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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 97(4): 1777-1792, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339927

RESUMO

Background: Executive functions (EF) are central to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). A novel approach to the assessment of the impact of EF difficulties on IADL may be through the speech acts produced when performing IADL-inspired tasks in a laboratory-apartment. Speech acts may act as a window to the difficulties encountered during task performance. Objective: We aim to 1) qualitatively describe the speech acts produced by participants with mild neurocognitive disorder (mild NCD) and healthy controls (HC) as they performed 4 IADL-inspired tasks in a laboratory-apartment, and to then 2) compare their use in both groups. Methods: The participants' performance was videotaped, and speech acts produced were transcribed. Qualitative description of all speech acts was performed, followed by a deductive-inductive pattern coding of data. Statistical analyses were performed to further compare their use by mild NCD participants and HC. Results: Twenty-two participants took part in the study (n mild NCD = 11; n HC = 11). Meta-categories of data emerged from pattern coding: strategies, barriers, reactions, and consequences. Mild NCD participants used significantly more strategies and barriers than did HC. They were more defensive of their performance, and more reactive to their difficulties than HC. Mild NCD participants' verification of having completed all tasks was less efficient than controls. Conclusions: An assessment of speech acts produced during the performance of IADL-inspired tasks in a laboratory-apartment may allow to detect changes in the use of language which may reflect EF difficulties linked to cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Fala , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva , Testes Neuropsicológicos
2.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e52284, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telemonitoring of activities of daily living (ADLs) offers significant potential for gaining a deeper insight into the home care needs of older adults experiencing cognitive decline, particularly those living alone. In 2016, our team and a health care institution in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, sought to test this technology to enhance the support provided by home care clinical teams for older adults residing alone and facing cognitive deficits. The Support for Seniors' Autonomy program (SAPA [Soutien à l'autonomie des personnes âgées]) project was initiated within this context, embracing an innovative research approach that combines action research and design science. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the research protocol for the SAPA project, with the aim of facilitating the replication of similar initiatives in the future. The primary objectives of the SAPA project were to (1) codevelop an ADL telemonitoring system aligned with the requirements of key stakeholders, (2) deploy the system in a real clinical environment to identify specific use cases, and (3) identify factors conducive to its sustained use in a real-world setting. Given the context of the SAPA project, the adoption of an action design research (ADR) approach was deemed crucial. ADR is a framework for crafting practical solutions to intricate problems encountered in a specific organizational context. METHODS: This project consisted of 2 cycles of development (alpha and beta) that involved cyclical repetitions of stages 2 and 3 to develop a telemonitoring system for ADLs. Stakeholders, such as health care managers, clinicians, older adults, and their families, were included in each codevelopment cycle. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected throughout this project. RESULTS: The first iterative cycle, the alpha cycle, took place from early 2016 to mid 2018. The first prototype of an ADL telemonitoring system was deployed in the homes of 4 individuals receiving home care services through a public health institution. The prototype was used to collect data about care recipients' ADL routines. Clinicians used the data to support their home care intervention plan, and the results are presented here. The prototype was successfully deployed and perceived as useful, although obstacles were encountered. Similarly, a second codevelopment cycle (beta cycle) took place in 3 public health institutions from late 2018 to late 2022. The telemonitoring system was installed in 31 care recipients' homes, and detailed results will be presented in future papers. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first reported ADR project in ADL telemonitoring research that includes 2 iterative cycles of codevelopment and deployment embedded in the real-world clinical settings of a public health system. We discuss the artifacts, generalization of learning, and dissemination generated by this protocol in the hope of providing a concrete and replicable example of research partnerships in the field of digital health in cognitive aging. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR1-10.2196/52284.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 378, 2023 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37864139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hearing loss predicts cognitive decline and falls risk. It has been argued that degraded hearing makes listening effortful, causing competition for higher-level cognitive resources needed for secondary cognitive or motor tasks. Therefore, executive function training has the potential to improve cognitive performance, in turn improving mobility, especially when older adults with hearing loss are engaged in effortful listening. Moreover, research using mobile neuroimaging and ecologically valid measures of cognition and mobility in this population is limited. The objective of this research is to examine the effect of at-home cognitive training on dual-task performance using laboratory and simulated real-world conditions in normal-hearing adults and older hearing aid users. We hypothesize that executive function training will lead to greater improvements in cognitive-motor dual-task performance compared to a wait-list control group. We also hypothesize that executive function training will lead to the largest dual-task improvements in older hearing aid users, followed by normal-hearing older adults, and then middle-aged adults. METHODS: A multi-site (Concordia University and KITE-Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network) single-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted whereby participants are randomized to either 12 weeks of at-home computerized executive function training or a wait-list control. Participants will consist of normal-hearing middle-aged adults (45-60 years old) and older adults (65-80 years old), as well as older hearing aid users (65-80 years old, ≥ 6 months hearing aid experience). Separate samples will undergo the same training protocol and the same pre- and post-evaluations of cognition, hearing, and mobility across sites. The primary dual-task outcome measures will involve either static balance (KITE site) or treadmill walking (Concordia site) with a secondary auditory-cognitive task. Dual-task performance will be assessed in an immersive virtual reality environment in KITE's StreetLab and brain activity will be measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy at Concordia's PERFORM Centre. DISCUSSION: This research will establish the efficacy of an at-home cognitive training program on complex auditory and motor functioning under laboratory and simulated real-world conditions. This will contribute to rehabilitation strategies in order to mitigate or prevent physical and cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT05418998. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05418998.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Função Executiva , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Cognição , Audição
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(7): e2324465, 2023 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37471089

RESUMO

Importance: Exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D may enhance cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective: To determine whether aerobic-resistance exercises would improve cognition relative to an active control and if a multidomain intervention including exercises, computerized cognitive training, and vitamin D supplementation would show greater improvements than exercise alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial (the SYNERGIC Study) was a multisite, double-masked, fractional factorial trial that evaluated the effects of aerobic-resistance exercise, computerized cognitive training, and vitamin D on cognition. Eligible participants were between ages 65 and 84 years with MCI enrolled from September 19, 2016, to April 7, 2020. Data were analyzed from February 2021 to December 2022. Interventions: Participants were randomized to 5 study arms and treated for 20 weeks: arm 1 (multidomain intervention with exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D), arm 2 (exercise, cognitive training, and placebo vitamin D), arm 3 (exercise, sham cognitive training, and vitamin D), arm 4 (exercise, sham cognitive training, and placebo vitamin D), and arm 5 (control group with balance-toning exercise, sham cognitive training, and placebo vitamin D). The vitamin D regimen was a 10 000 IU dose 3 times weekly. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were changes in ADAS-Cog-13 and Plus variant at 6 months. Results: Among 175 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 73.1 [6.6] years; 86 [49.1%] women), 144 (82%) completed the intervention and 133 (76%) completed the follow-up (month 12). At 6 months, all active arms (ie, arms 1 through 4) with aerobic-resistance exercise regardless of the addition of cognitive training or vitamin D, improved ADAS-Cog-13 when compared with control (mean difference, -1.79 points; 95% CI, -3.27 to -0.31 points; P = .02; d = 0.64). Compared with exercise alone (arms 3 and 4), exercise and cognitive training (arms 1 and 2) improved the ADAS-Cog-13 (mean difference, -1.45 points; 95% CI, -2.70 to -0.21 points; P = .02; d = 0.39). No significant improvement was found with vitamin D. Finally, the multidomain intervention (arm 1) improved the ADAS-Cog-13 score significantly compared with control (mean difference, -2.64 points; 95% CI, -4.42 to -0.80 points; P = .005; d = 0.71). Changes in ADAS-Cog-Plus were not significant. Conclusions and Relevance: In this clinical trial, older adults with MCI receiving aerobic-resistance exercises with sequential computerized cognitive training significantly improved cognition, although some results were inconsistent. Vitamin D supplementation had no effect. Our findings suggest that this multidomain intervention may improve cognition and potentially delay dementia onset in MCI. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02808676.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Treino Cognitivo , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Cognição , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais
5.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol ; 18(3): 274-284, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social participation is an important aspect of health and well-being across the lifespan, but older adults might encounter some barriers, which has been highlighted in the current Covid-19 pandemic situation, where technology has become the primary way to maintain contact with family and friends. In fact, technology can serve both as a facilitator and barrier to social participation in later life, and this issue needs to be further understood. AIM: To identify the barriers and facilitators encountered by older adults in using technology to promote social participation. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed, written in English or French, included participants 50 years or older, included technology to promote social participation, and reported potential barriers or facilitators regarding such technologies. Four databases were included: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and, ERIC. Each study was reviewed by two independent reviewers. The quality of the study was appraised using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in this report. Four main themes emerged from the data: perceived benefits of the technology, self-confidence and knowledge about using the technology efficiently and safely, affordability of the technology, and ability of the technology to adapt to the physical and cognitive declines in later life. CONCLUSION: These findings can help health care professionals to make better decisions when deciding to recommend technology for their older clients.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONAcceptance of technology to promote social participation in later life is a multi-complex process. There is no "one size fits all" approach, a person-centered intervention must be used.When introducing new technologies, using an adapted/tailored training approach could potentially increase self-efficacy in using technology.Rehabilitation professionals' misconceptions concerning the use of technology in later life can be a barrier to acceptance. It's important to be aware of our own believes and attitudes in this context.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Idoso , Participação Social , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia
6.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 710958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408116

RESUMO

Cognitive-motor dual-tasking is a complex activity that predicts falls risk and cognitive impairment in older adults. Cognitive and physical training can both lead to improvements in dual-tasking; however, less is known about what mechanisms underlie these changes. To investigate this, 33 healthy older adults were randomized to one of three training arms: Executive function (EF; n = 10), Aerobic Exercise (AE; n = 10), Gross Motor Abilities (GMA; n = 13) over 12 weeks (1 h, 3×/week). Single and dual-task performance (gait speed, m/s; cognitive accuracy, %) was evaluated before and after training, using the 2-back as concurrent cognitive load. Training arms were designed to improve cognitive and motor functioning, through different mechanisms (i.e., executive functioning - EF, cardiorespiratory fitness - CRF, and energy cost of walking - ECW). Compared to baseline, we observed few changes in dual-task gait speed following training (small effect). However, dual-task cognitive accuracy improved significantly, becoming facilitated by walking (large effect). There were no differences in the magnitude of improvements across training arms. We also found that older adults with lower cognitive ability (i.e., MoCA score < 26; n = 14) improved more on the dual-task cognitive accuracy following training, compared to older adults with higher cognitive ability (i.e., MoCA ≥26; n = 18). Taken together, the results suggest that regardless of the type of intervention, training appears to strengthen cognitive efficiency during dual-tasking, particularly for older adults with lower baseline cognitive status. These gains appear to occur via different mechanisms depending on the form of intervention. Implications of this research are paramount, as we demonstrate multiple routes for improving cognitive-motor dual-tasking in older adults, which may help reduce risk of cognitive impairment.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613083

RESUMO

The application of interventions to enhance mobility in ecological settings remain understudied. This study was developed to evaluate the feasibility of training methods in a community centre and to evaluate their impact on mobility outcomes. Fifty-four participants were randomized to one of three 12-week training programs (three times/week): aerobic (AE), gross motor abilities (GMA) or cognitive (COG). Feasibility was evaluated by calculating adherence, feedback from participants and long-term participation. The impact of these interventions on mobility was assessed by comparing pre- and post-program on Timed-up-and-go (TUG) and spontaneous walking speed (SWS) performances. Results showed relatively high rates of adherence (85.1%) and long-term participation (66.7%), along with favorable feedbacks. SWS significantly improved in COG (0.10 ± 0.11 m.s-1; p = 0.004) and AE (0.06 ± 0.11 m.s-1; p = 0.017) groups, and TUG performance was maintained in all groups. Results of this feasibility study demonstrated successful implementation of physical and cognitive training programs, encouraging the development of real-world applications.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Velocidade de Caminhada , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Cognição , Caminhada
8.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(6): 1069-1079, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that cognitive training and physical activity can improve age-related deficits in dual-task performances. However, both of these interventions have never been compared in the same study. This article investigates the improvement in dual-task performance in 2 types of exercise training groups and a cognitive training group and explores if there are specific dual-task components that are more sensitive or more likely to improve following each type of training. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy inactive participants older than the age of 60 (M = 69.98, SD = 5.56) were randomized to one of three 12-week training programs: aerobic training (AET) = 26, gross motor abilities (GMA) = 27, and cognition (COG) = 25. Before and after the training program, the participants underwent physical fitness tests, and cognitive evaluations involving a computerized cognitive dual task. The AET consisted of high- and low-intensity aerobic training, the GMA of full-body exercises focusing on agility, balance, coordination, and stretching, and the COG of tablet-based exercises focusing on executive functions. RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance on reaction time data revealed a group × time interaction (F(2,75) = 11.91, p < .01) with COG having the greatest improvement, followed by a significant improvement in the GMA group. Secondary analysis revealed the COG to also improve the intraindividual variability in reaction time (F(1,24) = 8.62, p < .01), while the GMA improved the dual-task cost (F(1,26) = 12.74, p < .01). DISCUSSION: The results show that physical and cognitive training can help enhance dual-task performance by improving different aspects of the task, suggesting that different mechanisms are in play.


Assuntos
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Idoso , Humanos , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos
9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 742184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803824

RESUMO

Associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain health in healthy older adults have been reported using a variety of cardiorespiratory fitness estimates (CRFe). Using commonly used methods to determine CRF, we assessed the relationship between CRFe and executive function performance. Healthy older adults (n = 60, mean age 68 years, 77% women), underwent three CRF tests: a Maximal Graded Exercise Test performed on a cycle ergometer, the Rockport Fitness Walking Test, and a Non-Exercise Prediction Equation. Executive function was assessed by a computerized cognitive assessment using an N-Back task (updating cost) and a Stroop task (interference cost, global and local switch cost). Multiple hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between different CRFe and executive function performance. Regardless of age and education, cardiorespiratory fitness estimated from the Maximal Graded Exercise Test and the Rockport Fitness Walking Test was significantly associated with the global switch cost. All CRFe were associated with the interference cost. No association was observed between CRFe and local switching costs or the updating costs. In the present study, not all subcomponents of executive function were related to CRFe. Interestingly, the executive functions that were associated with CRFe are those that are known to be the most affected by aging.

10.
Exp Gerontol ; 149: 111331, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mobility is a complex but crucial clinical outcome in older adults. Past observational studies have highlighted that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), energy cost of walking (ECW), and cognitive switching abilities are associated with mobility performance, making these key determinants of mobility intervention targets to enhance mobility in older adults. The objective of this study was to compare, in the same design, the impact of three training methods - each known to improve either CRF, ECW, or cognitive switching abilities - on mobility in healthy older adults. METHODS: Seventy-eight participants (69.28 ± 4.85yo) were randomly assigned to one of three twelve-week interventions: Aerobic Exercise (AE; n = 26), Gross Motor Abilities (GMA; n = 27), or Cognitive (COG; n = 25) training. Each intervention was designed to improve one of the three key determinants of mobility (CRF, ECW, and cognitive switching). Primary outcomes (usual gait speed, and TUG performance) and the three mobility determinants were measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed a time effect for TUG performance (F(1,75) = 14.92, p < .001): all groups equally improved after the intervention (ΔTUGpost-pre, in seconds, with 95% CI: AE = -0.44 [-0.81 to -0.08]; GMA = -0.60 [-1.10 to -0.10]; COG = -0.33 [-0.71 to 0.05]). No significant between group differences were observed. CRF was improved in the AE group only (Hedges' G = 0.27, small effect), ECW and cognitive switching improved the most in the GMA (Hedges' G = -0.78, moderate effect) and COG groups (Hedges' G = -1.93, large effect) respectively. Smaller improvements in ECW were observed following AE and COG trainings (Hedges' G: AE = -0.39, COG = -0.36, both small effects) as well as in cognitive switching following AE and GMA training (Hedges' G: AE = -0.42, GMA = -0.21, both small effects). DISCUSSION: This study provides further support to the notion that multiple interventional approaches (aerobic, gross motor exercise, or cognitive training) can be employed to improve functional mobility in older adults, giving them, and professionals, more options to promote healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Caminhada , Velocidade de Caminhada
11.
Front Pain Res (Lausanne) ; 2: 673027, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35295494

RESUMO

Background: Pain captures attention and interferes with competing tasks demanding cognitive effort. Brief mindfulness interventions involving both conceptual learning and meditation exercises have been shown to improve attention and reduce pain sensitivity, and could potentially reduce pain interference. This study assesses the effect of a 5-day mindfulness intervention (20 min/day) on the interference produced by thermal pain on working memory performance using a 2-back task. Methods: Healthy participants were randomized into three groups exposed to mindfulness meditation training (n = 15), an active educational control intervention comprising only conceptual information on mindfulness (n = 15), or no intervention (n = 15). The two active interventions were administered in a dual-blind fashion and outcomes were assessed by research personnel blind to this allocation. Evaluation sessions were conducted before and after the interventions to assess the effect of pain on 2-back performance (pain interference). Importantly, both pain stimuli and the 2-back task were calibrated individually and in each session before assessing pain interference, thereby controlling for possible changes in baseline pain sensitivity and cognitive performance. Secondary outcomes included heat pain sensitivity, cold pain tolerance, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and divided attention. Results: Manipulation checks confirmed that heat pain interferes with the performance of the working-memory task. Compared to the no-intervention control group, pain interference was significantly reduced following the conceptual intervention but not the meditation intervention, although a corollary analysis suggests the effect might be due to regression toward the mean caused by baseline imbalance in pain interference. Secondary outcomes also suggested an increase in pain tolerance in the conceptual learning group only. Discussion: A short mindfulness meditation intervention was insufficient to reduce pain interference but conceptual learning about mindfulness produced some unexpected benefits. Although the generalization of experimental findings to clinical pain conditions may be premature, these results highlight the importance of distinguishing the contribution of mindfulness education and meditation training in future studies. Understanding the effects of mindfulness training on pain regulation and management must take into consideration the multiple factors underlying this complex intervention.

12.
OTJR (Thorofare N J) ; 41(2): 67-79, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016216

RESUMO

As rehabilitation specialists, occupational therapy practitioners play a gateway role regarding recommendation of various technologies for homecare. However, no study has investigated current occupational therapy practices concerning information and communication technology (ICT) for older adults in Canada. The objective of this study was to identify Canadian occupational therapists' (OTs) knowledge and practices of ICT with older adults as well as factors associated with its recommendation. A Canada-wide, cross-sectional, online survey was conducted. Of 387 OTs, only 12.4% reported recommending ICT in practice. ICTs supporting communication and cognition were the main types recommended. The reported barriers to use in practice differed between ICT familiar users and nonusers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that clinicians with more years of clinical experience were more likely to recommend ICT. Clinicians' services, work environments, and client diagnosis were also factors associated with ICT recommendation. Additional research is needed to understand how to overcome barriers to ICT recommendation in OT practice.


Assuntos
Terapeutas Ocupacionais , Terapia Ocupacional , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Tecnologia
13.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(7): 1316-1325, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to provide normative data for a tablet-based dual-task assessment in older adults without cognitive deficits. METHOD: In total, 264 participants aged between 60 and 90 years, French and English-speaking, were asked to perform two discrimination tasks, alone and concurrently. The participants had to answer as fast as possible to one or two images appearing in the center of the tablet by pressing to the corresponding buttons. Normative data are provided for reaction time (RT), coefficient of variation, and accuracy. Analyses of variance were performed by trial types (single-pure, single-mixed, dual-mixed), and linear regressions assessed the relationship between performance and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: The participants were highly educated and a large proportion of them were women (73.9%). The accuracy on the task was very high across all blocks. RT data revealed both a task-set cost and a dual-task cost between the blocks. Age was associated with slower RT and with higher coefficient of variability. Men were significantly slower on dual-mixed trials, but their coefficient of variability was lower on single-pure trials. Education was not associated with performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides normative data for a tablet-based dual-task assessment in older adults without cognitive impairment, which was lacking. All participants completed the task with good accuracy in less than 15 minutes and thus, the task is transferable to clinical and research settings.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação
14.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(8): 1533-1541, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies report benefits of physical exercise and cognitive training to enhance cognition in older adults. However, most studies did not compare these interventions to appropriate active controls. Moreover, physical exercise and cognitive training seem to involve different mechanisms of brain plasticity, suggesting a potential synergistic effect on cognition. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the synergistic effect of cognitive training and aerobic/resistance physical exercise on dual-task performance in older adults. Intervention effects were compared to active controls for both the cognitive and the exercise domain. METHOD: Eighty-seven older adults completed one of 4 different combinations of interventions, in which computer lessons was active control for cognitive training and stretching/toning exercise control for aerobic/resistance training: (a) cognitive dual-task training and aerobic/resistance training (COG+/AER+), (b) computer lessons and aerobic/resistance training (COG-/AER+), (c) cognitive dual-task training and stretching/toning exercises (COG+/AER-), and (d) computer lessons and stretching/toning exercises (COG-/AER-). The primary outcome was performance in an untrained transfer dual task. Stepwise backward removal regression analyses were used to predict pre- versus post-test changes in groups that have completed the dual-task training, aerobic/resistance or both interventions. RESULTS: Participation in AER+ did not predict improvement in any dual-task outcomes. Participation in COG+ predicted reduction in dual-task cost and participation in COG+/AER+ predicted reduction in task-set cost. DISCUSSION: Results suggest that the combination of cognitive and physical training protocols exerted a synergistic effect on task-set cost which reflects the cost of maintaining multiple response alternatives, whereas cognitive training specifically improved dual-task cost, which reflects the ability of synchronizing concurrent tasks.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Remediação Cognitiva , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Treinamento de Força
15.
Front Neurol ; 11: 606873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343503

RESUMO

Background: Working memory (WM) capacity declines with advancing age, which impacts the ability to carry out complex cognitive activities in everyday life. Updating and inhibition processes have been identified as some of the most critical attentional control processes of WM and are linked to age-related WM decline. The general aim of the Attentional Control Training in Older People (ACTOP) study was to perform a side-by-side comparison of updating and inhibition training to examine their respective efficacy and transfer in cognitively healthy older adults. Method: The study was a three-arm, double-blind, randomized controlled trial registered with the US National Institutes of Health clinical trials registry. Ninety older adults were randomly assigned to 12 half-hour sessions of updating (N-back type exercises), inhibition (Stroop-like exercises) computerized training or active control (general knowledge quiz game). A group of thirty younger adults completed all proximal and WM transfer tasks without training to assess age-related deficits prior to training and whether training reduces these deficits. Results: Piecewise mixed models show quick improvement of performance during training for both updating and inhibition training. During updating training, the progression was more pronounced for the most difficult (3-back) than for the least (1-back) difficult level until the ninth session. Updating and inhibition training groups improved performance on all proximal and WM transfer measures but these improvements did not differ from the active control group. Younger adults outperformed older ones on all transfer tasks prior to training. However, this was no longer the case following training for two transfer tasks regardless of the training group. Conclusion: The overall results from this study suggest that attentional control training is effective in improving updating and inhibition performance on training tasks. The optimal dose to achieve efficacy is ~9 half-hour sessions and the dose effect was related to difficulty level for updating training. Despite an overall improvement of older adults on all transfer tasks, neither updating nor inhibition training provided additional improvements in comparison with the active control condition. This suggests that the efficacy of process-based training does not directly affect transfer tasks. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03532113.

16.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(11): e20215, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many older adults choose to live independently in their homes for as long as possible, despite psychosocial and medical conditions that compromise their independence in daily living and safety. Faced with unprecedented challenges in allocating resources, home care administrators are increasingly open to using monitoring technologies known as ambient assisted living (AAL) to better support care recipients. To be effective, these technologies should be able to report clinically relevant changes to support decision making at an individual level. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the concurrent validity of AAL monitoring reports and information gathered by care professionals using triangulation. METHODS: This longitudinal single-case study spans over 490 days of monitoring a 90-year-old woman with Alzheimer disease receiving support from local health care services. A clinical nurse in charge of her health and social care was interviewed 3 times during the project. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze each daily activity (ie, sleep, outing activities, periods of low mobility, cooking-related activities, hygiene-related activities). Significant changes observed in data from monitoring reports were compared with information gathered by the care professional to explore concurrent validity. RESULTS: Over time, the monitoring reports showed evolving trends in the care recipient's daily activities. Significant activity changes occurred over time regarding sleep, outings, cooking, mobility, and hygiene-related activities. Although the nurse observed some trends, the monitoring reports highlighted information that the nurse had not yet identified. Most trends detected in the monitoring reports were consistent with the clinical information gathered by the nurse. In addition, the AAL system detected changes in daily trends following an intervention specific to meal preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, trends identified by AAL monitoring are consistent with clinical reports. They help answer the nurse's questions and help the nurse develop interventions to maintain the care recipient at home. These findings suggest the vast potential of AAL technologies to support health care services and aging in place by providing valid and clinically relevant information over time regarding activities of daily living. Such data are essential when other sources yield incomplete information for decision making.

17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e20430, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent age-related cognitive impairment, many intervention programs offer exercises targeting different central cognitive processes. However, the effects of different process-based training programs are rarely compared within equivalent experimental designs. OBJECTIVE: Using a randomized double-blind controlled trial, this project aims to examine and compare the impact of 2 process-based interventions, inhibition and updating, on the cognition and brain of older adults. METHODS: A total of 90 healthy older adults were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 training conditions: (1) inhibition (Stroop-like exercises), (2) updating (N-back-type exercises), and (3) control active (quiz game exercise). Training was provided in 12 half-hour sessions over 4 weeks. First, the performance gain observed will be measured on the trained tasks. We will then determine the extent of transfer of gain on (1) untrained tasks that rely on the same cognitive process, (2) complex working memory (WM) measurements hypothesized to involve 1 of the 2 trained processes, and (3) virtual reality tasks that were designed to mimic real-life situations that require WM. We will assess whether training increases cortical volume given that the volume of the cortex is determined by cortical area and thickness in regions known to be involved in WM or changes task-related brain activation patterns measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Dose effects will be examined by measuring outcomes at different time points during training. We will also determine whether individual characteristics moderate the effect of training on cognitive and cerebral outcomes. Finally, we will evaluate whether training reduces the age-related deficit on transfer and brain outcomes, by comparing study participants to a group of 30 younger adults. RESULTS: The project was funded in January 2017; enrollment began in October 2017 and data collection was completed in April 2019. Data analysis has begun in June 2020 and the first results should be published by the end of 2020 or early 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study will help understand the relative efficacy of 2 attentional control interventions on the cognition and the brain of older adults, as well as the moderating role of individual characteristics on training efficiency and transfer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03532113; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03532113. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/20430.

18.
J Rehabil Assist Technol Eng ; 7: 2055668320909074, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435504

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Occupational therapists promote safety and autonomy of older adults with cognitive impairments. A technology, named COOK, offers support on a touch screen installed next to the stove to support task performance while correcting risky behaviors. We aimed to document (1) the functional profiles according the diagnosis (2) the types of interventions used to increase autonomy in the kitchen (3) the facilitators and obstacles to the implementation of COOK with this clientele. METHODS: Four focus groups were conducted with occupational therapists (n = 24) and were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis, including coding and matrix building. RESULTS: Occupational therapists identified different (1) functional profiles and (2) interventions for both diagnoses. The use of COOK (3) could be more beneficial in mild cognitive impairment, as many barriers occur for the use in Alzheimer's disease. Some parameters, such as digital control of the stove and complex information management, need to be simplified. DISCUSSION: According to occupational therapists, this technology is particularly applicable to people with mild cognitive impairment, because this population has better learning abilities. CONCLUSION: This study documented the specific needs of older adults with cognitive impairments as well as interventions used by occupational therapists. The perspectives of caregivers should be captured in future research.

19.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 24(1): 212-220, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is generally accepted that physical activity promotes healthy aging. Recent studies suggest dance could also benefit cognition and physical health in seniors, but many styles and approaches of dance exist and rigorous designs for intervention studies are still scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Dance/Movement Training (DMT) to Aerobic Exercise Training (AET) on cognition, physical fitness and health-related quality of life in healthy inactive elderly. METHODS: A single-center, randomized, parallel assignment, open label trial was conducted with 62 older adults (mean age = 67.48 ±â€¯5.37 years) recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to a 12-week (3x/week, 1hr/session) DMT program, AET program or control group. Cognitive functioning, physical fitness and health-related quality of life were assessed at baseline (T-0), and post-training (T-12 weeks). RESULTS: 41 participants completed the study. Executive and non-executive composite scores showed a significant increase post-training (F(1,37) = 4.35, p = .04; F(1,37) = 7.01, p = .01). Cardiovascular fitness improvements were specific to the AET group (F(2,38) = 16.40, p < .001) while mobility improvements were not group-dependent (10 m walk: F(1,38) = 11.67, p = .002; Timed up and go: F(1,38) = 22.07, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that DMT may have a positive impact on cognition and physical functioning in older adults however further research is needed. This study could serve as a model for designing future RCTs with dance-related interventions. REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials. gov Identifier NCT02455258.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Dança/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(s1): S23-S28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909238

RESUMO

Age-related mobility and cognitive declines are closely linked, but their relationship is complex and needs to be further investigated. The study aimed to test if cognition (processing speed, inhibition and switching performances) mediates the age-related difference in mobility. Mediation analyses were used to test whether processing speed, inhibition and switching performances on the Stroop test independently mediate the relationship between age and performances at the Timed Up and Go (TUG). Results revealed that only switching performances mediated the age-related difference in TUG (65.1% of the total effect) supporting the notion that executive control plays a critical role in older adults' mobility.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Função Executiva , Locomoção , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
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