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1.
Radiat Oncol ; 16(1): 68, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a promising ablative modality for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially for those with small-sized or early-stage tumors. This study aimed to synthesize available data to evaluate efficacy and explore related predictors of SBRT for small liver-confined HCC (≤ 3 lesions with longest diameter ≤ 6 cm). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search were performed of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) of small HCC treated with SBRT, meanwhile, to evaluate clinical parameters associated with treatment outcome by two methods including subgroup comparisons and pooled HR meta-analysis. The secondary endpoint was treatment toxicity. RESULTS: After a comprehensive database review, 14 observational studies with 1238 HCC patients received SBRT were included. Pooled 1-year and 3-year OS rates were 93.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 88.0-96.0%) and 72.0% (95% CI 62.0-79.0%), respectively. Pooled 1-year and 3-year LC rates were 96.0% (95% CI 91.0-98.0%) and 91.0% (95% CI 85.0-95.0%), respectively. Subgroup comparisons regarding Child-Pugh class (stratified by CP-A percentage 100%, 75-100%, 50-75%) showed there were statistically significant differences for both 1-year and 3-year OS rate (p < 0.01), while that regarding number of lesions, pretreatment situation, age (median/mean age of 65), macrovascular invasion, tumor size, and radiation dose (median BED10 of 100 Gy), there were no differences. In subgroup comparisons for LC rate, it showed number of lesions (1 lesion vs. 2-3 lesions) was significantly associated with 1-year LC rate (p = 0.04), though not associated with 3-year LC rate (p = 0.72). In subgroup comparisons categorized by other factors including pretreatment situation, age, CP-A percentage, macrovascular invasion, tumor size, and radiation dose, there were no significant differences for 1- or 3-year LC rate. To further explore the association between CP class and OS, the second method was applied by combining HR and 95% CIs. Results indicated CP-A was predictive of better OS (p = 0.001) with pooled HR 0.31 (95% CIs 0.11-0.88), which was consistent with subgroup comparison results. Concerning adverse effect of SBRT, pooled rates of grade ≥ 3 hepatic complications and RILD were 4.0% (95% CI 2.0-8.0%) and 14.7% (95% CI 7.4-24.7%), respectively. CONCLUSION: The study showed that SBRT was a potent local treatment for small liver-confined HCC conferring excellent OS and LC persisting up to 3 years, even though parts of included patients were pretreated or with macrovascular invasion. CP-A class was a significant predictor of optimal OS, while number of lesions might affect short term tumor control (1-year LC). Tumor size and radiation dose were not vital factors impacting treatment outcome for such small-sized HCC patients. Because of the low quality of observational studies and heterogeneous groups of patients treated with SBRT, further clinical trials should be prospectively investigated in large sample sizes.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823285

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) is an antibody-drug conjugate targeting delta-like protein 3 (DLL3), an atypical Notch ligand expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumors. We evaluated the efficacy of Rova-T versus placebo as maintenance therapy in patients with extensive stage (ES) SCLC after platinum-based chemotherapy. METHODS: MERU was a phase 3 randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Patients without disease progression following 4 cycles of platinum-based front-line chemotherapy were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive 0.3 mg/kg Rova-T or placebo (q6wk, omitted every third cycle). Primary efficacy endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by the Central Radiographic Assessment Committee (CRAC) and overall survival (OS) in DLL3-high patients. RESULTS: Median age of all randomized patients (N=748) was 64 years; 78% had TNM stage IV disease. At futility analysis of the DLL3-high subset, the hazard ratio (HR) for OS was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.84-1.36) favoring placebo arm, with median OS of 8.5 and 9.8 months in the Rova-T and placebo arms, respectively; futility criteria were met. Rova-T significantly improved PFS versus placebo by investigator assessment (4.0 versus 1.4 months, HR=0.48; P<0.001). Any-grade adverse events (≥20%) in the Rova-T arm were pleural effusion (27%), decreased appetite (27%), peripheral edema (26%), photosensitivity reaction (25%), fatigue (25%), nausea (22%), and dyspnea (21%). CONCLUSIONS: Due to the lack of survival benefit in the Rova-T arm, the study did not meet its primary endpoint and was terminated early. As a result, CRAC assessment of PFS was not performed. The frequency of Grade ≥3 and drug-related toxicities were higher with Rova-T vs placebo. Rova-T was associated with unique toxicities such as pleural and pericardial effusions, photosensitivity reaction, and peripheral edema, which should be carefully considered in the ES SCLC population.

3.
J Gene Med ; : e3340, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ectopic thymic carcinoma (TC) is an extremely rare disease with a poor prognosis. Whereas the main treatment for early TC is surgery, effective treatment for advanced TC is lacking. METHODS: We present here the case of a 61-year-old man with advanced posterior mediastinum thymic squamous cell carcinoma. Amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were used to investigate the molecular and mutational characteristics of this tumour. RESULTS: After chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the tumour showed disease progression. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour was positive for CD117 (specific for primary TC), CK19, CD56, and Ki67. ARMS-PCR analysis revealed an EGFR exon 19 deletion in the patient. The patient subsequently received icotinib treatment and achieved complete remission for 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: This case report suggests that tyrosine kinase inhibitors are a potential treatment strategy for patients with TC having EGFR alterations.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831067

RESUMO

To analyze the results of HIV screening and the HIV-positive rate based on different HIV detection strategies in Zhejiang Province, China. Data were downloaded from the AIDS Prevention and Control Information System on May 1, 2019. HIV screening, prevalence, and incidence data were analyzed from 2008 to 2018. The incidence of HIV was calculated from the results of BED testing. SPSS software (ver. 19.0) was used for the analysis. The number of people screened for HIV increased by 229.7% from 2008 to 2018, while the incidence of HIV increased from 1.14‱ (2010) to 1.67‱ (2018), peak by 2015 (2.28‱). The proportion of people screened for HIV in medical institutions increased from 62.0% in 2008 to 67.1% in 2018, while of all positive tests, 47.9% were conducted at medical institutions in 2008, which increased to 63.2% in 2018. VCT and STD clinic attendees, who had only 4.5% of all those undergoing HIV tests, accounted for 23.7% of all HIV positive in 2018. The rate of HIV-positive people and incidence of HIV both increased in Zhejiang Province between 2008 and 2015. The most effective strategy for detecting HIV new cases is screening visitors to VCT and STD clinics.

5.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 142, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preoperative prediction of post hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is essential, but there is no gold standard for the prediction at present, and the efficacy of different methods for the prediction has not been compared systematically. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of preoperative two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE), indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test and biomarkers for PHLF prediction in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 215 patients with HCC, who had undergone major liver resection in our hospital. Preoperative data of each patient, including liver stiffness value (LSV) of underlying hepatic parenchyma measured by 2D-SWE, ICG retention rate at 15 min (ICG-R15) measured by ICG clearance test, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) scores, aspartate aminotransferase-platelet ratio index (APRI), and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) were collected for analysis. Post hepatectomy outcomes of study patients were also recorded for assessment of PHLF. The study patients were divided into development cohort (133 patients without PHLF, and 17 patients with PHLF) and validation cohort (59 patients without PHLF, and 6 patients with PHLF) randomly. RESULTS: In the development cohort, LSV, ICG-R15 and ALBI scores were significantly different between patients with and without PHLF, while no significant difference of APRI and FIB-4 scores was found. LSV had higher AUC (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) (AUC = 0.795) for PHLF prediction than ICG-R15 (AUC = 0.619) and ALBI scores (AUC = 0.686) (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). In the validation cohort, the cutoff value of LSV obtained from the development cohort, 10.35 kPa,  revealed higher specificity (76.3%) for PHLF prediction than ICG-R15 (specificity: 66.1%) and ALBI scores (specificity: 69.5%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ICG-R15, ALBI scores, APRI and FIB-4, LSV measured by 2D-SWE may demonstrate better efficacy for preoperative PHLF prediction in patients with HCC.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805346

RESUMO

Urea is largely derived from the urea cycle reactions through hepatic detoxification of free ammonia and cleared by urination, and the serum urea level is a crucial medical indicator for measuring the kidney function in patients with nephropathy; however, investigative revelations pointing to the serum urea level as a risk factor for cancer are very scarce, and relevant studies are restricted by potential biases. We aimed to explore the causal relationships of the serum urea level with cancer development by focusing on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) using the Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. Summary estimates were collected from the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method based on six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The selected SNPs related to the serum urea were obtained from a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 13,312 European participants. The summary statistics of RCC were also available from public databases (IARC, n = 5219 cases, n = 8011 controls). Sensitivity analyses included the weighted median and MR-Egger methods. Serum urea was inversely associated with RCC in females (effect = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.24 to 3.01; p = 0.004) but exhibited null association with RCC in males, breast cancer (BRCA) in both genders and prostate cancer (PCa) in males. Similar conclusions were also drawn from the weighted median and MR-Egger. These findings reveal an intriguing link between serum urea and cancer risks for the very first time. Without ambiguity, the serum urea is causatively related to RCC specifically in females, although the mechanism(s) by which urea is involved in RCC development remains to be experimentally/clinically investigated. Our studies may well provide novel insights for RCC diagnosis, intervention and/or therapy.

7.
World J Surg ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Readmission to intensive care unit (ICU) after esophageal cancer surgery is a major concern and can be associated with increased adverse outcomes. This study aims to explore causes, risk factors and early outcomes. METHODS: We performed a monocentric retrospective analysis in 1140 patients who received esophageal cancer surgery in a higher volume surgeon group between January 2016 and December 2019, at Shanghai Chest Hospital. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify risk factors, and 1:4 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was conducted to compare early outcomes. RESULTS: The incidence of ICU readmission was about 3.8% (43 of 1140). The most common cause was respiratory failure, found in 30 patients (70%). ICU readmission mainly occurred within 3 days after surgery, accounting for 46.5% (20 of 43), with the median length of stay was 3 days. Multivariate analysis identified heavy smoking (odds ratio[OR] = 2.445, 95% CI = 1.128 to 5.301, P = 0.024), intraoperative hypoxemia (OR = 2.461, 95% CI = 1.078 to 5.621, P = 0.033), mechanical ventilation during initial ICU stay (OR = 16.036, 95% CI = 7.332 to 35.074, P < 0.001), postoperative anemia (OR = 3.993, 95% CI = 1.893 to 8.420, P < 0.001) and unplanned reoperation (OR = 45.378, 95% CI = 13.023 to 158.122, P < 0.001) as independent risk factors for ICU readmission. Compared with no-readmitted patients, patients readmitted to ICU were associated with increased postoperative pulmonary complications (44.2% vs 97.7%, P < 0.001), prolonged median length of hospital stay (9[7-11] vs 19[13-30], P < 0.001) and ICU stay (1[1-3] vs 7[4-11], P < 0.001), higher hospitalization expenses (14,916 ± 3483 vs 19,850 ± 7595 dollars, P < 0.001) and 30-day readmission rates (1.8% vs 9.3%, P = 0.011). After 1:4 PSM, the baseline characteristics were comparable and the matched results were similar. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified five independent risk factors for ICU readmission, which were associated with adverse early outcomes. Preemptive attention given to pulmonary complications within three days after surgery may be important to prevent patients from ICU readmission.

8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1065-1072, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742902

RESUMO

With the rapid development of China's economy and society, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of surface soil has attracted increasing attention. Based on a systematic review, this study identified 166 relevant papers (published from 2000 to 2020) dealing with the contamination of 16 PAHs in the surface soil of China and summarized the pollution level, temporal, and spatial distribution influencing factors of PAHs with statistics, spatial interpolation analysis, and source analysis methods. The results showed that the surface soil of China has been polluted by human-caused PAHs, with a median concentration of 675.70 µg·kg-1. Although the overall condition is good, some sampling points have been seriously polluted. Among the monomers of PAHs, the concentrations of fluoranthene (Fla) and pyrene (Pyr) are high, while acenaphthylene (Acy) and acenaphthene (Ace) are relatively low. During the survey period, the concentration data of surface soil PAHs are generally within the moderate pollution levels of 313.10-1070.45 µg·kg-1, while the annual changes of PAHs do not show obvious fluctuations and are less affected by oil production and consumption. Statistics and spatial interpolation results show that PAH pollution in the surface soil of China has regional characteristics, where the concentration decreases in order from northwest, north, east, northeast, southwest, and south-central China. The pollution level in most provinces is "contaminated" or "weakly contaminated." From the source analysis results, PAH pollution in surface soils in most areas of China comes from the high-temperature combustion of fossil fuels such as petroleum, biomass, and coal. Heilongjiang and some northwestern regions (e.g., Xinjiang and Tibet) were mainly represented by oil source pollution. Such results could provide a reference for soil environmental management and PAH pollution control in China.

10.
Genes Genet Syst ; 95(6): 315-321, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642437

RESUMO

Asthma is one of the most common diseases, with a high prevalence among children. To date, systemic co-expression analysis for this disease has not been undertaken to explain its pathogenesis. Here we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in 87 samples, and then constructed co-expression modules via weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and investigated the functional enrichment of co-expressed genes in terms of Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Meanwhile, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and miRNA-transcription factor-target (miRNA-TF-target) regulatory network analyses were performed to screen hub genes. As a result, 3,469 DEGs were identified in this study, of which 1,860 genes were up-regulated and 1,609 genes were down-regulated. Using WGCNA, we identified two key modules, named MEbrown and MEblue, that may play important roles in asthma. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that MEbrown was enriched in 37 KEGG pathways and 472 biological processes (BPs), while MEblue was enriched in 16 KEGG pathways and 449 BPs. From PPI and miRNA-TF-target regulatory network analysis, a total of 31 TFs, seven miRNAs and 28 nodes were identified. Our findings should provide a framework of therapeutic targets for treating children with acute asthma.

11.
Vascul Pharmacol ; : 106854, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781961

RESUMO

Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP-4) Inhibitor, has been found to have an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Since apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to the occurrence of diabetic atherosclerosis. This study aimed to examine whether sitagliptin suppresses the atherosclerosis progression to hyperglycemia in a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model, and then investigated the effect of sitagliptin on VSMCs apoptosis and its underlying mechanism. In vivo studies, eight-week-old low-dose STZ-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient (apoE-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet were administered a DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, 200 mg/kg/day, or Lantus insulin by daily subcutaneous injection of 1 unit/mouse over a period of 12 weeks. Aortic atherosclerosis and apoptosis in the plaque were determined using dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and immunohistochemistry. In vitro studies utilized the VSMCs for determination of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and DPP-4 expression and flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to determine apoptosis and protein expression, respectively. Sitagliptin significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion area (7.00 ±â€¯0.13 vs. 12.80 ±â€¯2.7%, p = 0.003) and suppressed vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis (2.30 ±â€¯1.34 vs. 4.8 ±â€¯1.93%, p = 0.003) compared with vehicle treatment. In addition, sitagliptin significantly increased the expression of ß-catenin in the aortic tissue(0.56 ±â€¯0.13 vs.0.17 ±â€¯0.02, p = 0.008)compared with vehicle treatment. In cultured mouse VSMCs, sitagliptin enhanced GLP-1 activity significantly retarded oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced apoptosis compared with GLP-1 or sitagliptin alone. Sitagliptin increased GLP-1-induced cytosolic levels of ß-catenin compared with GLP-1 alone, resulted in increasing the expression of survivin, and suppressed proinflammatory cytokines, i.e., interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), production in response to H2O2. In conclusion, these results indicated that the anti-atherosclerotic effect of sitagliptin is mediated, at least in part, by its inhibition of VSMCs apoptosis.

12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(3): 567-574, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645021

RESUMO

A method was established for content determination of two kinds of phenolic acids, including rosmarinic acid)(RA) and caffeic acid(CA), and six kinds of flavonoids including scutellarein-7-O-diglucuronide(SDG), luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide(LDG), apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide(ADG), scutellarin-7-O-glucuronide(SG), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide(LG), and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide(AG) in Perilla frutescens leaves. The content of eight chemical components was measured based on ten P. frutescens germplasms of different chemotypes of volatile oil, different cultivated years, and different harvesting periods. The results showed that there was a great difference between the two kinds of constituents of different germplasms. The total content of the two phenolic acids was 2.24-34.44 mg·g~(-1), and the total content of the six flavonoids was 11.55-34.71 mg·g~(-1). Then according to content from most to least, the order of each component was RA(2.13-33.97 mg·g~(-1)), LDG(1.31-14.80 mg·g~(-1)), SG(1.97-8.45 mg·g~(-1)), ADG(2.68-7.60 mg·g~(-1)), SDG(1.16-5.87 mg·g~(-1)), LG(0.78-1.91 mg·g~(-1)), AG(0.56-1.00 mg·g~(-1)), and CA(0.11-0.68 mg·g~(-1)). The chemical contents of the 5 PA-type germplasms in 2017 were mostly higher than those in 2018 showing a large variation with the cultivation years. These contents of two kinds of phenolic acids of 9 germplasms fluctuated with the harvesting time. The content decreased before early flower spike(the 3~(rd) to 18~(th) in August) at first and began to increase in flowering and fruiting period(the 18~(th) in August to 2~(nd) in September). However, these contents had slowly decreasing trend after 2~(nd) in September till 17~(th) in the same month. Interestingly, the content raised again in the maturity of fruits. The variation tendency of contents in six kinds of flavonoids components was inconsistent in different germplasms with the variation of harvesting time. The content of flavonoids in part of germplasms was negatively correlated with the fluctuation of phenolic acids. There was no correlation between phenolic acids and chemical type of the volatile oil. This paper may provide a reference for the high-quality germplasm of P. frutescens cultivation.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Perilla frutescens , Flavonoides , Fenóis , Folhas de Planta
13.
Nurs Open ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690993

RESUMO

AIM: The study aimed to investigate the current status of reproductive concerns and explore the associated factors among young female chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. DESIGN: A multi-center cross-sectional study was designed. METHODS: The study was conducted in six representative tertiary hospitals across southwest China. A total of 295 female Chronic kidney disease patients between 18-45 years of age completed a 20 min, web-based survey, which included demographics and disease-related information questionnaire, Reproductive Concerns Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) instrument and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) instrument. RESULT: The survey total collected 270 valid questionnaires. The mean reproductive concern score was 54.39 ± 10.90 (out of a maximum of 90), with the mean scores for sub-scales ranging from 7.80 ± 1.69 to 10.44 ± 1.85. Multiple regression analysis showed that those with higher reproductive concerns were more likely to have pregnancy intentions, to be in Chronic kidney disease stages 1-3, and to have a higher GAD-7 score. This study offered further evidence of the need for improved education and emotional support surrounding reproductive concerns among young Chinese women with Chronic kidney disease.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704405

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the most critical risk factors for diabetes mellitus and plays a significant role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present investigation aimed to evaluate the possible mechanism of action of vitexin on obesity-induced DN in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed experimental C57BL/6 mice model. Obesity was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by chronic administration of HFD, and mice were concomitantly treated with vitexin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, p.o.). HFD-induced increased renal oxido-nitrosative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels were significantly inhibited by vitexin. The Western blot analysis suggested that alteration in renal NF-κB, IκBα, nephrin, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation levels was effectively restored by vitexin treatment. Histological aberration induced in renal tissue after chronic administration of HFD was also reduced by vitexin. In conclusion, vitexin suppressed the progression of obesity-induced DN via modulation of NF-κB/IkBα and AMPK/ACC pathways in an experimental model of HFD-induced DN in C57BL/6J mice.

15.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To eliminate the effects of field strength in determining the diagnostic performance of the LI-RADS version 2018 (LI-RADS v2018) in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from non-HCC primary liver malignancy in high-risk patients. METHODS: Patients who were pathologically confirmed intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) or combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with HCC were matched to the iCCA or cHCC-CCA patients on age, tumor size, MR scanner, and number of tumors. Two readers independently evaluated the lesions according to LI-RADS v2018. Diagnostic performance of LI-RADS v2018 in differentiating HCC from non-HCC primary liver malignancy were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 198 patients with 204 lesions (102 HCCs, 78 iCCAs, and 24 cHCC-CCAs) were enrolled. The sensitivity and specificity of LR-5 or LR-TIV (definitely due to HCC) in diagnosing HCC were 68.63% and 85.29%, respectively. LR-M or LR-TIV (may be due to non-HCC malignancy) had a sensitivity of 72.55% and a specificity of 86.27% in diagnosing non-HCC malignancy. The sensitivity of LR-M or LR-TIV (may be due to non-HCC malignancy) for iCCA and cHCC-CCA was 82.05% and 41.67%, respectively. Nearly half (11/24, 45.83%) of cHCC-CCAs were categorized as LR-5. Three tesla MR showed higher sensitivity than 1.5 T in diagnosing HCC (80.00% vs 57.69%, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: When the effect of field strength was eliminated, LI-RADS v2018 demonstrated high specificity but suboptimal sensitivity in distinguishing HCC from non-HCC primary liver carcinomas. Most iCCAs were categorized as LR-M or LR-TIV (may be due to non-HCC malignancy). However, nearly half of cHCC-CCAs were assigned as LR-5.

16.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(3): 903-908, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773556

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among Vietnamese females. By detecting precancerous cells, Pap test screening plays a critical role in the fight against cervical cancer. The present study aims to investigate health-related factors associated with receipt of Pap test among Vietnamese females living in rural Vietnam, particularly examining the correlation between awareness level of the Pap test and the receiving of Pap test. METHODS: Anderson's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was utilized as the present study's theoretical framework. A self-administrated questionnaire was completed among 193 females residing in Quantri City, Vietnam. RESULTS: Only 15.5% (N=30) of participants in our sample have had a Pap test. Pap test awareness (OR = 18.38, p <.001) was a strong predictor of Pap test receipt. Participants who had heard about Pap test were 18.38 times more likely to take a Pap test compared to those who had no prior knowledge. Besides the awareness, variables including employment (OR = .18, p <.05), and health insurance coverage (OR = 10.75, p <.05) were significantly associated with Pap test uptake. CONCLUSION: Findings from the present study suggests interventions should be provided through public health efforts to enhance awareness of Pap test by aiming at increasing primary prevention of cervical cancer, especially among Vietnamese women living in rural areas, in order to reduce cancer health disparities.

17.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(3): 927-933, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers disproportionately impact the Vietnamese population. However, research on cancer prevention among this population was very limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the cancer screening literacy levels for these three types of cancers among rural Vietnamese and investigate correlates of cancer screening literacy. METHODS: A sample of 226 Vietnamese men and women aged 25-70 years old was recruited from rural Vietnam and finished a self-administered questionnaire. Andersen's Behavioral Model was used to guide this cross-sectional study to identify modifiable variables. Bivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between demographic factors and cancer screening literacy levels. Multiple linear regressions were also used to identify significant factors for cancer literacy levels. RESULTS: Cancer screening literacy levels of Vietnamese men and women were low regarding all three types of cancers, especially HPV symptom questions. Only about 24% of women answered correctly on "most people with genital HPV have no visible signs/symptoms" and less than 18% answered correctly on "I can transmit HPV to my partner(s) even if I have no HPV symptoms." Findings suggested that having an annual checkup was associated with higher colorectal (ß=.15, p <.05), breast (ß=.25, p <.001), and cervical (ß=.18, p <.01) cancer screening literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Public health efforts should focus on encouraging annual checkups in the Vietnamese population. During the annual checkup, health care professionals should educate patients about importance of cancer screening and provide recommendations for regular cancer screenings to reduce cancer health disparities.

18.
Diabetologia ; 64(5): 1144-1157, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569632

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Failure of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) to localise in the nucleus of islet beta cells under high-fat diet (HFD) conditions may be an early functional defect that contributes to beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism of PDX1 intracellular mislocalisation is unclear. Stress granules (SGs) are membrane-less cytoplasmic structures formed under stress that impair nucleocytoplasmic transport by sequestering nucleocytoplasmic transport factors and components of the nuclear pore complex. In this study, we investigated the stimulators that trigger SG formation in islet beta cells and the effects of SGs on PDX1 localisation and beta cell function. METHODS: The effect of palmitic acid (PA) on nucleocytoplasmic transport was investigated by using two reporters, S-tdTomato and S-GFP. SG assembly in rat insulinoma cell line INS1 cells, human islets under PA stress, and the pancreas of diet-induced obese mice was analysed using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. SG protein components were identified through mass spectrometry. SG formation was blocked by specific inhibitors or genetic deletion of essential SG proteins, and then PDX1 localisation and beta cell function were investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We showed that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are endogenous stressors that disrupted nucleocytoplasmic transport and stimulated SG formation in pancreatic beta cells. Using mass spectrometry approaches, we revealed that several nucleocytoplasmic transport factors and PDX1 were localised to SGs after SFA treatment, which inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion. Furthermore, we found that SFAs induced SG formation in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (EIF2α) dependent manner. Disruption of SG assembly by PI3K/EIF2α inhibitors or genetic deletion of T cell restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) in pancreatic beta cells effectively suppressed PA-induced PDX1 mislocalisation and ameliorated HFD-mediated beta cell dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest a link between SG formation and beta cell dysfunction in the presence of SFAs. Preventing SG formation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145046, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that exposed to low and high outdoor temperature was associated with cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease include high blood lipid, high uric acid (UA) and high fasting plasma glucose (FPG). However, few studies have explored the effects of low and high temperature on these metabolic indicators. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of low and high temperature on metabolic indicators in adults from northwest of China. METHODS: Based on a prospective cohort study, a total of 30,759 individuals who participated in both baseline and first follow-up from 2011 to 2015 were selected in this study. The meteorological observation data and environmental monitoring data were collected in the same period. Associations between cold and hot temperature and blood lipid (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)), UA and FPG were conducted with mixed effect models after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: A nonlinear relationship between outdoor temperature and metabolic indicators was found. For the cold effects, each 5 °C decrease of mean temperature was associated with an increase of 5.07% (95% CI: 3.52%, 6.63%) in TG and 2.85% (95% CI: 2.18%, 3.53%) in UA, While a decrease of 3.38% (95% CI: 2.67%, 4.09%) in HDL-C and 1.26% (95% CI: 0.48%, 2.04%) in LDL-C. For the heat effects, each 5 °C increase in mean temperature was associated with 1.82% (95% CI: 0.89%, 2.76%), 0.56% (95% CI: 0.11%, 1.00%), 5.82% (95% CI: 4.58%, 7.06%), 9.02% (95% CI: 7.17%, 10.87%), 0.20% (95% CI: 0.01%, 0.40%), and 1.22% (95% CI: 0.19%, 2.24%) decrease in TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, UA and FPG. Age, smoking, drinking, high-oil diet and hyperlipidemia might modify the association between mean temperature and metabolic indicators. CONCLUSION: There was a significant effect of cold and hot temperature on metabolic indicators in a high altitude area of northwestern China. These results provide a basis for understanding the underlying mechanism of the influence of temperature on metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(2): 349-357, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States and associated with over 90% of cervical cancer cases.  The present study aimed to examine levels of HPV and HPV vaccine awareness and associated factors, particularly English proficiency, across various racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: Two cross-sectional datasets, 2017 and 2018 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTs), were analyzed for the current study. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. FINDINGS: Non-Hispanic Whites had the highest levels while non-Hispanic Asians had the lowest levels of awareness regarding HPV and the HPV vaccine. English proficiency was significantly associated with increased HPV awareness among all groups except non-Hispanic Asian, and was significantly associated with greater HPV vaccine awareness in all groups. DISCUSSION: In order to promote health equity across race/ethnicity, language barriers among minorities should be addressed when implementing health education on HPV and the HPV vaccine.

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