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1.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing dynamic changes of major salivary gland function during follow-up post radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 31 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed NPC scheduled for RT underwent six routine follow-up MRI examinations including DWI sequence prior to (pre-RT) and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post RT. Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of bilateral parotid glands (PGs) and submandibular glands (SMGs) were measured. Objective measurement of salivary flow rate (SFR) under unstimulated (uSFR) and stimulated conditions (sSFR) as well as subjective xerostomia assessment according to a patient-rated questionnaire were conducted before each MRI. Variance analysis was used to evaluate dynamic changes of ADC, SFR and xerostomia questionnaire summary scores (XQ-sum) at different timepoints and the correlation between ADC and XQ-sum. Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between pre- and post-RT changes of ADC (ΔADC) and SFR (ΔSFR) or mean RT dose. RESULTS: At each timepoint, ADCs of PGs were significantly lower than of SMGs, uSFR was significantly lower than sSFR. For both PGs and SMGs, ADCpost-RT were all higher than ADCpre-RT, with significant differences. ADC1m-post-RT initially increased and changed little to ADC3m-post-RT, ADC6m-post-RT, ADC9m-post-RT, and ADC12m-post-RT, then gradually declined over time. The dynamic change trends of SFR were negatively paralleled to those of ADC, while that of XQ-sum was similar. Dose-response relationships were detected between salivary gland mean RT dose and ΔADC. In PGs, negative correlations between ΔsSFR9m-post-RT and ΔADC9m-post-RT, and ΔsSFR12m-post-RT and ΔADC12m-post-RT were detected. In SMGs, negative correlations between ΔsSFR12m-post-RT and ΔADC12m-post-RT, and ΔuSFR12m-post-RT and ΔADC12m-post-RT were also detected. The ADCs of patients with severe subjective xerostomia were significantly higher, while patients with moderate subjective xerostomia presented a tendency toward higher ADCs compared to those with mild xerostomia from 6 to 12 months post RT. CONCLUSION: As part of routine follow-up MRI in NPC patients, DWI might be a promising modality for follow-up assessing the dynamic changes of major salivary gland function and might be more powerful in the late post-RT period.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031992

RESUMO

Using ab initio calculations within the density functional theory, we explored the possible structures and properties of porous AlN monolayer materials. Two kinds of porous AlN monolayers (H- and T-) are identified. The phonon dispersion spectra together with the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that these structures are stable. We further show that the H- and T- AlN porous monolayers have well-defined porous nanostructures and high specific surface areas of 2863 m2/g and 2615 m2/g respectively, which is comparable to graphene (2630 m2 /g), and can be maintained stably at high temperatures (˃ 1300 K). Furthermore, both porous monolayers exhibit semiconductor properties, with indirect band gaps of 2.89 eV and 2.86 eV respectively. In addition, the electronic structures of the porous monolayers can be modulated by strain. The band gap of porous T-AlN monolayer experiences an indirect-direct transition when biaxial strain is applied. A moderate -9% compression can trigger this gap transition. These results indicate that porous AlN monolayers may potentially be used in future optoelectronic and catalyst applications.

3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 104653, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we developed novel logistic regression models for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 288 ischemic stroke patients and 300 controls admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included in the testing group. Two validation groups from The Affiliated Kunshan Hospital of Jiangsu University and The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included to assess our novel assessment models. RESULTS: Results from the testing group indicated that the diagnostic assessment model for ischemic stroke prediction was: Logit(P) = 437.116 - 87.329 (Hypertension) - 89.700 (Smoking history) - 87.427 (Family history of ischemic stroke) - .090 (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) - 1.984 (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) - 17.005 (Lp(a)) - 15.486 (Apo A/Apo B), and the final prognostic assessment model of ischemic stroke was: Logit(P) = 458.437-92.343 (Hypertension) - 89.763 (Smoking history) + .251 (NLR) - .088 (HDL-C) - 1.994 (LDL-C) - 2.883 (hs-CRP) - .058 (IL-6) - 6.356 (TNF-α) - 16.485 (Lp(a)) - 17.658 (Apo A/Apo B). In the validation groups, our novel diagnostic assessment model showed good identification (with 87.5% sensitivity and 84.2% specificity in The Affiliated Kunshan Hospital of Jiangsu University, with 85.5% sensitivity and 89.0% specificity in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University). Moreover, our novel prognostic assessment model has a high value in identifying poor prognosis patients in the validation groups from The Affiliated Kunshan Hospital of Jiangsu University (χ2 = 8.461, P = .004), and The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University (χ2 = 7.844, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic and prognostic assessment models we have established are of great value in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of ischemic stroke.

4.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017318

RESUMO

Extracellular calcium is required for intracellular Ca2+ oscillations needed for egg activation, but the regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The present study was designed to demonstrate the function of calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), which could recognize extracellular calcium as first messenger, during porcine egg activation. CASR expression was markedly upregulated following egg activation. Functionally, the addition of CASR agonist NPS R-568 significantly enhanced pronuclear formation rate, while supplementation of CASR antagonist NPS2390 compromised egg activation. There was no change in NPS R-568 group compared with control group when the egg activation was performed without extracellular calcium addition. The addition of NPS2390 precluded the activation-dependent [Ca2+ ]i rise. When egg activation was conducted in intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM and NPS R-568 containing medium, CASR function was abolished. Meanwhile, CASR activation increased the level of the [Ca2+ ]i effector p-CAMKII, and the presence of KN-93, an inhibitor of CAMKII, significantly reduced the CASR-mediated increasement of pronuclear formation rate. Furthermore, the increase of CASR expression following activation was reversed by inhibiting CAMKII activity, supporting a positive feedback loop between CAMKII and CASR. Altogether, these findings provide a new pathway of egg activation about CASR, as the extracellular Ca2+ effector, promotes egg activation via its downstream effector and upstream regulator CAMKII.

5.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031020

RESUMO

Background: Few data are available on the risk factors involved in nosocomial meningitis from multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). Our aim was to identify the risk factors of prognosis for MDR-GNB nosocomial meningitis.Methods: Retrospective study of patients undergoing neurosurgery and with positive cerebrospinal fluid culture results post operation between January 2012 and January 2017 in a tertiary hospital in China.Results: In total, 3533 patients were screened. Forty patients with meningitis and completed data were included and divided into two groups, 29 who survived in the successful group (SG) and 11 who died in the failed group (FG). Statistically significant different factors involved in treating successful and failed were pathogen types, highest body temperature in the first 24h of symptoms, CSF glucose content and meropenem susceptibility (for Acinetobacter baumannii). The most common pathogen in the failed ones is Acinetobacter baumannii with meropenem MIC ≥ 16mg/L.Conclusions: Treatment of MDR-GNB nosocomial meningitis is more likely to fail in patients with severe condition when symptoms occur and infected by Acinetobacter baumannii. Researches with larger population are needed to find more factors to improve patient outcome.

6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 2, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion(CCH)are both risk factors for cognitive impairment. However, whether DM and CCH can synergistically promote cognitive impairment and the related pathological mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: To investigate the effect of DM and CCH on cognitive function, rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) followed by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) were induced to mimic DM and CCH in vivo and mouse BV2 microglial cells were exposed to hypoxia and/or high glucose to mimic CCH complicated with DM pathologies in vitro. To further explore the underlying mechanism, TREM-2-specific small interfering RNA and TREM-2 overexpression lentivirus were used to knock out and overexpress TREM-2, respectively. RESULTS: Cognitive deficits, neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation with microglial activation, and TREM-2-MAPK signaling were enhanced when DM was superimposed on CCH both in vivo and in vitro. Manipulating TREM-2 expression levels markedly regulated the p38 MAPK signaling and the inflammatory response in vitro. TREM-2 knockout intensified while TREM-2 overexpression suppressed the p38 MAPK signaling and subsequent pro-inflammatory mediator production under high glucose and hypoxia condition. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TREM-2 negatively regulates p38 MAPK-mediated inflammatory response when DM was synergistically superimposed on CCH and highlight the importance of TREM-2 as a potential target of immune regulation in DM and CCH.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986500

RESUMO

Polyaniline-coated multi-walled carbon nanotube conductive polymer precursors (MWCNTs@PANI) were prepared by an in situ microemulsion oxidation polymerization of aniline in the case of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and then hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene polyurethane conductive polymer nanocomposites based on MWCNTs@PANI (MWCNTs@PANI/HTPB PUs) were prepared through an in situ stepwise polymerization of HTPB and diisocyanates. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphologies and dispersion behavior were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis transmittance. The MWCNTs@PANI/HTPB PUs nanocomposites were fabricated into film sensors for detection of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors, and displayed an evident response to trichloromethane vapor (CHCl3). The effect of MWCNTs on the conductivity and the responsivity of conductive polymer nanocomposite films to trichloromethane were studied, finding that the conductive composite films have fast and strong response, good repeatability and recoverability, and long-term stability. Consequently, they can be potentially applied for supervision and detection of interior and outdoor environmental gases or vapors.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(2): 1624-1642, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986488

RESUMO

D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS1000) is the most active water-soluble derivative of vitamin E and has been widely used as a carrier of solvents, plasticizers, emulsifiers, absorbent agents and refractory drug delivery systems. However, its anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) properties have not been explored. HCC cells were treated with different concentrations of TPGS1000. Cell survival was tested by CCK8 assay, and cell migration was tested by wound healing and Transwell assay. EdU staining verified cell proliferation, and signalling pathway was assayed by Western blot analysis. The BALB/c-nu mouse xenograft model was established to test HCC cell growth in vivo. In vitro TPGS1000 significantly inhibited the viability and mobility of HCC cells (HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7) in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis indicated that TPGS1000 treatment arrested the HCC cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, and induction of cell apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL and Annexin V-7-AAD staining. Further pharmacological analysis indicated that collapse of the transmembrane potential of mitochondria, increased ROS generation, PARP-induced cell apoptosis and FoxM1-p21-mediated cell cycle arresting, were involved in the anti-HCC activity of TPGS1000. Moreover, treatment in vivo with TPGS1000 effectively impaired the growth of HCC xenografts in nude mice.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 912-930, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926109

RESUMO

pre-mRNA processing factor 3 (PRPF3) is an RNA binding protein in a core component of the exon junction complex. Abnormal PRPF3 expression is potentially associated with carcinogenesis. However, the biological role of PRPF3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be determined. We analyzed PRPF3 expression via multiple gene expression databases and identified its genetic alterations and functional networks using cBioPortal. Co-expressed genes with PRPF3 and its regulators were identified using LinkedOmics. The correlations between PRPF3 and cancer immune infiltrates were investigated via Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER). PRPF3 was found up-regulated with amplification in tumor tissues in multiple HCC cohorts. High PRPF3 expression was associated with poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Functional network analysis suggested that PRPF3 regulates spliceosome, DNA replication, and cell cycle signaling via pathways involving several cancer-related kinases and E2F family. Notably, PRPF3 expression was positively correlated with infiltrating levels of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. PRPF3 expression showed strong correlations with diverse immune marker sets in HCC. These findings suggest that PRPF3 is correlated with prognosis and immune infiltrating in HCC, laying a foundation for further study of the immune regulatory role of PRPF3 in HCC.

10.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 759-767, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915755

RESUMO

Vitamin A and its precursor (ß-carotene) have been linked with cancer incidence and mortality. However, the relationship between vitamin A and the prognosis of hepatocellular-carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary intakes of vitamin A, retinol, and ß-carotene were associated with survival in patients with HCC who participated in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study. Patients aged 18-80 years with a diagnosis of incident Primary Liver Cancer (PLC) were enrolled within one month of diagnosis prior to cancer treatment at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Dietary information one year before diagnosis of HCC was obtained using a 79-item, validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We restricted the present analysis to 877 HCC patients enrolled in the GLCC between September, 2013 and April, 2017 who had completed FFQ. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and HCC-specific survival. After a median follow-up of 797 days, 384 deaths were documented, 343 of which died from HCC. The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) of overall and HCC-specific survival for the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.70 (0.53-0.94) and 0.68 (0.50-0.92) for vitamin A, and 0.72 (0.54-0.96) and 0.69 (0.51-0.94) for ß-carotene, respectively. However, no significant association of dietary retinol intakes with survival outcomes was observed. Our observations suggest that higher prediagnostic dietary intakes of vitamin A and ß-carotene were associated with improved overall and HCC-specific survival.

11.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e4795, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967660

RESUMO

In this study, we focused on studying the changes of urine metabolites in hyperlipidemia rats by using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and Metabolomics, as well as the effect of Citri Reticulatae Chachiensis Pericarpium (CRCP) on hyperlipidemia. These urine samples were examined by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS to obtain MS data. The MS data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to identify the differential metabolites. CRCP could reduce the levels of the body weight, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C of hyperlipidemia rats which were significantly raised by high-fat diet. 27 potential biomarkers were identified within complex sample matrix of urine. Thereinto, 14 biomarkers increased in the rats of hyperlipidemia Compared to the normal rats. Meanwhile, 13 biomarkers decreased. The CRCP could reverse the abnormal changes of the biomarkers, including 5-L-Glutamyl-taurine, 5-aminopentanoic acid, cis-4-Octenedioic acid and 2-Octenedioic acid. These biomarkers show that hyperlipidemia is related to the metabolic pathways of Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, Fatty acid biosynthesis and Arginine and proline metabolism. The CRCP mainly prevents hyperlipidemia by intervening these metabolic pathways.

12.
J Refract Surg ; 36(1): 42-48, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917850

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the safety of the minimum ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) technique with the standard procedure in phakic Visian Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) (STAAR Surgical AG, Nidau, Switzerland) implantation. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated a total of 147 eyes of 74 patients who underwent ICL implantation with the minimum OVD technique (minimum OVD group) and 154 eyes of 77 patients with the standard procedure (standard OVD group). Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous depth (AQD), and central corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) were collected and analyzed over the 12-month follow-up. Lens vault and occurrence of paracentesis after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS: No intraocular complications were observed. No difference was found in visual outcomes, lens vault, and AQD at all time points between the two groups (P > .05). The minimum OVD group had significantly lower IOP than the standard OVD group at 2 hours (17.04 ± 4.21 vs 19.40 ± 6.78 mm Hg, P < .001) and 3 hours (15.12 ± 3.38 vs 17.15 ± 5.09 mm Hg, P < .001) postoperatively. The IOP gradually returned to the preoperative level after 24 hours postoperatively. The occurrence rate of paracentesis was significantly less in the minimum OVD group compared with the standard group (0.68% [1 of 147] vs 3.2% [5 of 154], P < .001). ECD was not significantly different between groups at all time points (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The minimum OVD technique could achieve visual and structural outcomes comparable to the standard procedure without additional damage to the corneal endothelial cells, while reducing the IOP fluctuations after surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2020;36(1):42-48.].

13.
Plant Reprod ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907610

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Cytokinin might be an important factor to regulate floral sex at the very early stage of flower development in sacha inchi. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, Euphorbiaceae) is characterized by having female and male flowers in a thyrse with particular differences. The mechanisms involved in the development of unisexual flowers are very poorly understood. In this study, the inflorescence and flower development of P. volubilis were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We also investigated the effects of cytokinin on flower sex determination by exogenous application of 6-benzyladenine (BA) in P. volubilis. The floral development of P. volubilis was divided into eight stages, and the first morphological divergence between the male and female flowers was found to occur at stage 3. Both female and male flowers can be structurally distinguished by differences in the shape and size of the flower apex after sepal primordia initiation. There are no traces of gynoecia in male flowers or of androecia in female flowers. Exogenous application of BA effectively induced gynoecium primordia initiation and female flower development, especially at the early flower developmental stages. We propose that flower sex is determined earlier and probably occurs before flower initiation, either prior to or at inflorescence development due to the difference in the position of the female and male primordia in the inflorescence and in the time of the female and male primordia being initiated. The influence of cytokinin on female primordia during flower development in P. volubilis strongly suggests a feminization role for cytokinin in sex determination. These results indicate that cytokinin could modify the fate of the apical meristem of male flower and promote the formation of carpel primordia in P. volubilis.

14.
Retina ; 40(1): 33-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300265

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficiency of releasable scleral buckling (RSB) and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in the treatment of phakic patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. METHODS: The current study was a prospective randomized clinical trial. One hundred and ten eyes from 110 patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy of Grade B or less were included in this study. The patients were randomly allocated into an RSB group and a PPV group. The functional and anatomical success was compared between groups. RESULTS: The primary anatomical success rate (PPV 41/43 [95.35%] and RSB 38/41 [92.68%]) and final anatomical success rate (PPV and RSB 100%) showed a nonsignificant difference. The best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and complications were not different between the groups. However, the incidence of cataract progression was higher in the PPV group (26 of 43 [60.47%]) than in the RSB group (4 of 41 [9.76%]) at the 12-month follow-up. The subfoveal choroidal thickness increased significantly in the RSB group 3 months after surgery, but no longer differed at the postoperative 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The axial length had increased significantly 1 month after surgery, but the difference was no longer significant at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. CONCLUSION: The RSB and PPV procedures have the same effects on the functional and anatomical success for patients with phakic primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Nevertheless, based on the few cases of intraocular complications and cataract progression, we believe that the RSB technique should be preferentially recommended.

15.
Biosci Rep ; 40(1)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: miRs family members are often thought to have extensively overlapping targets and synergistically to modulate target gene expression via post-transcriptional repression. The present study was to determine whether miR-154-3p and miR-487-3p synergistically collaborated to regulate RHOA signaling in the carcinogenesis of thyroid cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candidate miRs were filtrated using miR microarray assays. Gene and protein expression levels were analyzed using RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cell growth was evaluated using CCK8 assays and nude-mouse transplanted tumor experiments. Cell apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-FITC double staining. RESULTS: miR-154-3p and miR-487-3p were significantly decreased in 63 thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines compared with those in paired non-tumor tissues and normal thyroid follicular epithelial cells. Low expression levels of miR-154-3p and miR-487-3p significantly correlated with tumor size, TNM stage, histological grade, lymph node metastasis and shorter overall survival in patients with thyroid cancer. Furthermore, the protein expression of RHOA was significantly inversely correlated with miR-154-3p (r = -0.404; P = 0.001) and miR-487-3p (r = -0.456; P < 0.001) expression in thyroid cancer tissues. We experimentally validated that miR-154-3p and miR-487-3p synergistically blocked thyroid cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. However, the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of miR-154-3p/487-3p were neutralized by RHOA overexpressed vectors. CONCLUSIONS: Our present findings expounded a novel signal cascade employing miR-154-3p/487-3p and RHOA to fine-tune thyroid cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. We corroborated that suppression of RHOA by miR-154-3p/487-3p may be a valuable therapeutic target for impeding thyroid cancer progression.

16.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(1): e1900600, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793197

RESUMO

Four new hetisine-type C20 -diterpenoid alkaloids, named as coreanines A-D (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Aconitum coreanum, together with thirteen known alkaloids (5-17). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-ESI-MS and NMR techniques. All the isolated compounds were screened for the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effects, and none of them showed considerable inhibitory activity.

17.
Radiology ; 294(2): 329-339, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793849

RESUMO

Background American College of Radiology contrast agent-enhanced US Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (CEUS LI-RADS) was developed to improve the accuracy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis at contrast agent-enhanced US. However, to the knowledge of the authors, the diagnostic accuracy of the system in characterization of liver nodules 20 mm or smaller has not been fully evaluated. Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CEUS LI-RADS in diagnosing HCC in liver nodules 20 mm or smaller in patients at risk for HCC. Materials and Methods Between January 2015 and February 2018, consecutive patients at risk for HCC presenting with untreated liver nodules 20 mm or less were enrolled in this retrospective double-reader study. Each nodule was categorized according to the CEUS LI-RADS and World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB)-European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) criteria. Diagnostic performance of CEUS LI-RADS and WFUMB-EFSUMB characterization was evaluated by using tissue histologic analysis, multiphase contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, and imaging follow-up as reference standard and compared by using McNemar test. Results The study included 175 nodules (mean diameter, 16.1 mm ± 3.4) in 172 patients (mean age, 51.8 years ± 10.6; 136 men). The sensitivity of CEUS LR-5 versus WFUMB-EFSUMB criteria in diagnosing HCC was 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 63.8%, 81.5%) versus 88.6% (95% CI: 80.9%, 94%), respectively (P < .001). The specificity of CEUS LR-5 versus WFUMB-EFSUMB criteria was 97.1% (95% CI: 90.1%, 99.7%) versus 87.1% (95% CI: 77%, 94%), respectively (P = .02). No malignant lesions were found in CEUS LR-1 and LR-2 categories. Only two nodules (of 41; 5%, both HCC) were malignant in CEUS LR-3 category. The incidences of HCC in CEUS LR-4, LR-5, and LR-M were 48% (11 of 23), 98% (77 of 79), and 75% (15 of 20), respectively. Two of 175 (1.1%) histologic analysis-confirmed intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were categorized as CEUS LR-M by CEUS LI-RADS and misdiagnosed as HCC by WFUMB-EFSUMB criteria. Conclusion The contrast-enhanced US Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (CEUS LI-RADS) algorithm was an effective tool for characterization of small (≤20 mm) liver nodules in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Compared with World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology criteria, CEUS LR-5 demonstrated higher specificity for diagnosing small HCCs with lower sensitivity. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license. See also the editorial by Crocetti in this issue.

18.
Pain ; 161(2): 288-299, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651580

RESUMO

Patients with chronic pain often report being sensitive to pain at night before falling asleep, a time when the synchronization of cortical activity is initiated. However, how cortical activity relates to pain sensitivity is still unclear. Because sleep is characterized by enhanced cortical delta power, we hypothesized that enhanced cortical delta power may be an indicator of intensified pain. To test this hypothesis, we used pain thresholds tests, EEG/electromyogram recordings, c-Fos staining, and chemogenetic and pharmacological techniques in mice. We found that sleep deprivation or pharmacologic enhancement of EEG delta power by reserpine and scopolamine dramatically decreased mechanical pain thresholds, but not thermal withdrawal latency, in a partial sciatic nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain mice. On the contrary, suppression of EEG delta power using a wake-promoting agent modafinil significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia. Moreover, when EEG delta power was enhanced, c-Fos expression decreased in most regions of the cortex, except the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), where c-Fos was increased in the somatostatin- and parvalbumin-positive GABAergic neurons. Chemogenetic activation of GABAergic neurons in ACC enhanced EEG delta power and lowered mechanical pain thresholds simultaneously in naive mice. However, chemogenetic inhibition of ACC GABAergic neurons could not block mechanical allodynia. These results provided compelling evidence that elevated EEG delta power is accompanied with aggravated neuropathic pain, whereas decreased delta power attenuated it, suggesting that enhanced delta power can be a specific marker of rising chronic neuropathic pain and that wake-promoting compounds could be used as analgesics in the clinic.

19.
Genomics ; 112(1): 528-544, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974149

RESUMO

A total of 91 draft genome sequences were used to analyze isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis obtained from feral mice caught on poultry farms in Pennsylvania. One objective was to find mutations disrupting open reading frames (ORFs) and another was to determine if ORF-disruptive mutations were present in isolates obtained from other sources. A total of 83 mice were obtained between 1995-1998. Isolates separated into two genomic clades and 12 subgroups due to 742 mutations. Nineteen ORF-disruptive mutations were found, and in addition, bigA had exceptional heterogeneity requiring additional evaluation. The TRAMS algorithm detected only 6 ORF disruptions. The sefD mutation was the most frequently encountered mutation and it was prevalent in human, poultry, environmental and mouse isolates. These results confirm previous assessments of the mouse as a rich source of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis that varies in genotype and phenotype.

20.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 118: 107-114.e5, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess trial-level factors associated with the contribution of individual participant data (IPD) to IPD meta-analyses, and to quantify the data availability bias, namely the difference between the effect estimates of trials contributing IPD and those not contributing IPD in the same systematic reviews (SRs). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We included SRs of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with IPD meta-analyses since 2011. We extracted trial-level characteristics and examined their association with IPD contribution. To assess the data availability bias, we retrieved odds ratios from the original RCT articles, calculated the ratio of odds ratios (RORs) between aggregate data (AD) meta-analyses of RCTs contributing IPD and those of RCTs not contributing IPD for each SR, and meta-analytically synthesized RORs. RESULTS: Of 728 eligible RCTs included in 31 SRs, 321 (44%) contributed IPD, whereas 407 (56%) did not. A recent publication year, larger number of participants, adequate allocation concealment, and impact factor ≥10 were associated with IPD contribution. We found the SRs yielded widely different estimates of RORs. Overall, there was no significant difference in the pooled effect estimates of AD meta-analyses between RCTs contributing and not contributing IPD (ROR 1.01, 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.19). CONCLUSIONS: There was no consistent evidence of a data availability bias in recent IPD meta-analyses of RCTs with dichotomous outcomes. Higher methodological qualities of trials were associated with IPD contribution.

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