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1.
Macromol Biosci ; : e2000389, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458940

RESUMO

Chitin is the second most abundant natural polysaccharide with biocompatibility and bioactivity. Aqueous KOH/urea solution is reported for rapid dissolution of chitin, therefore providing a greener and more efficient avenue to fabricate chitin-based functional materials. Chitosan is the most important derivative of chitin with the acetylation degree lower than 60%. Herein, novel chitin/chitosan composite hydrogels are fabricated from the green and highly efficient KOH/urea aqueous system for the first time. Both chitin and chitosan are dissolved in aqueous KOH/urea solutions, then cross-linked by epichlorohydrin to form bulk chitin/chitosan composite hydrogels (CCGEL). The structural, thermal, mechanical, and swelling properties of CCGEL are thoroughly studied. The cell studies show that NIH-3T3 cells self-assemble to form regular 3D multicellular spheroids on the CCGEL samples with high viability. L929 cells proliferate and intend to form cell aggregates, and the size of the cell aggregates becomes greater with the increase of chitosan loading. Additionally, the CCGEL samples exhibit antibacterial activities. Thus, this pioneering work has provided crucial information for novel chitin/chitosan composite materials constructed via the direct dissolution of chitin and chitosan in aqueous KOH/urea solutions, and presented their potential applications in the cell culture and antibacterial fields.

2.
Immunol Lett ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428991

RESUMO

Changes in the thymus and potential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in pristane-induced lupus (PIL) mice are poorly understood. This study aimed to systematically and specifically examine changes in the thymus and the potential mechanisms responsible for immunological abnormalities in PIL mice. The results showed that PIL mice exhibit serious thymic hyperplasia, an elevated thymus index, a damaged histopathological structure and increased thymocyte apoptosis. We found that thymic T cell differentiation was impaired as the CD4+ CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocyte frequency significantly decreased, becoming almost absent at 28 weeks after induction, while CD4- CD8- double-negative (DN) thymocytes and CD4+ CD8- single-positive (CD4+ SP) and CD4- CD8+ single-positive (CD8+ SP) cells were increased. This phenomenon might be explained by an inhibition of the DN-to-DP-cell transition and stimulation of DP cell conversion into CD4+ /CD8+ SP thymocytes. Moreover, we discovered a dramatic and abnormal increase in thymic B cells, that was associated with CD19, Irf8, Ebf1, Pax5, Irf4, Blk, CXCL13, CXCR5, CD79a, CD79b, Lyn, Syk, Btk, and BLNK gene accumulation, which exhibited positive interactions. We further verified that the mRNA expression of these genes was significantly upregulated and consistent with the RNA-seq results. These results suggest a role of these genes in the increase of B cells in the thymus of PIL mice. In summary, our results showed the changes in the thymus in PIL and elucidated the immunologic abnormalities of increased B cells, potentially providing insight into the associated molecular mechanisms and facilitating further research.

3.
J Dairy Sci ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455801

RESUMO

Aroma is an important property of fermented milk, and it directly affects consumer acceptance. However, previous studies have mainly focused on analyzing the composition of aroma compounds in fermented milk in vitro, and the composition may be different from the real aroma composition that stimulates the sense of smell. Furthermore, the relationship between olfactory attributes and the release of aroma compounds was not fully understood. In this study, we selected 6 samples of fermented milk differing in aroma perception intensity based on our pretest. A descriptive sensory analysis focusing on orthonasal and retronasal olfaction of fermented milk was first conducted by semitrained panelists. Artificial saliva was mixed with the fermented milk samples and continuously stirred at 37°C for 15 s to simulate oral processing conditions. Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to identify the head space composition of 6 kinds of fermented milk before and after the simulated oral processing. Twenty-five volatile compounds were identified in the fermented milks, 15 of which were predicted to have an influence on the olfactory perception of fermented milks during oral processing. Partial least squares regression analysis based on chemical and sensory data was then applied to explore the correlation between sensory perception and volatile aroma release. The results showed that oral processing greatly increased the perception of creamy aroma compounds, such as diacetyl and acetone, but did not increase the perception of dairy sour aroma compounds, such as butanoic acid and hexanoic acid. This study can help improve our understanding of the relationship between olfactory perceptions and the release of volatile aroma compounds under oral processing. It might also contribute to the design of palatable fermented milks catering to specific consumer preferences.

5.
J Neurooncol ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394265

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acromegaly is a rare neuroendocrine condition that can lead to significant morbidity. Despite China's vast population size, studies on acromegaly remain sparse. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and predictors of biochemical remission after surgery for acromegaly using the China Acromegaly Patient Association (CAPA) database. METHODS: A retrospective nationwide study was conducted using patient-reported data from CAPA database between 1998 and 2018. The principal component analysis (PCA) and logistic regression analysis were employed to determine independent predictors of biochemical remission at 3 months in patients after surgery. RESULTS: Of the 546 surgical cases (mean age: 36.8 years; 59.5% females), macroadenomas and invasive tumors (Knosp score 3-4) were 83.9% and 64.1%, respectively. Ninety-five percent of patients were treated with endonasal surgery and 36.8% exhibited biochemical remission at 3-months postoperatively. The following independent predictors of biochemical remission were identified: preoperative growth hormone (GH) levels between 12 and 28 µg/L [odds ratio (OR) = 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.92; p = 0.021], preoperative GH levels > 28 µg/L (OR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.88; p = 0.013), macroadenoma (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32-0.96; p = 0.034), giant adenomas (OR = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.05-0.38; p < 0.001), Knosp score 3-4 (OR = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24-0.57; p < 0.001), and preoperative medication usage (OR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.46-3.70; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study spanning over two decades, we highlight that higher preoperative GH levels, large tumor size, and greater extent of tumor invasiveness are associated with a lower likelihood of biochemical remission at 3-months after surgery, while preoperative medical therapy increases the chance of remission.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111489, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080423

RESUMO

To make pollution evaluation of potentially hazardous elements in the soil more accurately, the regional geochemical baseline concentrations of eight potentially hazardous elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were established in Huilai County using cumulative frequency distribution curves. Then, the pollution load index and enrichment factor were applied to estimate the contamination levels, based on these geochemical baseline concentrations. The results suggested that topsoil was moderately polluted by potentially hazardous elements, while Cd pollution in the construction land and As pollution in the farmland was relatively severe. The possible sources of eight potentially hazardous elements were analyzed by correlation analysis, geostatistics and positive matrix factorization. Four sources have been determined and apportioned, namely industrial activities, natural sources, agricultural practices, and traffic emissions. Combining the health risk assessment with the source profiles, the health risks quantified from four sources were estimated under farmland, construction land, and woodland. The results showed that agricultural practices were the most main source of non-cancer and cancer risks under woodland and farmland for adults; industrial activities were the most main source of non-cancer and cancer risks under construction land for adults. Children's health risks, both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk, were greater than adults, and the health risk trends of adults and children showed similarities. Therefore, agricultural practices under woodland and farmland should be controlled and managed as a priority, while industrial activities should be given priority to control and management under construction land.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Metais/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco
7.
Vet J ; 267: 105581, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375962

RESUMO

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a T cell-dependent, B cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Little is known about its cellular pathogenesis in dogs. This study provides the first preliminary assessment of the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood of dogs with seropositive generalized MG. No alteration in frequency of either MDSCs or Tregs in dogs with MG was observed when compared to those in either seronegative dogs with diagnoses other than MG, or healthy dogs. A longitudinal study in three dogs with MG revealed no correlation between the relative numbers of either population and the clinical course of disease. Neither the frequency of MDSCs nor of Tregs showed a correlation with anti-AChR antibody titer in dogs with MG. These findings suggest that aberrations in the frequency of either immunosuppressive population do not occur in MG, but they need to be validated in large-scale prospective studies.

9.
Chemosphere ; 266: 128940, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218720

RESUMO

Elevated atmospheric O3 can inhibit the growth rate of various plants and increase metal content in their tissues owing to the oxidative damage, thereby affecting their phytoremediation efficiency. In this study, a series of O3 fumigation treatments were designed to evaluate the dry weight, Cd content, and transpiration rate responses of Celosia argentea to different levels of O3 (40, 50, 55, 60, 65, and 80 ppb). The dry weight of C. argentea decreased as the atmospheric O3 level increased, and the Cd concentration of the plant leaves increased until the level of O3 reached 60 ppb before decreasing slightly. The variations in the transpiration rate followed a similar trend to the Cd content under different O3 levels. The phytoremediation efficiency of C. argentea increased with O3 fumigation at low (50 ppb) and moderate (55 and 60 ppb) levels, and significantly decreased at the highest level. The regression curves indicated that the plant species treated with 52 ppb of O3 exhibited the highest Cd accumulation capacity. Overall, the phytoremediation effect of C. argentea cultivated in Cd-polluted soil might be improved under the high-O3 conditions. This result might help to choose suitable plants for soil remediation in future atmospheric environment.


Assuntos
Celosia , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(1): 143-150, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transformation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into collagen-producing myofibroblasts is a key event in hepatic fibrogenesis. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the transformation of HSCs. However, the function of miR-489-3p in liver fibrosis remains unclear. METHODS: Here, we detected the levels of miR-489-3p and jagged canonical Notch ligand 1 (JAG1) in liver fibrosis by using CCl4-treated rats as an in vivo model and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1)-treated HSC cell lines LX-2 and HSC-T6 as in vitro models. The expression of profibrotic markers was affected by transfecting LX-2 cells with either miR-489-3p mimic or si-JAG1. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was carried out to study the interaction of JAG1 with miR-489-3p. RESULTS: We found that miR-489-3p was remarkably decreased while JAG1 was increased in liver fibrosis models both in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of miR-489-3p reduced the expression of profibrotic markers and the activation of LX-2 cells induced by TGF-ß1. Moreover, miR-489-3p decreased the expression of jagged canonical Notch ligand 1 (JAG1) in LX-2 cells by interacting with its 3'-UTR. As JAG1 is a Notch ligand, decreased JAG1 by miR-489-3p inhibited the Notch signaling pathway. Moreover, the downregulation of JAG1 inhibited the expression of fibrotic markers. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that miR-489-3p can inhibit HSC activation by inhibiting the JAG1/Notch3 signaling pathway.

11.
Plant Sci ; 302: 110676, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288001

RESUMO

Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an antioxidant and enzyme co-factor that is vital to plant development and abiotic stress tolerance. However, the regulation mechanisms of AsA biosynthesis in plants remain poorly understood. Here, we report a basic helix-loop-helix 55 (ZmbHLH55) transcription factor that regulates AsA biosynthesis in maize. Analysis of publicly available transcriptomic data revealed that ZmbHLH55 is co-expressed with several genes of the GDP-mannose pathway. Experimental data showed that ZmbHLH55 forms homodimers localized to the cell nuclei, and it exhibits DNA binding and transactivation activity in yeast. Under salt stress conditions, knock down mutant (zmbhlh55) in maize accumulated lower levels of AsA compared with wild type, accompanied by lower antioxidant enzymes activity, shorter root length, and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Gene expression data from the WT and zmbhlh55 mutant, showed that ZmbHLH55 positively regulates the expression of ZmPGI2, ZmGME1, and ZmGLDH, but negatively regulates ZmGMP1 and ZmGGP. Furthermore, ZmbHLH55-overexpressing Arabidopsis, under salt conditions, showed higher AsA levels, increased rates of germination, and elevated antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, these results have identified previously unknown regulation mechanisms for AsA biosynthesis, indicating that ZmbHLH55 may be a potential candidate to enhance plant salt stress tolerance in the future.

12.
Magn Reson Med ; 85(1): 30-41, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726510

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To accelerate the acquisition of J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1 H-MRSI) data for high-resolution mapping of brain metabolites and neurotransmitters. METHODS: The proposed method used a subspace model to represent multidimensional spatiospectral functions, which significantly reduced the number of parameters to be determined from J-resolved 1 H-MRSI data. A semi-LASER-based (Localization by Adiabatic SElective Refocusing) echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) sequence was used for data acquisition. The proposed data acquisition scheme sampled k , t 1 , t 2 -space in variable density, where t1 and t2 specify the J-coupling and chemical-shift encoding times, respectively. Selection of the J-coupling encoding times (or, echo time values) was based on a Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis, which were optimized for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) detection. In image reconstruction, parameters of the subspace-based spatiospectral model were determined by solving a constrained optimization problem. RESULTS: Feasibility of the proposed method was evaluated using both simulated and experimental data from a spectroscopic phantom. The phantom experimental results showed that the proposed method, with a factor of 12 acceleration in data acquisition, could determine the distribution of J-coupled molecules with expected accuracy. In vivo study with healthy human subjects also showed that 3D maps of brain metabolites and neurotransmitters can be obtained with a nominal spatial resolution of 3.0 × 3.0 × 4.8 mm3 from J-resolved 1 H-MRSI data acquired in 19.4 min. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrated the feasibility of highly accelerated J-resolved 1 H-MRSI using limited and sparse sampling of k , t 1 , t 2 -space and subspace modeling. With further development, the proposed method may enable high-resolution mapping of brain metabolites and neurotransmitters in clinical applications.

13.
Food Chem ; 338: 128138, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091978

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different curing methods on protein structure, protein and lipid oxidation, lypolysis and volatile compounds in duck breast meat. The results showed that compared to static brining and pulsed pressure salting, the vacuum tumbling curing significantly decreased the oxidation of proteins and lipids, and the surface hydrophobicity of proteins, increased α-helix structure but decreased the proportion of ß-sheet, and increased actomyosin dissociation, liplysis and the free fatty acid content in meat. Meanwhile, vacuum tumbling curing decreased the amount of volatile flavor compounds, hexanal, 2,3-octanone, and off-flavor compounds 1-octen-3-ol and 1-hexanol. This study suggests that concerns on healthiness and the sensory quality of processed meat products should be paid in the selection of curing methods and vacuum tumbling curing is superior in terms of both aspects.


Assuntos
Patos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Proteínas Musculares/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Oxirredução , Paladar
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(1): 228-242, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189294

RESUMO

Reduced-fat foods have become more popular due to their health benefits; however, reducing the fat content of food affects the sensory experience. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the sensory acceptance of reduced-fat foods to that of full-fat equivalents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding whey protein microgels (WPM) with an average diameter of 4 µm, or WPM with adsorbed anthocyanins [WPM (Ant)] on the textural and sensory properties of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese (RFC). Reduced-fat Cheddar cheese was prepared in 2 ways: (1) by adding WPM, designated as RFC+M, or (2) by adding WPM (Ant), designated as RFC+M (Ant). For comparison, RFC without fat substitutes and full-fat Cheddar cheese were also prepared. We discovered that the addition of WPM and WPM (Ant) increased the moisture content, fluidity, and meltability of RFC, and reduced its hardness, springiness, and chewiness. The textural and sensory characteristics of RFC were markedly inferior to those of full-fat Cheddar cheese, whereas addition of WPM and WPM (Ant) significantly improved the sensory characteristics of RFC. The WPM and WPM (Ant) showed a high potential as fat substitutes and anthocyanin carriers to effectively improve the acceptance of reduced-fat foods.

15.
Hematology ; 26(1): 16-25, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies in children. Our aim was to identify a novel miRNA that can predict prognosis of childhood ALL patients and explore its potential mechanism. METHODS: The miRNA expression profiles of childhood ALL were analyzed using GEO database and HiSeq instruments. The expression of miR-155 was examined by RT-PCR in 42 ALL patients. To investigate the role of miR-155 in ALL, four ALL cell lines (CEM-C1, Jurkat, MOLT-3 and MOLT-4) were transfected with miR-155 mimics, miR-155 inhibitors or corresponding controls. Dual-luciferase reporter system was applied to confirm the miR-155 target ZNF238. Moreover, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Dataset GSE56489 and GSE23024 demonstrated that miR-155 was up-regulated and ZNF238 was down-regulated at diagnosis status of ALL. High miR-155 expression was associated with poor outcome. Overexpressed miR-155 promoted ALL cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis. Dual-luciferase reporter result showed that miR-155 directly regulated ZNF238. Silencing ZNF238 promoted cell proliferation in ALL cells. DISCUSSION: Our research indicating that miR-155 might possess potential value as a biomarker for predicting the prognosis of individuals. However, the role of ZNF238 in childhood ALL remain unknown. In the present study, we found the possible role of ZNF238 as a new tumor suppressor in ALL, which might be necessary for the antiproliferative functions of normal cells to counteract ALL formation. CONCLUSION: Our results propose that miR-155 is in association with poor prognosis of childhood ALL. Furthermore, miR-155 could promote cell proliferation targeting ZNF238.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 517-524, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel quadruplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, differential diagnosis and detection of co-infections. METHODS: A one-step quadruplex rRT-PCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab and N genes, influenza A virus (hIAV) and influenza B virus (hIBV). RESULTS: The quadruplex rRT-PCR assay had good sensitivity and specificity. Correlation coefficients and amplification efficiencies of all singleplex and quadruplex rRT-PCR reactions were within acceptable ranges. The 95% lower limits of detection for plasmid standards and positive nucleic acid extracts of the quadruplex rRT-PCR assay were 57.38-95.11 copies/µL and 114.65-154.25 copies/µL, respectively. Excellent results were attained for inter- and intra-assay reproducibility. Among these clinical samples, only four samples showed results inconsistent with the singleplex rRT-PCR assays. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to report a quadruplex rRT-PCR assay for the detection of two SARS-CoV-2 genes, hIAV and hIBV with perfect clinical performance.

17.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 16): 543, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although biomedical publications and literature are growing rapidly, there still lacks structured knowledge that can be easily processed by computer programs. In order to extract such knowledge from plain text and transform them into structural form, the relation extraction problem becomes an important issue. Datasets play a critical role in the development of relation extraction methods. However, existing relation extraction datasets in biomedical domain are mainly human-annotated, whose scales are usually limited due to their labor-intensive and time-consuming nature. RESULTS: We construct BioRel, a large-scale dataset for biomedical relation extraction problem, by using Unified Medical Language System as knowledge base and Medline as corpus. We first identify mentions of entities in sentences of Medline and link them to Unified Medical Language System with Metamap. Then, we assign each sentence a relation label by using distant supervision. Finally, we adapt the state-of-the-art deep learning and statistical machine learning methods as baseline models and conduct comprehensive experiments on the BioRel dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the extensive experimental results, we have shown that BioRel is a suitable large-scale datasets for biomedical relation extraction, which provides both reasonable baseline performance and many remaining challenges for both deep learning and statistical methods.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Mineração de Dados , Software , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258968

RESUMO

To investigate mangroves of different land use types in Nansha county, China, we analyzed the corresponding N2O and CH4 emissions, water temperature, salinity, acidity and alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia nitrogen, and organic matter at five sites. The removal rates of NO2-, NO3-, and NH4+ in mangrove wetlands were 43.6%, 41.2%, and 65.0%; however, CH4 and N2O emissions of mangrove affected by shrimp ponds are 2-3 times and 3-9 times more high than other wetlands. These results showed that, although mangrove wetlands can significantly reduce N, P, and other nutrient elements in shrimp pond wastewater, they can also significantly increase N2O and CH4 emissions. This indicates that mangrove wetlands should be used with caution for the treatment of shrimp pond wastewater.

19.
Chemosphere ; : 128654, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268095

RESUMO

Atmospheric CO2 levels have been increasing with increasing industrialization. Studies have shown the growth response of various plant species to climate change and increasing CO2 levels, but variations in phytoremediation caused by elevated CO2 levels, especially in intercropping systems, have rarely been reported. The current study therefore revealed variations in the phytoremediation effect of Festuca arundinacea intercropped with Echinochloa caudata, a pernicious annual weed, exposed to various CO2 levels (280, 400, and 550 ppm). The biomass yield and Cd uptake capacity of monocultured F. arundinacea were found to increase with increasing atmospheric CO2 level, highlighting the promoted phytoremediation efficiency of this species under elevated CO2 levels. Elevated CO2 levels also significantly increased the dry weight of monocultured E. caudata but did not change the Cd content in various parts of the plant. However, the intercropping system decreased the biomass yield of belowground and aerial parts of F. arundinacea under all treatments, since E. caudata competed with it for water and nutrients. The weight reduction of F. arundinacea in the intercropping system increased with increasing CO2 level, because elevated CO2 significantly increased the competitiveness of the weed. Therefore, the Cd phytoremediation efficiency of F. arundinacea intercropped with E. caudata exposed to 280, 400, and 550 ppm CO2 decreased by 46.1%, 81.5%, and 215.0%, respectively, as evidenced by the decreased dry weight of F. arundinacea. Therefore, elevated CO2 levels could decrease the phytoremediation effect of F. arundinacea in fields where weed growth is unavoidable.

20.
Nat Plants ; 6(12): 1447-1454, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299150

RESUMO

Diterpenoids are the major group of antimicrobial phytoalexins in rice1,2. Here, we report the discovery of a rice diterpenoid gene cluster on chromosome 7 (DGC7) encoding the entire biosynthetic pathway to 5,10-diketo-casbene, a member of the monocyclic casbene-derived diterpenoids. We revealed that DGC7 is regulated directly by JMJ705 through methyl jasmonate-mediated epigenetic control3. Functional characterization of pathway genes revealed OsCYP71Z21 to encode a casbene C10 oxidase, sought after for the biosynthesis of an array of medicinally important diterpenoids. We further show that DGC7 arose relatively recently in the Oryza genus, and that it was partly formed in Oryza rufipogon and positively selected for in japonica during domestication. Casbene-synthesizing enzymes that are functionally equivalent to OsTPS28 are present in several species of Euphorbiaceae but gene tree analysis shows that these and other casbene-modifying enzymes have evolved independently. As such, combining casbene-modifying enzymes from these different families of plants may prove effective in producing a diverse array of bioactive diterpenoid natural products.

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