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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121115, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525682

RESUMO

It is more economical and feasible to harvest above-ground plant tissues, especially leaves, than to uproot the entire plant during phytoremediation. The major goal of this study is to estimate the promoting effect of an external magnetic field on soil Cadmium (Cd) remediation efficiency by harvesting the leaves of Festuca arundinacea, irrigated by normal and magnetized water. Changes in the amount of emerging, mature, senescent, and dead leaves, as well as Cd concentrations in the corresponding tissues were compared. It was found that F. arundinacea irrigated by either kind of water accumulated significantly more Cd in senescent and dead leaves than in other tissues. After irrigation with magnetized water, the biomass of senescent and dead leaves increased from 15.7 and 6.4% to 17.2 and 11.6%, respectively, and a significantly higher amount of Cd (˜23.6%) was redistributed into dead leaves compared with the control. Thus, significantly more Cd was removed by harvesting the senescent and dead leaves of F. arundinacea. These results indicate that magnetic fields can increase the phytoremediation efficiency of F. arundinacea for Cd, and simultaneously reduce the cost of harvested residue disposal.

2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 593-605, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585906

RESUMO

Fibrosis, or the excess deposition of fibrous tissue, is a critical feature of chronic kidney disease. Here, using renal fibrotic rat as a model, which was established via 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx), the role of TMEM45A transmembrane protein in renal fibrosis was investigated. The results indicated that 5/6 Nx gradually led to histopathological abnormalities and loss of kidney function in rats, which correlated with upregulation of TMEM45A and Notch1. Interestingly, in NRK-49F renal cells, overexpression of TMEM45A resulted in up-regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components as well as induction of Notch-1 and Jagged-1. These effects were weakened by DAPT, an inhibitor of the Notch pathway, suggesting an important role of Notch signaling in mediating the functions of TMEM45A in NRK-49F cells Moreover, TMEM45A knockdown by TMEM45A siRNA in NRK-49F cells diminished TGF-b1-induced upregulation of ECM components, inflammatory cytokines, Notch-1 and Jagged-1. Correspondingly, TGF-beta 1 exhibited pro-fibrogenic like effect in NRK-49F cells and induced TMEM45A and Jagged1/Notch expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TMEM45A plays an important role in renal fibrosis by regulating ECM components and Jagged1/Notch pathway.

3.
Cells ; 8(11)2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726766

RESUMO

Nutrient recycling and mobilization from organ to organ all along the plant lifespan is essential for plant survival under changing environments. Nutrient remobilization to the seeds is also essential for good seed production. In this review, we summarize the recent advances made to understand how plants manage nutrient remobilization from senescing organs to sink tissues and what is the contribution of autophagy in this process. Plant engineering manipulating autophagy for better yield and plant tolerance to stresses will be presented.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735338

RESUMO

Early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT6) is an essential virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). However, ESAT6 helped fighting MTb infection according to vaccine studies. It's unclear whether ESAT6 confers protection via enhancing the innate immunity of macrophages, which are the first-line defense against MTb. We profiled the global transcriptional changes and characterized the innate immunity of THP-1 macrophages treated with ESAT6. We found ESAT6 promoted the phagocytosis ability, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and accelerated glucose metabolism in macrophages. Meanwhile, ESAT6 induced a distinctive phenotype of macrophages with a concurrence of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. ESAT6 increased the expression of HIF1α mRNA and protein. Interfering HIF1α with siRNA defected the capacity of phagocytosis and ROS generation as well as glucose metabolism. Thus, ESAT6 enhanced the protective innate immunity of macrophages partially via HIF1α. This study provided clues for developing therapies against tuberculosis by targeting ESAT6.

5.
Mol Plant ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669581

RESUMO

Qingke (Tibetan hulless barley) has long been cultivated and exposed to long-term and strong UV-B radiation on the Tibetan Plateau, which renders it an ideal target for elucidating novel UV-B responsive mechanisms. Here we report a comprehensive metabolite profiling and metabolite-based genome-wide association study using 196 diverse qingke and barley accessions. Our results demonstrated both constitutive and induced accumulation, and common genetic regulation, of metabolites of the different phenylpropanoid branches in UV-B protection. A total of 90 significant mGWAS loci for these metabolites were located in the barley-qingke differentiation regions and a number of high-level metabolite trait alleles were found to be significantly enriched in qingke, suggesting co-selection of various phenylpropanoids. Upon dissecting the entire phenylpropanoid pathway, we identified a number of determinants controlling natural variation of phenylpropanoid contents, including three novel proteins, a flavone C-pentosyltransferase, a tyramine hydroxycinnamoyl acyltransferase and a MYB transcription factor. Our study, furthermore, demonstrated co-selection of both constitutive and induced phenylpropanoids for UV-B protection in this species.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134466, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704412

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) in soil cause adverse effects on ecosystem and human health. Quantifying ecological risk and human health risk (HHR) from sources can determine priority sources and help to mitigate the risks. In this research, geostatistics and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were used to identify and quantify the sources of soil HMs; and then ecological risk and HHR from different sources under woodland, construction land and farmland were quantitatively calculated by combining the potential ecological risk index (RI) and HHR assessment models with PMF model. Taking Jiedong District as an example, four sources were quantitatively apportioned, which were agricultural practices (23.08%), industrial activities (29.10%), natural source (22.87%) and traffic emissions (24.95%). For ecological risk, industrial activities were the greatest contributor, accounting for about 49.71%, 48.11% and 47.15% under construction land, woodland and farmland, respectively. For non-carcinogenic risk, agricultural practices were the largest source under woodland and farmland, while industrial activities were the largest source under construction land. As for carcinogenic risk, no matter which kind of land use, agricultural practices were the largest source. In addition, the health risks of children, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, were higher than those of adults, and the trends in health risks for children and adults were similar. The integrated approach was useful to evaluate ecological risk and HHR quantification from sources under different land use, thereby providing valuable suggestions for reducing pollution and protecting human health from the sources.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17162, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748581

RESUMO

Ultra-low-loss and large-effective-area fiber has been successfully applied in transoceanic transmission, which is considered as a promising candidate for 100 Gbit/s and beyond 100 Gbit/s coherent long-haul terrestrial optical networks. Several theoretical and experimental investigations have been reported, including provincial terrestrial field trial. To support long-haul terrestrial application, it is urgent to prove that the ultra-low-loss and large-effective-area fiber after terrestrial deployment can significantly enhance the performance of long-haul transmission over 1000 km compared with the conventional single mode fiber. In this paper, we extended our previous work and summarized design methods for complex terrestrial environment. To verify the fiber characteristics in long-haul terrestrial transmission, we installed the longest terrestrial ultra-low-loss and large-effective-area fiber link in the world with a total length of 1539.6 km. The results show that the transmission performances of wavelength-division-multiplexed signals with per-channel data rates of 100 Gbit/s, 200 Gbit/s, and 400 Gbit/s over the ultra-low-loss and large-effective-area fiber are all obviously improved, demonstrating that this fiber is more suitable for ultrahigh-speed long-haul terrestrial transmission.

8.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748715

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in America, and there are no curative options for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Docetaxel (DTX) has been used as a standard chemotherapy for the mCRPC. However, resistance to DTX is a significant clinical problem as half of patients fail to respond to therapy. The TR4 nuclear receptor has been reported to play an important role in PCa progression, however, its linkage to the DTX resistance remains unclear. Here we found that TR4 was upregulated after DTX chemotherapy in the mCRPC cells and patients, and TR4 expression is correlated with DTX sensitivity with a higher level conferring chemo-resistance. Targeting TR4 with an antagonist bexarotene (Bex, a derivative of retinoid) suppressed the TR4 transactivation with increased DTX chemo-sensitivity. Mechanism dissection studies revealed that TR4 might alter the DTX chemo-sensitivity via modulating the TR4/lincRNA-p21/HIF-1α/VEGF-A signaling. Together, these results suggest that targeting this newly identified TR4/lincRNA-p21/HIF-1α/VEGF-A signaling with Bex, an FDA-approved drug, may increase the DTX chemo-sensitivity to better suppress the mCRPC progression.

9.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761927

RESUMO

Glioma is the most common brain tumor with high mortality. However, there are still challenges for the timely and accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of the tumor. 121 samples with grade II, III and IV from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were used to construct gene co-expression networks to identify hub modules closely related to glioma grade, and performed pathway enrichment analysis on genes from significant modules. In gene co-expression network constructed by 2345 differentially expressed genes from 121 gene expression profiles for glioma, we identified the black and blue modules that associated with grading. The module preservation analysis based on 118 samples indicates that the two modules were replicable. Enrichment analysis showed that the extracellular matrix genes were enriched for blue module, while cell division genes were enriched for black module. According to survival analysis, 21 hub genes were significantly up-regulated and one gene was significantly down-regulated. What's more, IKBIP, SEC24D and FAM46A are the genes with little attention among the 22 hub genes. In this study, IKBIP, SEC24D and FAM46A related to glioma were mentioned for the first time to the current knowledge, which might provide a new idea for us to study the disease in the future. IKBIP, SEC24D and FAM46A among the 22 hub genes identified that are related to the malignancy degree of glioma might be used as new biomarkers to improve the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of glioma.

10.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt A): 108801, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606617

RESUMO

Although cost-effective, phytoremediation is too expensive when considering the large-scale pollution. Relative to harvesting the whole plant, it is more practicable to remove and dispose of senescent and dead leaves after phytoremediation. The phytoremediation efficiency of Festuca arundinacea for Cd was evaluated in this study, because over about 7% of the land area in China was contaminated with Cd. The accumulation, redistribution, and extraction of Cd were evaluated in different leaves of F. arundinacea intercropped with N-fixing species at different densities (Cicer arietinum L). The results showed that coordinate and malposed intercropping systems increased the dry weight of the senescent and dead leaves of F. arundinacea by 30-41% and 103-168% compared to the monoculture system, respectively. More Cd was redistributed to the senescent and dead leaves of F. arundinacea under both intercropping systems. Occupying only 22-30% of the total leaf biomass, senescent and dead leaves accumulated 74-88% of leaf Cd under different cultivation conditions. Relative to the monoculture system, intercropping decreased the amount of time needed to reduce soil Cd by 44-53%. The biomass production and Cd accumulation of F. arundinacea were higher in the malposed intercropping system, and it had higher remediation efficiency than the coordinate intercropping system. This study demonstrated that intercropping, especially malposed intercropping of F. arundinacea and C. arietinum L., is a practicable technology for leaf harvesting phytoremediation.

11.
J Nutr ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ectopic fat accumulation in skeletal muscle results in dysfunction and atrophy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) in modulating the structure and energy metabolism of skeletal muscle and the underlying mechanisms in mice. METHODS: Four-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice (n = 30) were allowed 1 wk for acclimatization. After 6 mice with low body weight were removed from the study, the remaining 24 mice were fed with a normal-fat diet (NFD; 10% energy from fat, n = 12) or an HFD (60% energy from fat, n = 12) for 24 wk. At the end of the experiment, serum glucose and lipid concentrations were measured, and skeletal muscle was collected for atrophy analysis, inflammation measurements, and phosphoproteomic analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the NFD, the HFD increased (P < 0.05) body weight (35.8%), serum glucose (64.5%), and lipid (27.3%) concentrations, along with elevated (P < 0.05) expressions of the atrophy-related proteins muscle ring finger 1 (MURF1; 27.6%) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFBX; 44.5%) in skeletal muscle. Phosphoproteomic analysis illustrated 64 proteins with differential degrees of phosphorylation between the HFD and NFD groups. These proteins were mainly involved in modulating cytoskeleton [adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2) and actin-α skeletal muscle (ACTA1)], inflammation [NF-κB-activating protein (NKAP) and serine/threonine-protein kinase RIO3 (RIOK3)], glucose metabolism [Cdc42-interacting protein 4 (TRIP10); protein kinase C, and casein kinase II substrate protein 3 (PACSIN3)], and protein degradation [heat shock protein 90 kDa (HSP90AA1)]. The HFD-induced inhibitions of the insulin signaling pathway and activations of inflammation in skeletal muscle were verified by Western blot analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis in C57BL/6 J mice fed an NFD or HFD for 24 wk revealed that the phosphorylation of inflammatory proteins and proteins associated with glucose metabolism at specific serine residues may play critical roles in the regulation of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by an HFD. This work provides information regarding underlying molecular mechanisms for inflammation-induced dysfunction and atrophy in skeletal muscle.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621035

RESUMO

Diastolic dysfunction is common in various cardiovascular diseases, which could be affected by adiponectin (APN). Nevertheless, the effects of APN on diastolic dysfunction in pressure overload model induced by transverse aorta constriction (TAC) remain to be further elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that treatment of APN attenuated diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy in TAC mice. Notably, APN also improved active relaxation of adult cardiomyocytes, increased N2BA/N2B ratios of titin isoform, and reduced collagen type I to type III ratio and lysyl oxidase (Lox) expressions in the myocardial tissue. Moreover, APN supplementation suppressed TAC-induced oxidative stress. In vitro, inhibition of AMPK by compound C (Cpc) abrogated the effect of APN on modulation of titin isoform shift and the anti-hypertrophic effect of APN on cardiomyocytes induced by AngII. In summary, our findings indicate that APN could attenuate diastolic dysfunction in TAC mice, which are at least partially mediated by AMPK pathway.

13.
iScience ; 21: 1-18, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654850

RESUMO

Aberrant RAS signaling activation is common in cancers with even few Ras mutations, indicating alternative dysregulation other than genetic mutations. We identified a Ras GTPase-activating gene RASA5/SYNGAP1, at the common 6p21.3 deletion, methylated/downregulated in multiple carcinomas and different from other RASA family members (RASA1-RASA4), indicating its special functions in tumorigenesis. RASA5 mutations are rare, unlike other RASA members, whereas its promoter CpG methylation is frequent in multiple cancer cell lines and primary carcinomas and associated with patient's poor survival. RASA5 expression inhibited tumor cell migration/invasion and growth in mouse model, functioning as a tumor suppressor. RASA5 suppressed RAS signaling, depending on its Ras GTPase-activating protein catalytic activity, which could be counteracted by oncogenic HRas Q61L mutant. RASA5 knockdown enhanced Ras signaling to promote tumor cell growth. RASA5 also inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through regulating actin reorganization. Thus, epigenetic inactivation of RASA5 contributing to hyperactive RAS signaling is involved in Ras-driven human oncogenesis.

14.
Top Magn Reson Imaging ; 28(5): 285-297, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592995

RESUMO

The Human Placenta Project has focused attention on the need for noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based techniques to diagnose and monitor placental function throughout pregnancy. The hope is that the management of placenta-related pathologies would be improved if physicians had more direct, real-time measures of placental health to guide clinical decision making. As oxygen alters signal intensity on MRI and oxygen transport is a key function of the placenta, many of the MRI methods under development are focused on quantifying oxygen transport or oxygen content of the placenta. For example, measurements from blood oxygen level-dependent imaging of the placenta during maternal hyperoxia correspond to outcomes in twin pregnancies, suggesting that some aspects of placental oxygen transport can be monitored by MRI. Additional methods are being developed to accurately quantify baseline placental oxygenation by MRI relaxometry. However, direct validation of placental MRI methods is challenging and therefore animal studies and ex vivo studies of human placentas are needed. Here we provide an overview of the current state of the art of oxygen transport and quantification with MRI. We suggest that as these techniques are being developed, increased focus be placed on ensuring they are robust and reliable across individuals and standardized to enable predictive diagnostic models to be generated from the data. The field is still several years away from establishing the clinical benefit of monitoring placental function in real time with MRI, but the promise of individual personalized diagnosis and monitoring of placental disease in real time continues to motivate this effort.

15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(12): 2468-2479, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A high level of LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The E3 ubiquitin ligase named IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDLR [LDL receptor]; also known as MYLIP [myosin regulatory light chain interacting protein]) mediates degradation of LDLR through ubiquitinating its C-terminal tail. But the expression profile of IDOL differs greatly in the livers of mice and humans. Whether IDOL is able to regulate LDL-C levels in humans remains to be determined. Approach and Results: By using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a nonsynonymous variant rs149696224 in the IDOL gene that causes a G51S (Gly-to-Ser substitution at the amino acid site 51) from a Chinese Uygur family. Large cohort analysis revealed IDOL G51S carriers (+/G51S) displayed significantly higher LDL-C levels. Mechanistically, the G51S mutation stabilized IDOL protein by inhibiting its dimerization and preventing self-ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. IDOL(G51S) exhibited a stronger ability to promote ubiquitination and degradation of LDLR. Adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of IDOL(G51S) in mouse liver decreased hepatic LDLR and increased serum levels of LDL-C, total cholesterol, and triglyceride. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that IDOL(G51S) is a gain-of-function variant responsible for high LDL-C in both humans and mice. These results suggest that IDOL is a key player regulating cholesterol level in humans.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of the trend of the incidence of activities of daily living (ADL) disability among Chinese older people is limited. We aimed to investigate the time trends and potential risk factors for the incidence of ADL disability among Chinese elderly (65+ years). METHODS: We established two consecutive and non-overlapping cohorts (6,857 participants in the 2002 cohort and 5,589 participants in the 2008 cohort) from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. ADL disability was defined as the need for assistance with at least one essential activity (dressing, bathing, toileting, eating, indoor activities, and continence). Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with the trend in the incidence of ADL disability from 2002 to 2014. RESULTS: The incidence (per 1,000 person-years) of ADL disability decreased significantly from 64.2 in the 2002 cohort to 46.6 in the 2008 cohort (P <0.001), and decreasing trends in the incidence of ADL disability were observed for all sex, age and residence subgroups (all P < 0.001), even after adjusting for multiple potential confounding factors. Moreover, we found that adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle information, and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and stroke) explained less of the decline in ADL disability during the period from 2002 to 2014. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ADL disability among the elderly in China appears to have decreased during the study period, and this finding cannot be explained by existing sociodemographic and lifestyle information and cardiovascular risk factors.

17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(18): 2265-2267, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490261
18.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113169, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539847

RESUMO

Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been continuously increasing, and more investigations are needed in regard to the responses of various plants to the corresponding climatic conditions. In particular, potential variations in phytoremediation efficiency induced by global warming have rarely been investigated. Objective of this research was to evaluate the changes in phytoremediation efficiency of Noccaea caerulescens exposed to different concentrations of CO2. The concentrations of CO2 in the elevated CO2 treatments were adjusted to 550 ±â€¯50 ppm to match the level of atmospheric CO2 predicted in 2050-2070. Compared to ambient controls (400 ppm), biomass yields and metal concentrations of N. caerulescens increased under elevated CO2 conditions, thus indicating that the phytoremediation efficiency of the species could increase in higher CO2 environment. In addition, water soluble and exchangeable Pb and Cu concentrations in soils decreased under elevated CO2 conditions, which reduced the leaching risks of the metals. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) of N. caerulescens decreased to different degrees with the increased CO2 concentrations. The overall findings suggested that elevations in CO2 can reduce the oxidative damage caused by metals in this species. The phytoremediation efficiency of N. caerulescens grown in multiple metal-enriched soils could be enhanced with global warming.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10553-10562, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490076

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide and detected frequently in fruits, vegetables, as well as in urine and blood in humans. Studies have suggested that CPF can induce metabolic disruption, such as type-2 diabetes mellitus and changed body weight. The main mechanisms are based on oxidative damage, fatty-acid synthesis, and lipid peroxidation. Studies have also shown that CPF can change reproductive hormone (RH) levels. CPF might result in metabolic disorders through altered RH levels. Here, we review the studies showing that CFP causes metabolic disruption. Then, we present the studies showing that CFP changes RH levels. Finally, we discuss a potential pathway of how CPF elicits metabolic disruption.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Hormônios Gonadais/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia
20.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 323, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547829

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association of serum levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D3 in healthy and non-healthy controls with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Three electronic databases: PubMed, EMbase and EBSCOhost CINAHL, were searched for observational studies to measure the relationship between serum levels of vitamin D (VitD) and CD (or UC). RESULTS: Fifty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. We found that mean serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with CD were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (MD: - 3.17 ng/mL; 95% CI - 4.42 to - 1.93). Results from the meta-analysis examining 1,25(OH)2D3 levels in Crohn's patients revealed higher levels in the CD group than in healthy (MD: 3.47 pg/mL; 95% CI - 7.72 to 14.66) and UC group (MD: 5.05 pg/mL; 95% CI - 2.42 to 12.52). Serum 25(OH)D levels were lower in the UC group than in the healthy control group (MD: - 2.52 ng/mL; 95% CI - 4.02 to - 1.02). In studies investigating the level of 1,25(OH)2D3 in UC and healthy control groups, the level of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the UC groups were found to be higher than that in the control groups (MD: 3.76 pg/mL; 95% CI - 8.36 to 15.57). However, the 1,25(OH)2D3 level in patients with UC was lower than that in CD groups (MD: - 6.71 pg/mL; 95% CI - 15.30 to 1.88). No significant difference was noted between CD patients and UC patients in terms of average serum 25(OH)D levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that VitD levels were inversely related to CD and UC. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were lower in patients with CD and UC than in healthy people, and more than half of the patients had insufficient vitamin D levels. The serum level of 1,25(OH)2D3 in both the CD and UC groups was higher than that in healthy people.

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