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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 51, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To better understand the distribution and consumption patterns of resources in different ethnic groups and at different levels of economic development, this paper chose to describe the healthcare seeking behavior in Shanghai. METHODS: The data are from the Sixth Health Service Survey of Shanghai, which encompasses 23,198 permanent residents. Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate the number of patients who reported health-related symptoms and healthcare-seeking behaviors per 1,000 residents. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine differences in reporting health-related symptoms and healthcare-seeking behaviors by age, gender and area of residence. RESULTS: This paper have mapped the ecology of healthcare in Shanghai in 2018. Of 1000 individuals considered during a 1-month period, 444 reported sickness, 433 received treatment, 288 went to medical institutions, 195 went to primary medical institutions, 86 took a self-healing approach, 26 received TCM services, 7 were hospitalized, and 3 underwent surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Age is a risk factor leading to disease, medical treatment, self-medication, medical institution visits, TCM service, hospitalization and surgery. But age is a protective factor in the use of primary health care services. By gender, the number of people receiving medical services was similar, but women were statistically more likely to have surgery. As the income level increased, the number of patients and people receiving medical services showed a decreasing trend. Compared with the local population, the probability of non-local people visiting medical institutions was lower and statistically significant. Compared with the people who had health insurance, fewer uninsured people reported sickness and utilized healthcare services.

3.
Theranostics ; 11(1): 164-180, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391468

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS), the underlying cause of most cardiovascular events, is one of the most common causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide due to the lack of an efficient strategy for targeted therapy. In this work, we aimed to develop an ideal biomimetic nanoparticle for targeted AS therapy. Methods: Based on macrophage "homing" into atherosclerotic lesions and cell membrane coating nanotechnology, biomimetic nanoparticles (MM/RAPNPs) were fabricated with a macrophage membrane (MM) coating on the surface of rapamycin-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) copolymer (PLGA) nanoparticles (RAPNPs). Subsequently, the physical properties of the MM/RAPNPs were characterized. The biocompatibility and biological functions of MM/RAPNPs were determined in vitro. Finally, in AS mouse models, the targeting characteristics, therapeutic efficacy and safety of the MM/RAPNPs were examined. Results: The advanced MM/RAPNPs demonstrated good biocompatibility. Due to the MM coating, the nanoparticles effectively inhibited the phagocytosis by macrophages and targeted activated endothelial cells in vitro. In addition, MM-coated nanoparticles effectively targeted and accumulated in atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. After a 4-week treatment program, MM/RAPNPs were shown to significantly delay the progression of AS. Furthermore, MM/RAPNPs displayed favorable safety performance after long-term administration. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that MM/RAPNPs could efficiently and safely inhibit the progression of AS. These biomimetic nanoparticles may be potential drug delivery systems for safe and effective anti-AS applications.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141747, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889263

RESUMO

In water environment, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are biochemically dependent nutrients following the co-limitation concept for algae growth under mixotrophic mode. From a practical viewpoint, algae growth may not bring about significant change of the background nutrient concentration of an actual waterbody in contrast to a conventional batch system. In order to better understand the growth pattern of microalgae in aquatic environments, a series of experiments were conducted under stably controlled N-P levels for studying the N-P coupling effect on mixotrophic Chlorella vulgaris growth process, with attention paid to the physiological and biochemical characteristics. It was found that within the concentration range of N = 1-8 mg·L-1 and P = 0.1-1.0 mg·L-1, the variation of the N-P level slightly affected the specific growth rate, but significantly influenced nutrients uptake, biomass dry weight, chlorophyll contents of the grown C. vulgaris. The biochemical and elemental composition of the microalgae tended to be more sensitive to the N-P concentrations and ratios in the lower nutrient range (1-2 mg N·L-1, 0.1-0.4 mg P·L-1) in which the highest N and P conversion rates were gained as 90.18 ± 1.23% and 60.47 ± 1.59%, respectively. The P assimilation and conversion efficiencies were much affected by both N and P supplies, while the P supply showed little influence on N assimilation and conversion efficiencies. It was also noticed that the N level greatly affected the metabolic pathway involving nutrient assimilation, carbohydrate fixation and monosaccharide profile, resulting in conversion of the dominant fraction of protein at N ≤ 2 mg·L-1 into other biochemical compositions including lipids at N ≥ 3 mg·L-1. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) composition tended to differ with varied nutrient levels. These findings may deepen our understanding of algal growth in aquatic environment and provide perspective for eutrophication control.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Biomassa , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Águas Residuárias
5.
Water Res ; 188: 116474, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039832

RESUMO

Chlorine-resistant bacteria (CRB) are commonly defined as bacteria with high resistance to chlorine disinfection or bacteria which can survive or even regrow in the residual chlorine. Chlorine disinfection cannot completely control the risks of CRB, such as risks of pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and microbial growth. Currently, researchers pay more attention to CRB with pathogenicity or antibiotic resistance. The microbial growth risks of non-pathogenic CRB in water treatment and reclamation systems have been neglected to some extent. In this review, these three kinds of risks are all analyzed, and the last one is also highlighted. In order to study CRB, various methods are used to evaluate chlorine resistance. This review summarizes the evaluating methods for chlorine resistance reported in the literatures, and collects the important information about the typical isolated CRB strains including their genera, sources and levels of chlorine resistance. To our knowledge, few review papers have provided such systematic information about CRB. Among 44 typical CRB strains from 17 genera isolated by researchers, Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Legionella, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas were the five genera with the highest frequency of occurrence in literatures. They are all pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. In addition, although there are many studies on CRB, information about chlorine resistance level is still limited to specie level or strain level. The difference in chlorine resistance level among different bacterial genera is less well understood. An inconvenient truth is that there is still no widely-accepted method to evaluate chlorine resistance and to identify CRB. Due to the lack of a unified method, it is difficult to compare the results about chlorine resistance level of bacterial strains in different literatures. A recommended evaluating method using logarithmic removal rate as an index and E. coli as a reference strain is proposed in this review based on the summary of the current evaluating methods. This method can provide common range of chlorine resistance of each genus and it is conducive to analyzing the distribution and abundance of CRB in the environment.


Assuntos
Cloro , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(1): 39-46, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671530

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a brain disease that is caused by perinatal asphyxia. Icariin (ICA), which is an active component of Epimedii (a Chinese medicinal herb), has been verified to demonstrate a wide range of therapeutic effects, such as alleviating various kinds of brain injury. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to examine the neuroprotective effects of ICA on neonatal HIBD in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A modified version of the Rice-Vannucci method was performed to establish neonatal HIBD in 7-day-old mouse pups that were pretreated with ICA or vehicle. The infarct volume was measured, and behavioral tests were conducted to assess the protective effects of ICA on the neonatal brain and to evaluate functional recovery after injury. TUNEL staining was used to detect cell apoptosis, and the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) were determined by using Western blot. RESULTS: We showed that pretreatment with ICA could significantly reduce brain damage, improve neurobehavioral outcomes, and suppress apoptotic cell death following HI injury. ICA reversed the HI-induced reduction in phosphorylated Akt and activation of cleaved caspase-3. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that ICA exerts potential neuroprotective effects on neonatal HIBD, which may be mediated by its anti-apoptotic activity.

7.
Postgrad Med ; 133(1): 48-56, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A questionnaire which provides desirable reliability and validity has been previously developed to assess the disease awareness of diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, conventional paper questionnaires often have disadvantages, including recall bias. To substantially improve this, we therefore aimed to explore the feasibility of developing a smartphone-based electronic version (e-version) based upon its original paper version and subsequently tested its validity, reliability, and applicability. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted at Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine in Guangzhou, China, during August 2019. The e-version had identical content to the paper version and was adapted in terms of layout and assisted functions via the Wechat-incorporated Wen-Juan-Xing platform. Eligible patients with diagnosed CKD were invited to participate and were assigned the e-version. Randomly selected respondents received a test-retest of the same e-version 2 weeks after their first completion. In some instances, psychometric properties, including validity and reliability of the e-version, were examined. In others, its clinical application was also tested, which included comparisons among the clinical profiles of patients who had/had not responded to the questionnaire as well as patients with above or below average questionnaire scores. RESULTS: Of the 225 patients screened, 217 were enrolled to participate, with a response rate of 52.5%. Desirable reliability (Cronbachα = 0.962, ICC for total scores = 0.948), while good convergent validity (Cronbachα = 0.962) and low discriminant validity (one extracted component), of the e-version were detected. Performing inter-group comparisons highlighted statistical differences in terms of higher education level (z = -2.436, P = 0.015) and earlier CKD stages (z = -1.978, P = 0.048), with these patients often preferring to respond. No significant differences were detected in the clinical profiles between respondents who obtained an above or below average questionnaire score. CONCLUSION: The e-version is reliable but was not shown to be a valid approach. Audiences with higher education levels and less advanced disease condition may prefer to respond to the e-version. Adaptation of this e-questionnaire, from its original paper version, may not be a direct transition and meticulous modifications may be required during the transition process. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1900024633).

8.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127915, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297012

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-) has become recognized as the most important water-soluble ion in fine particulate (PM2.5), and has been proposed as a driving factor for regional haze formation. However, nitrate formation mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected from September 2017 to August 2018 in Shijiazhuang, a city located on the North China Plain, and NO3-concentration, δ18O-NO3- and δ15N-NO3- values in PM2.5 were analyzed. NO3- concentrations increased as PM2.5 levels increased during both polluted and non-polluted days over the entire year. δ18O-NO3- values during cold months (63.5-103‰) were higher than those during warm months (50.3-85.4‰), these results suggested that the nitrate formation pathways shifted from the NO2 + OH (POH) in warm months to the N2O5 + H2O (PN2O5) and NO3 + VOCs (PNO3) pathways in cold months. Especially during cold months, δ18O-NO3- values increased from 65.2-79.9‰ to 80.7-96.2‰ when PM2.5 increased from ∼25 to >100 µg/m3, but when PM2.5 > 100 µg/m3, there were relatively small variations in δ18O-NO3-. These results suggested that nitrate formation pathways changed from POH to PN2O5 and PNO3 pathways when PM2.5 < 100 µg/m3, but that PN2O5 and PNO3 dominated nitrate production when PM2.5 > 100 µg/m3. Higher δ15N-NO3- values in warm months (-11.8-13.8‰) than in cold months (-0.7-22.6‰) may be attributed to differences in NOx emission sources and nitrogen isotopic fractionation among NOx and NO3-. These results provide information on the dual isotopic compositions of nitrate to understand nitrate formation pathways under different PM2.5 levels.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos , China , Cidades , Nitratos/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 119: 111497, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321598

RESUMO

Understanding a complex interaction between therapeutic nanoparticles and biological entities is crucially important for the development of effective disease treatments in the modern nanopharmaceuticals and nanomedicines. Herein, we present a strategy to thoroughly assess geometrical impacts of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, one of the most promising nanotherapeutic agents) on their biological activities toward treatment of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced keratitis. Specifically, three types of differently shaped AgNPs including silver nanorods (R-Ag), silver nanotriangles (T-Ag), and silver nanospheres (SAg) are employed and interferences of particle surface area and functionality are eliminated to reflect purely geometric effects. Ocular biocompatibility studies on rabbit corneal keratocytes reveal that SAg is the least cytotoxic agent while R-Ag, because of its strongest cellular uptake, induces highest cytotoxic levels. Moreover, SAg is demonstrated to outperform R-Ag and T-Ag in killing S. aureus, possibly due to a predominance of specific particle density and high-atom-density {111} facets of the SAg when interacting with the bacteria. In contrast, owing to its predominance of sharp-tip effects on vascular endothelial cells, R-Ag can suppress blood vessel development in cornea at a greatest extent. In a rabbit model of S. aureus-induced keratitis, intrastromal administration of the differently shaped AgNPs exhibits critical roles of the particle geometry at comparable conditions (i.e., total surface area and functionality) in attenuating progression of S. aureus-induced keratitis. As a compromise among ocular biocompatibility, anti-bacterial activity, and anti-angiogenic capability, SAg shows as the most effective agent that could repair infectious corneal tissues 1.2 and 4-fold greater than the anisotropic counterparts (R-Ag and T-Ag). These findings therefore suggest a promising strategy for a clear-cut evaluation on geometric effects of therapeutic nanoparticles toward preclinical treatment of eye-related microbial infections.

10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 79, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is commonly known as an environmental sensor. Polymorphisms in AhR gene have been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. However, the results were controversial. This study was conducted to quantitatively summarize the association between AhR polymorphisms and cancer risk by meta-analysis. METHODS: Relevant reports were searched in four databases (Embase, PubMed, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure). We used pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to evaluate the strength of the association in both standard and cumulative meta-analysis. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis was also performed, and between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were checked. RESULTS: A total of seventeen studies referring to three AhR polymorphisms (rs2066853, rs7796976, and rs2074113) were identified, and 9557 cases and 10038 controls were included. There was no statistically significant association of AhR rs2066853 polymorphism with cancer risk in the overall population, and the negative results were repeated in subgroup analysis by the ethnicity and cancer type. Concerning AhR rs7796976 or rs2074113 polymorphism, no significant correlation was detected. Moreover, these non-significant findings were stable in sensitivity analysis, and the cumulative meta-analysis indicated a trend of no significant link between this three AhR polymorphisms and cancer risk as more data accumulated over time. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis provides evidence that the rs2066853, rs7796976, or rs2074113 polymorphism in AhR gene is not a susceptible predictor of cancer. Further clinical and functional investigation between AhR polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility are needed.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Razão de Chances
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1585306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299857

RESUMO

Exosomes transmit certain amounts of molecules to specific recipient cells for intercellular communication. Among these molecules, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) may be delivered and translated into proteins in the recipient cells, and these mRNAs are thought to be critical mediators of exosomal functions. There are three subtypes of M2 macrophages (M2Ф), M2aФ, M2bФ, and M2cФ, which have different specific functional programs. The aim of the present study was to screen the mRNA profiles in the exosomes of these macrophage subtypes and to analyze the transcriptomic profile features associated with their specific functions. The mRNA contents of the exosomes isolated from the culture supernatants of the M2Ф subtypes were analyzed and compared using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The results indicated that the exosomes contained particular mRNAs from their source cells and were messengers of cellular functions. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the exosomal mRNAs from M2bФs are enriched in the Toll-like receptor (TLR), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), NOD-like receptor (NLR), and NF-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways. The mRNA profile of exosomes from M2bФ was distinctly different from that of exosomes from M2aФ and M2cФ and was consistent with the M2bФ cytological characteristic of maintaining a high level of proinflammatory cytokine and regulatory factor production. Therefore, the mRNA profiles revealed several characteristics of the exosomes from diverse forms of M2Ф. Further functional investigations based on these results may advance the understanding of the physiological roles of exosome-transferred mRNAs in MФ functions.

12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD010655, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leg cramps are a common problem in pregnancy. Various interventions have been used to treat them, including drug, electrolyte and vitamin therapies, and non-drug therapies. This Cochrane Review is an update of a review first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different interventions for treating leg cramps in pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (25 September 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any intervention for the treatment of leg cramps in pregnancy compared with placebo, no treatment or other treatments. Quinine was excluded for its known adverse effects. Cluster-RCTS were eligible for inclusion. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies were excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight small studies (576 women). Frequency of leg cramps was our primary outcome and secondary outcomes included intensity and duration of leg cramps, adverse outcomes for mother and baby and health-related quality of life. Overall, the studies were at low or unclear risk of bias. Outcomes were reported in different ways, precluding the use of meta-analysis and thus data were limited to single trials. Certainty of evidence was assessed as either low or very-low due to serious limitations in study design and imprecision. Oral magnesium versus placebo/no treatment The results for frequency of leg cramps were inconsistent. In one study, results indicated that women may be more likely to report never having any leg cramps after treatment (risk ratio (RR) 5.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 23.68, 1 trial, 69 women, low-certainty evidence); whilst fewer women may report having twice-weekly leg cramps (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.80, 1 trial, 69 women); and more women may report a 50% reduction in number of leg cramps after treatment (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.86, 1 trial, 86 women, low-certainty evidence). However, other findings indicated that magnesium may make little to no difference in the frequency of leg cramps during differing periods of treatment. For pain intensity, again results were inconsistent. Findings indicated that magnesium may make little or no difference: mean total pain score (MD 1.80, 95% CI -3.10 to 6.70, 1 trial, 38 women, low-certainty evidence). In another study the evidence was very uncertain about the effects of magnesium on pain intensity as measured in terms of a 50% reduction in pain. Findings from another study indicated that magnesium may reduce pain intensity according to a visual analogue scale (MD -17.50, 95% CI -34.68 to -0.32,1 trial, 69 women, low-certainty evidence). For all other outcomes examined there may be little or no difference: duration of leg cramps (low to very-low certainty); composite outcome - symptoms of leg cramps (very-low certainty); and for any side effects, including nausea and diarrhoea (low certainty). Oral calcium versus placebo/no treatment The evidence is unclear about the effect of calcium supplements on frequency of leg cramps because the certainty was found to be very low: no leg cramps after treatment (RR 8.59, 95% CI 1.19 to 62.07, 1 study, 43 women, very low-certainty evidence). In another small study, the findings indicated that the mean frequency of leg cramps may be slightly lower with oral calcium (MD -0.53, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.34; 1 study, 60 women; low certainty). Oral vitamin B versus no treatment One small trial, did not report on frequency of leg cramps individually, but showed that oral vitamin B supplements may reduce the frequency and intensity (composite outcome) of leg cramps (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.73; 1 study, 42 women). There were no data on side effects. Oral calcium versus oral vitamin C The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of calcium on frequency of leg cramps after treatment compared with vitamin C (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.53 to 3.38, 1 study, 60 women, very low-certainty evidence). Oral vitamin D versus placebo One trial (84 women) found vitamin D may make little or no difference to frequency of leg cramps compared with placebo at three weeks (MD 2.06, 95% CI 0.58 to 3.54); or six weeks after treatment (MD 1.53, 95% CI 0.12 to 2.94). Oral calcium-vitamin D versus placebo One trial (84 women) found oral calcium-vitamin D may make little or no difference to frequency of leg cramps compared with placebo after treatment at three weeks (MD -0.30, 95% CI -1.55 to 0.95); and six weeks (MD 0.03, 95% CI -1.3 to 1.36). Oral calcium-vitamin D versus vitamin D One trial (84 women) found oral calcium-vitamin D may make little or no difference to frequency of leg cramps compared with vitamin D after treatment at three weeks (MD -1.35, 95% CI -2.84 to 0.14); and six weeks after treatment (MD -1.10, 95% CI -2.69 to 0.49). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is unclear from the evidence reviewed whether any of the interventions provide an effective treatment for leg cramps. This is primarily due to outcomes being measured and reported in different, incomparable ways so that data could not be pooled. The certainty of evidence was found to be low or very-low due to design limitations and trials being too small to address the question satisfactorily. Adverse outcomes were not reported, other than side effects for magnesium versus placebo/no treatment. It is therefore not possible to assess the safety of these interventions. The inconsistency in the measurement and reporting of outcomes meant that meta-analyses could not be carried out. The development of a core outcome set for measuring the frequency, intensity and duration of leg cramps would address these inconsistencies and mean these outcomes could be investigated effectively in the future.


Assuntos
Cãibra Muscular/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Viés , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
13.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(12): 1028, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268765

RESUMO

Immune escape is an important mechanism in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate roles of SKIL in tumorigenesis and immune escape of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SKIL expression levels in NSCLC cell line, clinical sample, and adjacent normal tissue were measured by quantitative PCR, western blot, or immunohistochemistry. Lentivirus was used to overexpress/silence SKIL or TAZ expression. Malignant phenotypes of NSCLC cells were evaluated by colony formation, transwell, and MTT assays, and in xenograft mice model. Syngeneic mice model and flow cytometry were used to evaluate T cell infiltration. Quantitative PCR and western blot were applied to evaluate relevant mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Co-immunoprecipitation was applied to unveil the interaction between SKIL and TAZ. SKIL expression was higher in NSCLC tissue compared to adjacent normal tissue. Silencing of SKIL inhibited malignant phenotypes of NSCLC cells and promoted T cell infiltration. SKIL-knockdown inhibited autophagy and activated the STING pathway in NSCLC cells through down-regulation of TAZ. Silencing of TAZ cancelled the effects of SKIL overexpression on malignant phenotypes and autophagy of NSCLC cells. Inhibition of autophagy reversed the effects of SKIL/TAZ overexpression on the STING pathway. In conclusion, SKIL promoted tumorigenesis and immune escape of NSCLC cells through upregulation of TAZ/autophagy axis and inhibition on downstream STING pathway.

14.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 115: 103853, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal face mask use was recommended owing to the growing pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, little is known about the public's compliance with mask-wearing behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the public's mask-wearing behaviours in the context of COVID-19. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey from 6 April 2020 to 5 May 2020 in China. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 10,165 persons who lived in China, understood Chinese, and were not health care providers. METHODS: Descriptive statistics were used to assess the public's mask-wearing behaviours. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors affecting the mask-wearing behaviours. RESULTS: Nearly all (99%) people wore a mask during the covid-19 pandemic, with most (73.3%) demonstrating good compliance with face mask use. However, 41.8% of the participants seldom cleaned their hands before putting on a face mask, and more than half (55.3%, 62.1%) of those who touched (n=8108, 79.8%) or adjusted (n=9356, 92.0%) their mask while using it failed to consistently wash their hands afterward. When removing a used mask, 7.6% of the participants discarded it into a garbage bin without a lid and 22.5% discarded it into a garbage bin in their reach regardless of presence of a lid. Participants reported wearing disposable medical masks (93.8%), followed by N95 respirators (26.2%), and cloth face masks (8.5%). Some participants wore multiple masks simultaneously (occasionally 26.5%, often 2.1%, always 1.5%). A total of 5,981 (58.8%) participants reported reusing disposable masks, with nearly two thirds (n=3923, 65.6%) indicating they would hang the used masks in well-ventilated places. More than one-third (37.6%) of the respondents did not replace mask when it had been used for more than 8 hours. Exposure to instructions on face mask use was the strongest predictor of good compliance (odds ratio=4.13, 95% confidential interval= 3.60-4.75, p=0.000). Other factors included specific situations, location, and gender. The influence of age needs further investigation. Most participants (76.4%) accessed information mainly via social media platforms. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all people wore face mask and most of them used it properly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hand hygiene before and during mask-wearing, choosing an appropriate type of face mask, reusing disposal face mask, and disposing of used face masks should be particularly emphasized in future evidence dissemination or behaviour-change interventions. Information on social media platforms for evidence dissemination and behaviour change may benefit the public the most, but this initiative requires further research to investigate its effectiveness.

15.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(9): 1674-1681, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284512

RESUMO

High-normal albuminuria is related to the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness has been regarded as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between high-normal albuminuria and arterial stiffness is uncertain in Chinese population. A total of 1343 Chinese participants (aged 58.9 ± 12.1 years, 63.53% male) were included in this study. High-normal albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) above the median within normal albuminuria. Based on the level of UACR, all participants were divided into low-normal albuminuria group (UACR < 6.36 mg/g, n = 580), high-normal albuminuria group (6.36 mg/g ≤ UACR < 30 mg/g, n = 581), microalbuminuria (30 mg/g ≤ UACR < 300 mg/g, n = 162), and macroalbuminuria (UACR ≥ 300 mg/g, n = 20). Arterial stiffness was assessed by measuring carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). With the increment of UACR, the level of cfPWV was increased gradually (P < .001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that systolic blood pressure, age, serum creatinine, heart rate, logarithmic (LG)-transformed UACR, and fasting plasma glucose were independently associated with cfPWV in all subjects (P < .001). LG-UACR was found to be related to cfPWV in high-normal albuminuria and macroalbuminuria subjects. After further stratification in the high-normal albuminuria subjects, their relation remained in male, elderly over 65 years old, or normotensives. In summary, UACR is associated with arterial stiffness in subjects with proteinuria excretion in high normal level. High-normal albuminuria might be an early indicator of arterial stiffness, especially in male, elderly, or normotensives in Chinese population. Furthermore, age and blood pressure are still observed to be the most important risk factor of arterial stiffness.

16.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(6): 1952-1956, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect the relationship between CTGF in the bone marrow of MM patients and osteolytic lesion of myeloma, moreover, to investigate the clinical significance of CTGF in MM. METHODS: Fifity-four MM patients treated in our hospital from March 2019 to April 2020 were enrolled, and 28 healthy volunteers were selected as the control group. The plasma in bone marrow of the patients was collected, and the ELISA was used to detect the level of CTGF in bone marrow plasma and the relationship between its and clinical characteristics were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The CTGF level of MM patients was significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (P<0.001); the CTGF level in male patients was higher than that in female patients (P=0.007); the CTGF level in MM patients with osteolytic lesions was significantly higher than patients without osteolytic lesions and controls (P=0.007, P=0.001). The CTGF level in MM patients was positively correlated with the number of bone lesions (P<0.001, r=0.52). CTGF levels in patients with ≥3 bone lesions were significantly higher than those with <3 bone lesions and without bone lesions (P=0.014, P=0.002). ROC curve result showed that CTGF expression level shows a significant diagnostic value for MM bone disease (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The abnormally high expression of CTGF level in MM patients is related to the degree of myelomas osteolytic lesions and can reflect the progress of MM.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Osteólise , Medula Óssea , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes , Curva ROC
17.
Exp Dermatol ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325128

RESUMO

Topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) is considered to be the most effective treatment of severe AA. However, the mechanism is unclear and an early predictor for the efficacy needs to be explored. The TSLP/OX40L/IL-13 pathway is an important pathway to initiate and maintain Th2 immune responses. Our previous work suggests this pathway may play a role in severe AA treated with DPCP. Thus, to further investigate the mechanism of TSLP/OX40L/IL-13 pathway in severe AA treated with DPCP and explore the predictor for the efficacy of DPCP therapy, we conducted a prospective study to compare expression levels of TSLP, OX40L, Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL13, and Th1 cytokine IFN-γ in severe AA patients before and after the treatment. Results showed that 21 AA patients were responsive (responders) to the DPCP therapy and 12 were not responsive (non-responders). Responders had lower levels of TSLP, OX40L and IL-13 than non-responders before the treatment. After the DPCP treatment, TSLP, IL-5 and IL-13 increased and IFN-γ decreased in responders while there were no changes of TSLP, IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-γ in non-responders. Our data suggest that the TSLP/OX40L/IL-13 pathway is down-regulated in some severe AA patients and DPCP might play a therapeutic role by up-regulating the pathway in these severe AA patients. The TSLP/OX40L/IL-13 pathway could be a predictor of response to the DPCP therapy for severe AA patients.

18.
AIDS Care ; : 1-9, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190511

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the effect of childhood parental rearing on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among young HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), as well as the mediation effect of social support on this association. A convenient sampling method and questionnaire-based survey were used to recruit eligible participants from the Wuhan Medical Treatment Center from 20 December 2018 to 28 February 2019. Bivariate analyses were used to investigate the correlations between PTSD and childhood parental rearing, the number of sexual partners and social support. Mediation analyses were used to investigate the mediation of social support. Totally, 142 eligible MSM participated in our study, with prevalence of PTSD being 33.10%. It was found that maternal warmth (M1) and maternal favoring (M5) were positively correlated with social support. Paternal rejection (F5) was positively correlated with PTSD. The effects of M1 and M5 on PTSD were completely mediated by social support. The effects of paternal favoring (F4) and M5 on PTSD were completely mediated by subjective social support, and the effects of F5 and M1 were completely mediated by social support utility. Social support was an important mediator between parental rearing and PTSD.

19.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 910-915, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the incidence of chromosomal polymorphisms in prenatal cytogenetic diagnostic cases and the effect of the clinical manifestation of these fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 490 fetuses with chromosomal polymorphisms among 9996 pregnant women who underwent prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis were included in this study and were set as group 1. Other 500 pregnant women, whose fetuses were with normal karyotypes, were randomly selected from the remaining pregnant women and set as group 2. Clinical information and outcomes and maternal serum screening results of group 1 were compared with group 2. RESULTS: The frequency of fetal chromosomal polymorphism was 4.90% (490/9996). The most common variants observed were 1/9/16 qh± (2.27%, 227/9996), followed by inv(9) (0.90%, 90/9996). 94.62% (264/279) of fetal chromosomal variants were inherited from parents. No statistical difference was found in clinical information and outcomes and maternal serum screening results between group 1 and group 2. CONCLUSION: The fetus with chromosomal polymorphism has no impact on serum markers of second trimester screening and does not play an important role for the clinical outcome of the current pregnancy either, whether it is inherited from the parents or a de novo mutation.

20.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, immunonutrition has been introduced and proposed to have a positive modulatory effect on inflammatory and immune responses and gut function for surgical patients, especially for patients undergoing gastrointestinal cancer resection. We conducted this parallel-group, randomized and double-blind clinical controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of perioperative enteral immunonutrition (EIN) on clinical and immunological outcomes of patients undergoing esophageal resection. METHODS: A randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted between December 1, 2017 and March 1, 2018. This study enrolled 120 patients with esophageal cancer. And 112 patients were divided into two groups randomly: EIN group and enteral nutrition (EN) group. The EIN contained extra immunonutritional substrates, including a consistent combination of arginine, RNA and the omega-3 fatty acids compared with EN. Immune indicators were measured at preoperative day 7, postoperative day (POD) 1, 3, 7 and post-discharge day (PDD) 30. RESULTS: There were 56 participants randomized to each group. Finally, 53 patients in EIN and 50 patients in EN were analyzed. Immune indicator was the primary outcome in this study. EIN yielded a significantly lower rate of CD8/CD3 (%) at POD 3 compared with EN group (P=0.005). The rate of CD4/CD8 (%) in EIN group was higher than that in EN group at POD3 (P=0.004). The serum levels of IgM at POD 3 and 7 were significantly higher in EN group compared with EIN group (P=0.025 and P=0.009, respectively). The rate of NK (%) and the serum level of IgA were significantly higher in EIN group compared with EN group at PDD 30 (P=0.022 and P=0.041, respectively). No significant differences were found in 2-year progressionfree survival and overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Immunonutrition is a safe and feasible nutritional treatment, which has a positive modulatory impact on immune responses after esophagectomy. Although no significant difference was found in clinical and survival outcomes between EIN and EN groups, immunonutrition could still have a positive effect on immunological function of patients undergoing esophagectomy.

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