshinskii plantation. During 6-18 years-old, soil moisture increased due to the increased crown width and reduced the near-surface wind speed, solar radiation, and soil water evaporation. During 18-50 years-old, soil moisture decreased sharply due to higher biomass and plant transpiration of C. korshinskii, and soil moisture was reduced to the lowest level of 11.1%. C. korshinskii mainly developed underground root system during 6-18 years-old, and changed to the aboveground biomass accumulation in 18-40 years-old. At the 40-year-old stand, biomass reached to the highest level with the greatest crown width and plant height. During 40-50 years-old, crown width and plant height decreased significantly, while the growth began to degrade. Photosynthetic capacity (chlorophyll a, b, carotenoid and total chlorophyll content) gra-dually decreased with the increases of planting ages, especially after 18 years-old. The quantity and quality of C. korshinskii seeds increased from 6 to 40 years-old, reached the maximum at 40 years-old stand, and began to decrease after 50 years-old. In the later growth period (30-40 years-old), more seeds with small individual weight were produced compared with early period (6-12 years-old). The germination test showed that small seeds had higher germination rate than the large ones under the same stand age, suggesting a shift of reproduction strategy. After 50 years-old, both of the growth and reproduction of C. korshinskii degenerated, and the plantation began to degrade.


Assuntos
Caragana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , China , Clorofila A , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodução , Solo , Água/análise , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 273, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemolymphangioma arising from the small bowel and its mesentery is extremely rare in the clinical setting. To date, only 8 cases of small bowel haemolymphangioma have been reported, and there have been no previously reported cases of haemolymphangioma in the small bowel mesentery (PubMed). The formation of this tumour is mostly congenital, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. As a benign tumour, the presentation of the disease may vary from a simple well-defined cystic lesion to an aggressive ill-defined lesion mimicking malignancy. However, there are no typical symptoms, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. CASE PRESENTATION: We present two cases of haemolymphangioma in the small bowel mesentery in a 54-year-old man and a 52-year-old woman. Both of them came to the hospital due to an abdominal mass. In the first case, a cystic teratoma in the left abdominal area was considered after abdominal plain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After taking an enhanced CT scan, a lipoma was considered based on the images. In the second case, cystic masses of the left upper and middle abdomen were observed on abdominal ultrasonography. An abdominal plain CT scan showed an irregular low-density mass in the left upper and middle abdomen. With an enhanced CT scan, haemolymphangioma was considered based on the images. After complete surgical removal, the masses were found to originate from the small bowel mesentery and had not invaded into the peripheral lymphatic tissue. In case 1 in this study, the routine pathology diagnosis was lymphangioma, while in case 2, the diagnosis was haemangioma. The final diagnosis was confirmed to be haemolymphangioma by immunohistochemistry in both cases. No recurrence was evident during 4 months of follow-up. We review the previous case reports of haemolymphangioma in the abdominal cavity and discuss their clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations of abdominal haemolymphangiomas can vary for both location and size. Abdominal CT examination has important clinical value for haemolymphangioma in the abdominal cavity. The final diagnosis of haemolymphangioma depends on a postoperative pathological examination. In addition, postoperative regular follow-up is necessary.


Assuntos
Hemangioma , Linfangioma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesentério , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292250

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of peripheral nerve injury remains a challenge for clinical medicine. Previous reports have confirmed that external oblique muscle-fabricated nerve conduit (EMC) could effectively be used to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we compared between conduits fabricated from fresh muscle and conduits fabricated from predegenerated muscle for the repair of peripheral nerve defects in a mouse sciatic nerve transection model. We found that the number, diameter, and myelin sheath thickness of the myelinated nerve fibers of the regenerative nerve in the EMC group were larger than those of the predegenerated-EMC (P-EMC) group eight weeks after surgery. The sciatic function index and gastrocnemius wet-weight mass ratio in the EMC group were higher than those in the P-EMC group. The Bcl-2/Bax ratio and the number of Schwann cell nucleus in the proximal nerve stumps in the EMC group were greater than those in the P-EMC group. In conclusion, our results confirmed that the use of fresh skeletal muscle nerve conduit increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and promoted the survival of Schwann cells of the proximal nerve stump compared with that of predegenerated skeletal muscle nerve conduits, thus achieving better functional recovery after sciatic nerve defect.

16.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-452160

RESUMO

In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020), SARS-CoV-2 was detected in farmed minks and genomic sequencing was performed on mink farms and farm personnel. Here, we describe the outbreak and use sequence data with Bayesian phylodynamic methods to explore SARS-CoV-2 transmission in minks and related humans on farms. High number of farm infections (68/126) in minks and farm related personnel (>50% of farms) were detected, with limited spread to the general human population. Three of five initial introductions of SARS-CoV-2 lead to subsequent spread between mink farms until November 2020. The largest cluster acquired a mutation in the receptor binding domain of the Spike protein (position 486), evolved faster and spread more widely and longer. Movement of people and distance between farms were statistically significant predictors of virus dispersal between farms. Our study provides novel insights into SARS-CoV-2 transmission between mink farms and highlights the importance of combing genetic information with epidemiological information at the animal-human interface.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several SARS-CoV-2 lineages with mutations at the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) have reduced susceptibility to antibody neutralization, and have been classified as Variants of Concern (VOCs) or Variants of Interest (VOIs). Here, we systematically compared the neutralization susceptibility and RBD binding of different VOCs/VOIs, including B.1.617.1 (kappa variant) and P.3 (theta variant) which were first detected in India and the Philippines, respectively. METHODS: The neutralization susceptibility of the VOCs/VOIs (B.1.351, B.1.617.1 and P.3) and a non-VOC/VOI without RBD mutations (B.1.36.27) to convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients or BNT162b2 vaccinees was determined using a live virus microneutralization (MN) assay. Serum IgG binding to wild type and mutant RBDs were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: The geometric mean neutralization titers (GMT) of B.1.351, P.3, and B.1.617.1 were significantly lower than that of B.1.36.27 for COVID-19 patients infected with non-VOCs/VOIs (3.4-5.7-fold lower) or individuals who have received 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine (4.4-7.3-fold lower). The GMT of B.1.351 or P.3 were lower than that of B.1.671.1. For the 4 patients infected with B.1.351 or B.1.617.1, the MN titer was highest for their respective lineage. RBD with E484K or E484Q mutation, either alone or in combination with other mutations, showed greatest reduction in serum IgG binding. CONCLUSION: P.3 and B.1.617.1 escape serum neutralization induced by natural infection or vaccine. Infection with one variant do not confer cross protection for heterologous lineages. Immunogenicity testing for second generation COVID-19 vaccines should include multiple variant and "non-variant" strains.

18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 288, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326308

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a global threat to public health and economy. The continuously emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants present a major challenge to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines. In this study, we identified that EK1 and cholesterol-coupled derivative of EK1, EK1C4, as pan-CoV fusion inhibitors, exhibit potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in both lung- and intestine-derived cell lines (Calu-3 and Caco2, respectively). They are also effective against infection of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.1.248 (Gamma) as well as those with mutations in S protein, including N417T, E484K, N501Y, and D614G, which are common in South African and Brazilian variants. Crystal structure revealed that EK1 targets the HR1 domain in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to block virus-cell fusion and provide mechanistic insights into its broad and effective antiviral activity. Nasal administration of EK1 peptides to hACE2 transgenic mice significantly reduced viral titers in lung and intestinal tissues. EK1 showed good safety profiles in various animal models, supporting further clinical development of EK1-based pan-CoV fusion inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

19.
Microb Cell Fact ; 20(1): 144, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) plays both a central role as an intracellular energy source, and a crucial extracellular signaling role in diverse physiological processes of animals and plants. However, there are less reports concerning the signaling role of microbial extracellular ATP (eATP). Hypocrellins are effective anticancer photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents from bambusicolous Shiraia fungi. The co-culture of Shiraia sp. S9 and a bacterium Pseudomonas fulva SB1 isolated from Shiraia fruiting bodies was established for enhanced hypocrellin A (HA) production. The signaling roles of eATP to mediate hypocrellin biosynthesis were investigated in the co-culture. RESULTS: The co-culture induced release of eATP at 378 nM to the medium around 4 h. The eATP release was interdependent on cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, respectively. The eATP production could be suppressed by the Ca2+ chelator EGTA or abolished by the channel blocker La3+, ROS scavenger vitamin C and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). The bacterium-induced H2O2 production was strongly inhibited by reactive blue (RB), a specific inhibitor of membrane purinoceptors, but dependent on the induced Ca2+ influx in the co-culture. On the other hand, the application of exogenous ATP (exATP) at 10-300 µM to Shiraia cultures also promoted fungal conidiation and HA production, both of which were blocked effectively by the purinoceptor inhibitors pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS) and RB, and ATP hydrolase apyrase. Both the induced expression of HA biosynthetic genes and HA accumulation were inhibited significantly under the blocking of the eATP or Ca2+ signaling, and the scavenge of ROS in the co-culture. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that eATP release is an early event during the intimate bacterial-fungal interaction and eATP plays a signaling role in the bacterial elicitation on fungal metabolites. Ca2+ and ROS are closely linked for activation of the induced ATP release and its signal transduction. This is the first report on eATP production in the fungal-bacterial co-culture and its involvement in the induced biosynthesis of fungal metabolites.

20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(7): 2578-2588, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313076

RESUMO

In this study, the treatment performance and underlying molecular mechanisms of nitrogen transformation in a three-stage series of vertical flow constructed wetlands (T-VFCWs) treating rural domestic sewage were investigated at three different hydraulic loading rates (HLRs). Specifi-cally, the T-VFCWs composed of three sequential vertical flow constructed wetlands (termed V-1, V-2 and V-3), which were built according to the topography. The results showed that high pollutant removal rates could be achieved when the T-VFCWs was operated to treat rural domestic sewage, even though the HLR increased from 0.10 to 0.20 m3·m-2·d-1. Effluent quality of the T-VFCWs could reach Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002) class A standard. Regarding to the T-VFCWs operated under the oxygen-limiting conditions, three different pathways for nitrogen transformation could be respectively formed in V-1, V-2 and V-3, owing to the specific influent quality of each subunit. Consequently, the T-VFCWs were effective in nitrogen removal as a result of the collaboration of the three subunits. When the T-VFCWs ran constantly during the test, nitrogen removal in V-1, V-2, and V-3 respectively relied on the nitritation/denitrification process, the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process, and the denitrification process. The contributions of three subunits for total nitrogen (TN) and NH4+-N removal were (51.3±4.4)% and (63.7±2.6)%, (30.9±4.8)% and (35.5±4.5)%, (17.8±5.0)% and (0.8±0.1)%, respectively. This study could provide scientific basis and technical support for the research and the engineering application of hybrid constructed wetlands.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
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