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2.
Biomolecules ; 14(2)2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397474

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis, severe alveolitis, and the inability to restore alveolar epithelial architecture are primary causes of respiratory failure in fatal COVID-19 cases. However, the factors contributing to abnormal fibrosis in critically ill COVID-19 patients remain unclear. This study analyzed the histopathology of lung specimens from eight COVID-19 and six non-COVID-19 postmortems. We assessed the distribution and changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including elastin and collagen, in lung alveoli through morphometric analyses. Our findings reveal the significant degradation of elastin fibers along the thin alveolar walls of the lung parenchyma, a process that precedes the onset of interstitial collagen deposition and widespread intra-alveolar fibrosis. Lungs with collapsed alveoli and organized fibrotic regions showed extensive fragmentation of elastin fibers, accompanied by alveolar epithelial cell death. Immunoblotting of lung autopsy tissue extracts confirmed elastin degradation. Importantly, we found that the loss of elastin was strongly correlated with the induction of neutrophil elastase (NE), a potent protease that degrades ECM. This study affirms the critical role of neutrophils and neutrophil enzymes in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Consistently, we observed increased staining for peptidyl arginine deiminase, a marker for neutrophil extracellular trap release, and myeloperoxidase, an enzyme-generating reactive oxygen radical, indicating active neutrophil involvement in lung pathology. These findings place neutrophils and elastin degradation at the center of impaired alveolar function and argue that elastolysis and alveolitis trigger abnormal ECM repair and fibrosis in fatal COVID-19 cases. Importantly, this study has implications for severe COVID-19 complications, including long COVID and other chronic inflammatory and fibrotic disorders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neutrófilos , Humanos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , COVID-19/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Elastina , Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Endopeptidases , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose
3.
medRxiv ; 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38014202

RESUMO

It is unknown how intestinal B cell populations and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires are established and maintained over time in humans. Following intestinal transplantation (ITx), surveillance ileal mucosal biopsies provide a unique opportunity to map the dynamic establishment of gut lymphocyte populations. Using polychromatic flow cytometry that includes HLA allele group-specific mAbs distinguishing donor from recipient cells along with high throughput BCR sequencing, we tracked the establishment of recipient B cell populations and BCR repertoire in the allograft mucosa of ITx recipients. We confirm the early presence of naïve donor B cells in the circulation and, for the first time, document the establishment of recipient B cell populations, including B resident memory cells, in the intestinal allograft mucosa. Recipient B cell repopulation of the allograft was most rapid in infant (<1 year old)-derived allografts and, unlike T cell repopulation, did not correlate with rejection rates. While recipient memory B cell populations were increased in graft mucosa compared to circulation, naïve recipient B cells remained detectable in the graft mucosa for years. Comparisons of peripheral and intra-mucosal B cell repertoires in the absence of rejection revealed increased BCR mutation rates and clonal expansion in graft mucosa compared to circulating B cells, but these parameters did not increase markedly after the first year post-transplant. Furthermore, clonal mixing between the allograft mucosa and the circulation was significantly greater in ITx recipients, even years after transplantation, than in healthy control adults. Collectively, our data demonstrate intestinal mucosal B cell repertoire establishment from a circulating pool, a process that continues for years without evidence of establishment of a stable mucosal B cell repertoire.

4.
JAMA ; 330(12): 1167-1174, 2023 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750879

RESUMO

Importance: While population-level data suggest Rh immunoglobulin is unnecessary before 12 weeks' gestation, clinical evidence is limited. Thus, guidelines vary, creating confusion surrounding risks and benefits of Rh testing and treatment. As abortion care in traditional clinical settings becomes harder to access, many people are choosing to self-manage and need to know if ancillary blood type testing is necessary. Objective: To determine how frequently maternal exposure to fetal red blood cells (fRBCs) exceeds the most conservative published threshold for Rh sensitization in induced first-trimester abortion. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study using high-throughput flow cytometry to detect circulating fRBCs in paired maternal blood samples before and after induced first-trimester abortion (medication or procedural). Individuals undergoing induced first-trimester abortion before 12 weeks 0 days' gestation were included. Paired blood samples were available from 506 participants who underwent either medical (n = 319 [63.0%]) or procedural (n = 187 [37.0%]) abortion. Exposure: Induced first-trimester abortion. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with fRBC counts above the sensitization threshold (125 fRBCs/5 million total RBCs) after induced first-trimester abortion. Results: Among the 506 participants, the mean (SD) age was 27.4 (5.5) years, 313 (61.9%) were Black, and 123 (24.3%) were White. Three of the 506 participants had elevated fRBC counts at baseline; 1 of these patients had an elevated fRBC count following the abortion (0.2% [95% CI, 0%-0.93%]). No other participants had elevated fRBC counts above the sensitization threshold after induced first-trimester abortion. The median change from baseline was 0 fRBCs, with upper 95th and 99th percentiles of 24 and 35.6 fRBCs, respectively. Although there was a strong association between the preabortion and postabortion fRBC counts, no other baseline characteristic was significantly associated with postabortion fRBC count. Conclusions and Relevance: Induced first-trimester abortion is not a risk factor for Rh sensitization, indicating that Rh testing and treatment are unnecessary before 12 weeks' gestation. This evidence may be used to inform international guidelines for Rh immunoglobulin administration following first-trimester induced abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Eritrócitos , Isoimunização Rh , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Isoimunização Rh/diagnóstico , Isoimunização Rh/imunologia , Isoimunização Rh/terapia , Risco , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/imunologia , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Brancos
5.
Nat Immunol ; 24(8): 1370-1381, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37460638

RESUMO

Infants and young children are more susceptible to common respiratory pathogens than adults but can fare better against novel pathogens like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The mechanisms by which infants and young children mount effective immune responses to respiratory pathogens are unknown. Through investigation of lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes from infant and pediatric organ donors aged 0-13 years, we show that bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), containing B cell follicles, CD4+ T cells and functionally active germinal centers, develop during infancy. BALT structures are prevalent around lung airways during the first 3 years of life, and their numbers decline through childhood coincident with the accumulation of memory T cells. Single-cell profiling and repertoire analysis reveals that early life lung B cells undergo differentiation, somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin class switching and exhibit a more activated profile than lymph node B cells. Moreover, B cells in the lung and lung-associated lymph nodes generate biased antibody responses to multiple respiratory pathogens compared to circulating antibodies, which are mostly specific for vaccine antigens in the early years of life. Together, our findings provide evidence for BALT as an early life adaptation for mobilizing localized immune protection to the diverse respiratory challenges during this formative life stage.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tecido Linfoide , Adulto , Lactente , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Brônquios/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Linfócitos B , Linfonodos
6.
J Exp Med ; 220(8)2023 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37133746

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection for most children results in mild or minimal symptoms, though in rare cases severe disease can develop, including a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) with myocarditis. Here, we present longitudinal profiling of immune responses during acute disease and following recovery in children who developed MIS-C, relative to children who experienced more typical symptoms of COVID-19. T cells in acute MIS-C exhibited transient signatures of activation, inflammation, and tissue residency which correlated with cardiac disease severity, while T cells in acute COVID-19 upregulated markers of follicular helper T cells for promoting antibody production. The resultant memory immune response in recovery showed increased frequencies of virus-specific memory T cells with pro-inflammatory functions in children with prior MIS-C compared to COVID-19 while both cohorts generated comparable antibody responses. Together our results reveal distinct effector and memory T cell responses in pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection delineated by clinical syndrome, and a potential role for tissue-derived T cells in the immune pathology of systemic disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Criança , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflamação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Cell Rep ; 42(5): 112512, 2023 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37200190

RESUMO

Germinal centers (GCs), sites of antibody affinity maturation, are organized into dark (DZ) and light (LZ) zones. Here, we show a B cell-intrinsic role for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in GC DZ and LZ organization. Altered zonal organization of STAT3-deficient GCs dampens development of long-lived plasma cells (LL-PCs) but increases memory B cells (MBCs). In an abundant antigenic environment, achieved here by prime-boost immunization, STAT3 is not required for GC initiation, maintenance, or proliferation but is important for sustaining GC zonal organization by regulating GC B cell recycling. Th cell-derived signals drive STAT3 tyrosine 705 and serine 727 phosphorylation in LZ B cells, regulating their recycling into the DZ. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses identified STAT3 regulated genes that are critical for LZ cell recycling and transiting through DZ proliferation and differentiation phases. Thus, STAT3 signaling in B cells controls GC zone organization and recycling, and GC egress of PCs, but negatively regulates MBC output.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Fator de Transcrição STAT3 , Centro Germinativo , Plasmócitos , Transdução de Sinais
8.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 386(2): 198-204, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37105582

RESUMO

Evidence is scarce to guide the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to mitigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine-related adverse effects, given the possibility of blunting the desired immune response. In this pilot study, we deeply phenotyped a small number of volunteers who did or did not take NSAIDs concomitant with SARS-CoV-2 immunizations to seek initial information on the immune response. A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-specific receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG antibody response and efficacy in the evoked neutralization titers were evident irrespective of concomitant NSAID consumption. Given the sample size, only a large and consistent signal of immunomodulation would have been detectable, and this was not apparent. However, the information gathered may inform the design of a definitive clinical trial. Here we report a series of divergent omics signals that invites additional hypotheses testing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The impact of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the immune response elicited by repeat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunizations was profiled by immunophenotypic, proteomic, and metabolomic approaches in a clinical pilot study of small sample size. A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-specific immune response was evident irrespective of concomitant NSAID consumption. The information gathered may inform the design of a definitive clinical trial.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto , Proteômica , Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunoglobulina G , Vacinação , Imunidade , Anti-Inflamatórios
9.
JCI Insight ; 8(3)2023 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36752204

RESUMO

The widespread presence of autoantibodies in acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 is increasingly recognized, but the prevalence of autoantibodies in non-SARS-CoV-2 infections and critical illness has not yet been reported. We profiled IgG autoantibodies in 267 patients from 5 independent cohorts with non-SARS-CoV-2 viral, bacterial, and noninfectious critical illness. Serum samples were screened using Luminex arrays that included 58 cytokines and 55 autoantigens, many of which are associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Samples positive for anti-cytokine antibodies were tested for receptor blocking activity using cell-based functional assays. Anti-cytokine antibodies were identified in > 50% of patients across all 5 acutely ill cohorts. In critically ill patients, anti-cytokine antibodies were far more common in infected versus uninfected patients. In cell-based functional assays, 11 of 39 samples positive for select anti-cytokine antibodies displayed receptor blocking activity against surface receptors for Type I IFN, GM-CSF, and IL-6. Autoantibodies against CTD-associated autoantigens were also commonly observed, including newly detected antibodies that emerged in longitudinal samples. These findings demonstrate that anti-cytokine and autoantibodies are common across different viral and nonviral infections and range in severity of illness.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , COVID-19 , Humanos , Autoantígenos , Estado Terminal , Citocinas , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nat Immunol ; 24(2): 309-319, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658238

RESUMO

T lymphocytes migrate to barrier sites after exposure to pathogens, providing localized immunity and long-term protection. Here, we obtained blood and tissues from human organ donors to examine T cells across major barrier sites (skin, lung, jejunum), associated lymph nodes, lymphoid organs (spleen, bone marrow), and in circulation. By integrating single-cell protein and transcriptome profiling, we demonstrate that human barrier sites contain tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells that exhibit site-adapted profiles for residency, homing and function distinct from circulating memory T cells. Incorporating T cell receptor and transcriptome analysis, we show that circulating memory T cells are highly expanded, display extensive overlap between sites and exhibit effector and cytolytic functional profiles, while TRM clones exhibit site-specific expansions and distinct functional capacities. Together, our findings indicate that circulating T cells are more disseminated and differentiated, while TRM cells exhibit tissue-specific adaptation and clonal segregation, suggesting that strategies to promote barrier immunity require tissue targeting.


Assuntos
Memória Imunológica , Células T de Memória , Humanos , Linfonodos , Células Clonais , Diferenciação Celular , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2453: 261-278, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622331

RESUMO

The development of high-throughput sequencing of adaptive immune receptor repertoires (AIRR-seq of IG and TR rearrangements) has provided a new frontier for in-depth analysis of the immune system. The last decade has witnessed an explosion in protocols, experimental methodologies, and computational tools. In this chapter, we discuss the major considerations in planning a successful AIRR-seq experiment together with basic strategies for controlling and evaluating the outcome of the experiment. Members of the AIRR Community have authored several chapters in this edition, which cover step-by-step instructions to successfully conduct, analyze, and share an AIRR-seq project.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Receptores Imunológicos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Receptores Imunológicos/genética
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2453: 297-316, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622333

RESUMO

Adaptive immune receptor repertoires (AIRRs) are rich with information that can be mined for insights into the workings of the immune system. Gene usage, CDR3 properties, clonal lineage structure, and sequence diversity are all capable of revealing the dynamic immune response to perturbation by disease, vaccination, or other interventions. Here we focus on a conceptual introduction to the many aspects of repertoire analysis and orient the reader toward the uses and advantages of each. Along the way, we note some of the many software tools that have been developed for these investigations and link the ideas discussed to chapters on methods provided elsewhere in this volume.


Assuntos
Receptores Imunológicos , Software , Receptores Imunológicos/genética
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2453: 317-343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622334

RESUMO

In this method we illustrate how to amplify, sequence, and analyze antibody/immunoglobulin (IG) heavy-chain gene rearrangements from genomic DNA that is derived from bulk populations of cells by next-generation sequencing (NGS). We focus on human source material and illustrate how bulk gDNA-based sequencing can be used to examine clonal architecture and networks in different samples that are sequenced from the same individual. Although bulk gDNA-based sequencing can be performed on both IG heavy (IGH) or kappa/lambda light (IGK/IGL) chains, we focus here on IGH gene rearrangements because IG heavy chains are more diverse, tend to harbor higher levels of somatic hypermutations (SHM), and are more reliable for clone identification and tracking. We also provide a procedure, including code, and detailed instructions for processing and annotation of the NGS data. From these data we show how to identify expanded clones, visualize the overall clonal landscape, and track clonal lineages in different samples from the same individual. This method has a broad range of applications, including the identification and monitoring of expanded clones, the analysis of blood and tissue-based clonal networks, and the study of immune responses including clonal evolution.


Assuntos
Rearranjo Gênico , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas , Linfócitos B , Células Clonais , DNA , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética
16.
Acta Neuropathol ; 143(4): 505-521, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303161

RESUMO

Inhibition of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTKi) is now viewed as a promising next-generation B-cell-targeting therapy for autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Surprisingly little is known; however, about how BTKi influences MS disease-implicated functions of B cells. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to its expected impact on B-cell activation, BTKi attenuates B-cell:T-cell interactions via a novel mechanism involving modulation of B-cell metabolic pathways which, in turn, mediates an anti-inflammatory modulation of the B cells. In vitro, BTKi, as well as direct inhibition of B-cell mitochondrial respiration (but not glycolysis), limit the B-cell capacity to serve as APC to T cells. The role of metabolism in the regulation of human B-cell responses is confirmed when examining B cells of rare patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain mutations. We further demonstrate that both BTKi and metabolic modulation ex vivo can abrogate the aberrant activation and costimulatory molecule expression of B cells of untreated MS patients. Finally, as proof-of-principle in a Phase 1 study of healthy volunteers, we confirm that in vivo BTKi treatment reduces circulating B-cell mitochondrial respiration, diminishes their activation-induced expression of costimulatory molecules, and mediates an anti-inflammatory shift in the B-cell responses which is associated with an attenuation of T-cell pro-inflammatory responses. These data collectively elucidate a novel non-depleting mechanism by which BTKi mediates its effects on disease-implicated B-cell responses and reveals that modulating B-cell metabolism may be a viable therapeutic approach to target pro-inflammatory B cells.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Linfócitos B , Esclerose Múltipla , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 118, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332134

RESUMO

Depression is a common and debilitating disorder in the elderly. Late-life depression (LLD) has been associated with inflammation and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6, but often depressed individuals have comorbid medical conditions that are associated with immune dysregulation. To determine whether depression has an association with inflammation independent of medical illness, 1120 adults were screened to identify individuals who had clinically significant depression but not medical conditions associated with systemic inflammation. In total, 66 patients with LLD screened to exclude medical conditions associated with inflammation were studied in detail along with 26 age-matched controls (HC). At baseline, circulating cytokines were low and similar in LLD and HC individuals. Furthermore, cytokines did not change significantly after treatment with either an antidepressant (escitalopram 20 mg/day) or an antidepressant plus a COX-2 inhibitor or placebo, even though depression scores improved in the non-placebo treatment arms. An analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in a subset of individuals for IL-1ß using an ultrasensitive digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed low levels in both LLD and HC at baseline. Our results indicate that depression by itself does not result in systemic or intrathecal elevations in cytokines and that celecoxib does not appear to have an adjunctive antidepressant role in older patients who do not have medical reasons for having inflammation. The negative finding for increased inflammation and the lack of a treatment effect for celecoxib in this carefully screened depressed population taken together with multiple positive results for inflammation in previous studies that did not screen out physical illness support a precision medicine approach to the treatment of depression that takes the medical causes for inflammation into account.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Idoso , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Citocinas , Depressão/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Immunity ; 54(12): 2877-2892.e7, 2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852217

RESUMO

Adjuvants are critical for improving the quality and magnitude of adaptive immune responses to vaccination. Lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccines have shown great efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the mechanism of action of this vaccine platform is not well-characterized. Using influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 mRNA and protein subunit vaccines, we demonstrated that our LNP formulation has intrinsic adjuvant activity that promotes induction of strong T follicular helper cell, germinal center B cell, long-lived plasma cell, and memory B cell responses that are associated with durable and protective antibodies in mice. Comparative experiments demonstrated that this LNP formulation outperformed a widely used MF59-like adjuvant, AddaVax. The adjuvant activity of the LNP relies on the ionizable lipid component and on IL-6 cytokine induction but not on MyD88- or MAVS-dependent sensing of LNPs. Our study identified LNPs as a versatile adjuvant that enhances the efficacy of traditional and next-generation vaccine platforms.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Vacinas de mRNA/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Vacinas de mRNA/genética
19.
Cell Rep ; 37(9): 110071, 2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852222

RESUMO

The persistence of anti-viral immunity is essential for protection and exhibits profound heterogeneity across individuals. Here, we elucidate the factors that shape maintenance and function of anti-viral T cell immunity in the body by comprehensive profiling of virus-specific T cells across blood, lymphoid organs, and mucosal tissues of organ donors. We use flow cytometry, T cell receptor sequencing, single-cell transcriptomics, and cytokine analysis to profile virus-specific CD8+ T cells recognizing the ubiquitous pathogens influenza and cytomegalovirus. Our results reveal that virus specificity determines overall magnitude, tissue distribution, differentiation, and clonal repertoire of virus-specific T cells. Age and sex influence T cell differentiation and dissemination in tissues, while T cell tissue residence and functionality are highly correlated with the site. Together, our results demonstrate how the covariates of virus, tissue, age, and sex impact the anti-viral immune response, which is important for targeting, monitoring, and predicting immune responses to existing and emerging viruses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
20.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788233

RESUMO

BackgroundAntibody-based strategies for COVID-19 have shown promise in prevention and treatment of early disease. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been widely used but results from randomized trials supporting its benefit in hospitalized patients with pneumonia are limited. Here, we assess the efficacy of CCP in severely ill, hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia.MethodsWe performed a randomized control trial (PennCCP2), with 80 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, comparing up to 2 units of locally sourced CCP plus standard care versus standard care alone. The primary efficacy endpoint was comparison of a clinical severity score. Key secondary outcomes include 14- and 28-day mortality, 14- and 28-day maximum 8-point WHO ordinal score (WHO8) score, duration of supplemental oxygenation or mechanical ventilation, respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.ResultsEighty hospitalized adults with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled at median day 6 of symptoms and day 1 of hospitalization; 60% were anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody seronegative. Participants had a median of 3 comorbidities, including risk factors for severe COVID-19 and immunosuppression. CCP treatment was safe and conferred significant benefit by clinical severity score (median [MED] and interquartile range [IQR] 10 [5.5-30] vs. 7 [2.75-12.25], P = 0.037) and 28-day mortality (n = 10, 26% vs. n = 2, 5%; P = 0.013). All other prespecified outcome measures showed weak evidence toward benefit of CCP.ConclusionTwo units of locally sourced CCP administered early in hospitalization to majority seronegative participants conferred a significant benefit in clinical severity score and 28-day mortality. Results suggest CCP may benefit select populations, especially those with comorbidities who are treated early.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04397757.FundingUniversity of Pennsylvania.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Soroterapia para COVID-19
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