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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 132(5): 056601, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364175

RESUMO

In this Letter, we theoretically explore the physical properties of a new type of three-dimensional graphite moiré superlattice, the bulk alternating twisted graphite (ATG) system with homogeneous twist angle, which is grown by in situ chemical vapor decomposition method. Compared to twisted bilayer graphene (TBG), the bulk ATG system is bestowed with an additional wave vector degree of freedom due to the extra dimensionality. As a result, when the twist angle of bulk ATG is smaller than twice of the magic angle of TBG, there always exist "magic momenta" which host topological flat bands with vanishing in-plane Fermi velocities. Most saliently, when the twist angle is relatively large, a dispersionless three-dimensional zeroth Landau level would emerge in the bulk ATG, which may give rise to robust three-dimensional quantum Hall effects and unusual quantum-Hall physics over a large range of twist angles.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391322

RESUMO

Plant diterpene glycosides are essential for diverse physiological processes. Comprehensive structural characterization proved to be a challenge due to variations in glycosylation patterns, diverse aglycone structures, and the absence of comprehensive reference databases. In this study, a method for fine-scale characterization was proposed based on energy-resolved (ER) untargeted LC-MS/MS metabolomics analysis using steviol glycosides as a demonstration. Energy-dependent fragmentation patterns were unveiled by a series of model compounds. Distinct glycosylation sites were discerned by leveraging varying fragmentation energies for the precursor ions. The sugar moiety linkage at C19OOH (R1) exhibited facile and intact cleavage at low collision energies, while the sugar moiety at C13-OH (R2) demonstrated consecutive cleavage with increasing energy. Aglycone ions exhibited a higher relative intensity at NCE 50, with relative intensities ranging from 95% to 100%. Subsequently, aglycone candidates, R1 sugar composition, and R2 sugar sequence were deduced through ER-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to Stevia rebaudiana leaves. A total of 91 diterpene glycosides were unambiguously identified, including 16 steviol glycosides with novel acetylglycosylation patterns. This method offers a rapid alternative for glycan analysis and the structural differentiation of isomers. The developed method enhances the understanding of diterpene glycosides in plants, providing a reliable tool for the in-depth characterization of complex metabolite profiles.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 132(6): 066002, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394594

RESUMO

The square-lattice Hubbard and closely related t-J models are considered as basic paradigms for understanding strong correlation effects and unconventional superconductivity (SC). Recent large-scale density matrix renormalization group simulations on the extended t-J model have identified d-wave SC on the electron-doped side (with the next-nearest-neighbor hopping t_{2}>0) but a dominant charge density wave (CDW) order on the hole-doped side (t_{2}<0), which is inconsistent with the SC of hole-doped cuprate compounds. We re-examine the ground-state phase diagram of the extended t-J model by employing the state-of-the-art density matrix renormalization group calculations with much enhanced bond dimensions, allowing more accurate determination of the ground state. On six-leg cylinders, while different CDW phases are identified on the hole-doped side for the doping range δ=1/16-1/8, a SC phase emerges at a lower doping regime, with algebraically decaying pairing correlations and d-wave symmetry. On the wider eight-leg systems, the d-wave SC also emerges on the hole-doped side at the optimal 1/8 doping, demonstrating the winning of SC over CDW by increasing the system width. Our results not only suggest a new path to SC in general t-J model through weakening the competing charge orders, but also provide a unified understanding on the SC of both hole- and electron-doped cuprate superconductors.

4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 663: 177-190, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401439

RESUMO

The treatment of wastewater containing hypophosphite [P(I)] and phosphite [P(III)] is challenged by limitations of traditional Fenton oxidation such as low efficiency, secondary pollution and high costs. This study introduced a facile solvent-thermal method to synthesize Cu-Co3O4 nanoparticles uniformly loaded on graphene (Cu-Co3O4/U-rGO) through the reduction and coordination effects of urushiol (U). As prepared Cu-Co3O4/U-rGO exhibited excellent activity in activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the oxidation of P(I)/P(III) to phosphate [P(V)] (0.229 min-1), along with high stability and reusability (91.5 % after 6 cycles), low metal leaching rate (Co: 0.2 mg/L, Cu: 0.05 mg/L), insensitivity to common anions in water and a wide pH range (3-11). The activation mechanism involved the synergistic effects from both urushiol and graphene, which promoted redox of Cu+/Cu2+ and Co2+/Co3+ and induced abundant oxygen vacancies for PMS activation to produce singlet oxygen. Furthermore, the Cu-Co3O4/U-rGO/PMS was also excellent in the oxidative removal of organic phosphorus. This study is expected to advance strategies for the treatment of P(I)/P(III)-rich wastewater and provide new insights for the development of low-cost, highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts with abundant oxygen vacancies.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(10): e2309957121, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422022

RESUMO

Hypoxia signaling influences tumor development through both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic pathways. Inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) function has recently been approved as a cancer treatment strategy. Hence, it is important to understand how regulators of HIF may affect tumor growth under physiological conditions. Here we report that in aging mice factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH), one of the most studied negative regulators of HIF, is a haploinsufficient suppressor of spontaneous B cell lymphomas, particular pulmonary B cell lymphomas. FIH deficiency alters immune composition in aged mice and creates a tumor-supportive immune environment demonstrated in syngeneic mouse tumor models. Mechanistically, FIH-defective myeloid cells acquire tumor-supportive properties in response to signals secreted by cancer cells or produced in the tumor microenvironment with enhanced arginase expression and cytokine-directed migration. Together, these data demonstrate that under physiological conditions, FIH plays a key role in maintaining immune homeostasis and can suppress tumorigenesis through a cell-extrinsic pathway.

7.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To construct an MRI-based habitat imaging model to help predict component percentage in combined hepatocellular carcinoma-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) preoperatively, and investigate the biologic underpinnings of habitat imaging in cHCC-CCA. METHODS: The study consisted of one retrospective model-building dataset and one prospective validation dataset from two hospitals. All voxels were assigned into different clusters according to the similarity of enhancement pattern by using K-means clustering method, and each habitat's volume fraction in each lesion was calculated. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis was performed to select optimal predictors, and then to establish an MRI-based habitat imaging model. R-squared was calculated to evaluate performance of the prediction models. Model performance was also verified in the prospective dataset with RNA sequencing data, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was then applied to investigate the biologic underpinnings of habitat imaging. RESULTS: A total of 129 patients were enrolled (mean age, 56.1 ± 10.4, 102 man), among which 104 patients were in the retrospective model-building set, while 25 patients in the prospective validation set. Three habitats, habitat1 (HCC-alike habitat), habitat2 (iCCA-alike habitat), and habitat3 (in-between habitat), were identified. Habitat 1's volume fraction, habitat 3's volume fraction, nonrim APHE, nonperipheral washout, and LI-RADS categorization were selected to develop an HCC percentage prediction model with R-squared of 0.611 in the model-building set and 0.541 in the validation set. Habitat 1's volume fraction was correlated with genes involved in regulation of actin cytoskeleton and Rap1 signaling pathway, which regulate cell migration and tumor metastasis. CONCLUSION: Preoperative prediction of HCC percentage in patients with cHCC-CCA was achieved using an MRI-based habitat imaging model, which may correlate with signaling pathways regulating cell migration and tumor metastasis.

8.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 23(1): 10, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the most effective diagnostic method for distinguishing pathogenic and non-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in suspected pneumonia cases using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples. METHODS: The effectiveness of mNGS was assessed on BALF samples collected from 583 patients, and the results were compared with those from microbiological culture and final clinical diagnosis. Three interpretational approaches were evaluated for diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: mNGS outperformed culture significantly. Among the interpretational approaches, Clinical Interpretation (CI) demonstrated the best diagnostic performance with a sensitivity of 87.3%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 98.3%. CI's specificity was significantly higher than Simple Interpretation (SI) at 37.9%. Additionally, CI excluded some microorganisms identified as putative pathogens by SI, including Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus parahaemolyticus, and Klebsiella aerogenes. CONCLUSION: Proper interpretation of mNGS data is crucial for accurately diagnosing respiratory infections caused by GNB. CI is recommended for this purpose.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Metagenômica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar
9.
Chemosphere ; 352: 141336, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309599

RESUMO

In the pursuit of a safe, low-cost, and sustainable method for the reuse of landfill-mined-soil-like-fractions (LFMSFs), pot experiments were conducted using seven growth substrates consisting of LFMSFs, tea residue, and peat for the cultivation of Photinia × fraseri. Six of the substrates had 40 %:60 %, 60 %:40 %, and 80 %:20 % volume ratios of LFMSFs to tea residue or peat, and one substrate consisted entirely of LFMSFs. The physicochemical properties of the substrate, growth parameters of the plants, and heavy metal content in the different pots were determined after one year of growth. The results indicated that the physicochemical properties of the substrate, that was composed of a mixture of LFMSFs and tea residue showed a significant improvement in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. However, there was also an increase in the salt and heavy metal contents when compared with those of peat. The plant growth in the LFMSF and tea residue substrate was slightly lower than that in the LFMSF and peat mixture. Notably, the best plant growth and environmentally friendly effects were observed when LFMSFs were added at 40 %. Additionally, most of the heavy metals were primarily removed from the substrate through the leaves of the seedlings, with the heavy metal contents being relatively low. In conclusion, LFMSFs as a cultivation substrate, represent a practical approach for reutilization, which could contribute to the reduction of reliance on traditional resources.

10.
Anal Chem ; 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324760

RESUMO

Molecular vibrational spectroscopies, including infrared absorption and Raman scattering, provide molecular fingerprint information and are powerful tools for qualitative and quantitative analysis. They benefit from the recent development of deep-learning-based algorithms to improve the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions. Although a variety of deep-learning-based algorithms, including those to simultaneously extract the global and local spectral features, have been developed for spectral classification, the classification accuracy is still far from satisfactory when the difference becomes very subtle. Here, we developed a lightweight algorithm named patch-based convolutional encoder (PACE), which effectively improved the accuracy of spectral classification by extracting spectral features while balancing local and global information. The local information was captured well by segmenting the spectrum into patches with an appropriate patch size. The global information was extracted by constructing the correlation between different patches with depthwise separable convolutions. In the five open-source spectral data sets, PACE achieved a state-of-the-art performance. The more difficult the classification, the better the performance of PACE, compared with that of residual neural network (ResNet), vision transformer (ViT), and other commonly used deep learning algorithms. PACE helped improve the accuracy to 92.1% in Raman identification of pathogen-derived extracellular vesicles at different physiological states, which is much better than those of ResNet (85.1%) and ViT (86.0%). In general, the precise recognition and extraction of subtle differences offered by PACE are expected to facilitate vibrational spectroscopy to be a powerful tool toward revealing the relevant chemical reaction mechanisms in surface science or realizing the early diagnosis in life science.

12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 129: 111642, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the treatment efficacy and safety of lenvatinib and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor combined with oxaliplatin plus gemcitabine (Gemox) chemotherapy or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) for patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). METHOD: This study involved 86 patients with advanced BTC receiving PD-1 inhibitor and lenvatinib combined with HAIC (P-L-H group) or Gemox chemothrapy (P-L-G group). Propensity score matching (PSM) (1:1) analysis was used to balance potential bias. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), whereas the secondary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety. RESULT: After PSM, a total of 60 patients were enrolled with 30 in the P-L-G group and 30 in the P-L-H group. The median PFS was significantly longer with P-L-G group (13.7 versus 6.0 months, p < 0.0001) than with the P-L-H group. The median OS was 23.8 months in the P-L-G group versus 11.6 months in the P-L-H group (p < 0.0001). Patients in the P-L-G group exhibited a better ORR (73.3 % vs 30 %, p = 0.002) compared to the P-L-H group. The DCR was the same in both groups, 96.7 %, respectively. The P-L-G group had a higher incidence of grade 3-4 AEs than the P-L-H group. However, there was no significant difference in the any grade or grade 3-4 of AEs between the two groups. CONCLUSION: PD-1 inhibitor plus lenvatinib and Gemox are promising first-line regimens for the treatment of advanced BTC in the multicenter retrospective real-world study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar , Compostos de Fenilureia , Quinolinas , Humanos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico
13.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38405787

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In many diseases, an overabundance of macrophages contributes to adverse outcomes. While numerous studies have compared macrophage phenotype after mechanical stimulation or with varying local stiffness, it is unclear if and how macrophages themselves contribute to mechanical forces in their microenvironment. METHODS: Raw 264.7 murine macrophages were embedded in a confining agarose gel, where they proliferated to form spheroids over time. Gels were synthesized at various concentrations to tune the stiffness and treated with various growth supplements to promote macrophage polarization. The spheroids were then analyzed by immunofluorescent staining and qPCR for markers of proliferation, mechanosensory channels, and polarization. Finally, spheroid geometries were used to computationally model the strain generated in the agarose by macrophage spheroid growth. RESULTS: Macrophages form spheroids and generate growth-induced mechanical forces (i.e., solid stress) within confining agarose gels, which can be maintained for at least 16 days in culture. Increasing agarose concentration restricts spheroid expansion, promotes discoid geometries, limits gel deformation, and induces an increase in iNOS expression. LPS stimulation increases spheroid growth, though this effect is reversed with the addition of IFN-γ. Ki67 expression decreases with increasing agarose concentration, in line with the growth measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Macrophages alone both respond to and generate solid stress. Understanding how macrophage generation of growth-induced solid stress responds to different environmental conditions will help to inform treatment strategies for the plethora of diseases that involve macrophage accumulation.

14.
J Proteome Res ; 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407022

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of multiple chronic metabolic diseases is highly prevalent, posing a huge health threat. Clarifying the metabolic associations between them, as well as identifying metabolites which allow discrimination between diseases, will provide new biological insights into their co-occurrence. Herein, we utilized targeted serum metabolomics and lipidomics covering over 700 metabolites to characterize metabolic alterations and associations related to seven chronic metabolic diseases (obesity, hypertension, hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver) from 1626 participants. We identified 454 metabolites were shared among at least two chronic metabolic diseases, accounting for 73.3% of all 619 significant metabolite-disease associations. We found amino acids, lactic acid, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, triacylglycerols (TGs), and diacylglycerols (DGs) showed connectivity across multiple chronic metabolic diseases. Many carnitines were specifically associated with hyperuricemia. The hypercholesterolemia group showed obvious lipid metabolism disorder. Using logistic regression models, we further identified distinguished metabolites of seven chronic metabolic diseases, which exhibited satisfactory area under curve (AUC) values ranging from 0.848 to 1 in discovery and validation sets. Overall, quantitative metabolome and lipidome data sets revealed widespread and interconnected metabolic disorders among seven chronic metabolic diseases. The distinguished metabolites are useful for diagnosing chronic metabolic diseases and provide a reference value for further clinical intervention and management based on metabolomics strategy.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(8): 4415-4425, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355417

RESUMO

Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) have been used to construct various nanobiosensors with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as nuclei. The SNAs play a critical role in biosensing due to their various physical and chemical properties, programmability, and specificity recognition ability. In this study, CRISPR-responsive self-assembled spherical nucleic acid (CRISPR-rsSNA) detection probes were constructed by conjugating fluorescein-labeled probes to the surface of AuNPs to improve the sensing performance. Also, the mechanism of ssDNA and the role of different fluorescent groups in the self-assembly process of CRISPR-rsSNA were explored. Then, CRISPR-rsSNA and reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) were combined to develop an ultrasensitive fluorescence-detection strategy for norovirus. In the presence of the virus, the target RNA sequence of the virus was transformed and amplified by RT-RPA. The resulting dsDNA activated the trans-cleavage activity of CRISPR cas12a, resulting in disintegrating the outer nucleic acid structure of the CRISPR-rsSNA at a diffusible rate, which released reporter molecules. Norovirus was quantitated by fluorescence detection. This strategy facilitated the detection of the norovirus at the attomolar level. An RT-RPA kit for norovirus detected would be developed based on this method. The proposed method would be used for the detection of different viruses just by changing the target RNA and crRNA of the CRISPR cas12a system which provided a foundation for high-throughput detection of various substances.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Norovirus , Ácidos Nucleicos , Norovirus/genética , Ouro , Núcleo Celular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396734

RESUMO

Dioscorea alata L. (Dioscoreaceae) is a widely cultivated tuber crop with variations in tuber color, offering potential value as health-promoting foods. This study focused on the comparison of D. alata tubers possessing two distinct colors, white and purple, to explore the underlying mechanisms of color variation. Flavonoids, a group of polyphenols known to influence plant color and exhibit antioxidant properties, were of particular interest. The total phenol and total flavonoid analyses revealed that purple tubers (PTs) have a significantly higher content of these metabolites than white tubers (WTs) and a higher antioxidant activity than WTs, suggesting potential health benefits of PT D. alata. The transcriptome analysis identified 108 differentially expressed genes associated with the flavonoid synthesis pathway, with 57 genes up-regulated in PTs, including CHS, CHI, DFR, FLS, F3H, F3'5'H, LAR, ANS, and ANR. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated that 424 metabolites, including 104 flavonoids and 8 tannins, accumulated differentially in PTs and WTs. Notably, five of the top ten up-regulated metabolites were flavonoids, including 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-glucoside, pinocembrin-7-O-(6″-O-malonyl)glucoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-3,7,6-O-triglycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-triglycoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-feruloyl)sophoroside-5-O-glucoside, with the latter being a precursor to anthocyanin synthesis. Integrating transcriptome and metabolomics data revealed that the 57 genes regulated 20 metabolites within the flavonoid synthesis pathway, potentially influencing the tubers' color variation. The high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of PTs indicate their suitability as nutritious and health-promoting food sources. Taken together, the findings of this study provide insights into the molecular basis of tuber color variation in D. alata and underscore the potential applications of purple tubers in the food industry and human health promotion. The findings contribute to the understanding of flavonoid biosynthesis and pigment accumulation in D. alata tubers, opening avenues for future research on enhancing the nutritional quality of D. alata cultivars.


Assuntos
Dioscorea , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Dioscorea/genética , Dioscorea/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Glucosídeos , Cor , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
17.
Anal Chem ; 96(8): 3409-3418, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354311

RESUMO

Untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) provides comprehensive insights into the dynamic changes of metabolites in biological systems. However, numerous unidentified metabolic features limit its utilization. In this study, a novel approach, the Chemical Classification-driven Molecular Network (CCMN), was proposed to unveil key metabolic pathways by leveraging hidden information within unidentified metabolic features. The method was demonstrated by using the herbivore-induced metabolic response in corn silk as a case study. Untargeted metabolomics analysis using UPLC-MS/MS was performed on wild corn silk and two genetically modified lines (pre- and postinsect treatment). Global annotation initially identified 256 (ESI-) and 327 (ESI+) metabolites. MS/MS-based classifications predicted 1939 (ESI-) and 1985 (ESI+) metabolic features into the chemical classes. CCMNs were then constructed using metabolic features shared classes, which facilitated the structure- or class annotation for completely unknown metabolic features. Next, 844/713 significantly decreased and 1593/1378 increased metabolites in ESI-/ESI+ modes were defined in response to insect herbivory, respectively. Method validation on a spiked maize sample demonstrated an overall class prediction accuracy rate of 95.7%. Potential key pathways were prescreened by a hypergeometric test using both structure- and class-annotated differential metabolites. Subsequently, CCMN was used to deeply amend and uncover the pathway metabolites deeply. Finally, 8 key pathways were defined, including phenylpropanoid (C6-C3), flavonoid, octadecanoid, diterpenoid, lignan, steroid, amino acid/small peptide, and monoterpenoid. This study highlights the effectiveness of leveraging unidentified metabolic features. CCMN-based key pathway analysis reduced the bias in conventional pathway enrichment analysis. It provides valuable insights into complex biological processes.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Seda
18.
Int J Surg ; 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181123

RESUMO

Various immunotherapy has been greatly applied to comprehensive treatment of malignant cancer under different degrees of tumor burden. Scientific researches have gained considerable progress in the relationship between immunotherapy and tumor burden in recent years. This review aimed to explore the prospect and developing trends in the field of tumor burden and immunotherapy from a bibliometric perspective. Articles about tumor burden and immunotherapy were collected from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) (retrieved on January 3, 2023). The R package "Bibliometrix" analyzed the primary bibliometric features and created a three-filed plot to display the relationship between institutions, countries and keywords. VOSviewer was used for co-authorship analysis, co-occurrence analysis and their visualization. And CiteSpace calculated the citation burst references and keywords. A total of 1030 publications were retrieved from 35 years of scientific researches. The United States (US) and China published the most articles. The most productive journals were Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy and Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer. The top one institution of the highest output was University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The hot keywords of strong citation burst strength in recent years were "nivolumab", "tumor microenvironment" and "immune checkpoint inhibitor". The most popular tumor type is melanoma. This bibliometric analysis mapped a basic knowledge structure. The field of tumor burden and immunotherapy is entering a rapid growing stage and keeping it value for future research.

19.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1287: 342116, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38182389

RESUMO

Unknown or unexpected chemical contaminants and/or their transformation products in food that may be harmful to humans need to be discovered for comprehensive safety evaluation. Liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is a powerful tool for detecting chemical contaminants in food samples. However, identifying all of peaks in LC-HRMS is not possible, but if class information is known in advance, further identification will become easier. In this work, a novel MS2 spectra classification-driven screening strategy was constructed based on LC-HRMS and machine learning. First, the classification model was developed based on machine learning algorithm using class information and experimental MS2 data of chemical contaminants and other non-contaminants. By using the developed artificial neural network classification model, in total 32 classes of pesticides, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins were classified with good prediction accuracy and low false-positive rate. Based on the classification model, a screening procedure was developed in which the classes of unknown features in LC-HRMS were first predicted through the classification model, and then their structures were identified under the guidance of class information. Finally, the developed strategy was tentatively applied to the analysis of pork and aquatic products, and 8 chemical contaminants and 11 transformation products belonging to 8 classes were found. This strategy enables screening of unknown chemical contaminants and transformation products in complex food matrices.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Micotoxinas , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação
20.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 65: 152352, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To depict the clinical panorama of spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) in anti-MDA5 antibody-positive dermatomyositis (anti-MDA5+ DM). METHODS: A total of 1352 patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM), including 384 anti-MDA5+ DM patients were retrospectively enrolled. The clinical profiles of anti-MDA5+ DM-associated SPM were analyzed. RESULTS: We identified that 9.4 % (36/384) of anti-MDA5+ DM patients were complicated with SPM, which was significantly higher than that of non-anti-MDA5+ DM and other IIM subtypes (P all <0.001). SPM developed at a median of 5.5 (3.0, 12.0) months after anti-MDA5+ DM onset. Anti-MDA5+ DM patients complicated with SPM showed a significantly higher frequency of fever, dyspnea, and pulmonary infection including viral and fungal infections compared to those without SPM (P all < 0.05). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and fungal infections were identified to be independent risk factors for SPM development in the anti-MDA5+ DM. SPM and non-SPM patients in our anti-MDA5+ DM cohort showed comparable short-term and long-term survival (P = 0.236). Furthermore, in the SPM group, we found that the non-survivors had a lower peripheral lymphocyte count, higher LDH level, and higher frequency of intensification of immunosuppressive treatment (IST) than survivors. The elevated LDH level and intensification of IST were independent risk factors for increased mortality in anti-MDA5+ DM-associated SPM patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one-tenth of patients with anti-MDA5+ DM develop SPM. Both CMV and fungal infections are risk factors for SPM occurrence. The development of SPM does not worsen the prognosis of anti-MDA5+ DM patients, and the intensification of IST does harm to the SPM prognosis.

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