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1.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 35(2): 473-477, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642402

RESUMO

Gentiana Radix is one of the most often used drugs in traditional Chinese medicine. Stir frying with yellow wine is the most common processing method. To clarify the principle of processing, an experiment was carried out to compare the tissue distribution of the typical constituent after oral administration of raw G. Radix and wine-processed one. To compare the tissues distribution of gentiopicroside oral administration of raw and wine-processed G. Radix, High-performance liquid chromatogram with ultraviolet detection was developed and validated for the determination of gentiopicroside in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine and large intestine tissues. The gentiopicroside in raw and wine-processed G. Radix was distributed in all tissues involved in this study. Compared with the rats administration of raw G. Radix, the proportions of gentiopicroside in heart, liver and lung tissues increased in rats with administration of wine-processed one. The proportion of gentiopicroside in upper-JIAO and liver tissue can be increased by wine-processing.


Assuntos
Gentiana , Vinho , Administração Oral , Animais , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual
2.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 888198, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645707

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and hematoma volume in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: Patients from a prospective ICH cohort were enrolled. Admission and follow-up CT scan within 72 h after onset were reviewed to calculate the final hematoma volume. We evaluated cortical superficial siderosis and the global SVD score, including white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, enlarged perivascular space, and cerebral microbleeds on MRI. We conducted the multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore the association between SVD markers and small ICH, as well as hematoma volume. Hematoma location was stratified into lobar and non-lobar for subgroup analysis. Results: A total of 187 patients with primary ICH (mean age 62.4 ± 13.4 years, 67.9% male) were enrolled. 94 (50.2%) patients had small ICH. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an association between global SVD score and small ICH [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.27, 95% CI 1.03-1.57, p = 0.027] and a trend of higher global SVD score towards non-lobar small ICH (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 0.95-1.58, p = 0.122). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, global SVD score was inversely related to hematoma volume of all ICH (ß = -0.084, 95% CI -0.142 to -0.025, p = 0.005) and non-lobar ICH (ß = -0.112, 95% CI -0.186 to -0.037, p = 0.004). Lacune (ß = -0.245, 95% CI -0.487 to -0.004, p = 0.046) was associated with lower non-lobar ICH volume. Conclusion: Global SVD score is associated with small ICH and inversely correlated with hematoma volume. This finding predominantly exists in non-lobar ICH.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 916383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720348

RESUMO

Background and aims: Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING) are key components of the innate immune system. This study aims to evaluate the research of cGAS-STING pathway and predict the hotspots and developing trends in this field using bibliometric analysis. Methods: We retrieved publications from Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded) of Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) in 1975-2021 on 16 March 2022. We examined the retrieved data by bibliometrix package in R software, VOSviewer and CiteSpace were used for visualizing the trends and hotspots of research on the cGAS-STING pathway. Results: We identified 1047 original articles and reviews on the cGAS-STING pathway published between 1975 and 2021. Before 2016, the publication trend was increasing steadily, but there was a significant increase after 2016. The United States of America (USA) produced the highest number of papers (Np) and took the highest number of citations (Nc), followed by China and Germany. The University of Texas System and Frontiers in Immunology were the most prolific affiliation and journal respectively. In addition, collaboration network analysis showed that there were tight collaborations among the USA, China and some European countries, so the top 10 affiliations were all from these countries and regions. The paper published by Sun LJ in 2013 reached the highest local citation score (LCS). Keywords co-occurrence and co-citation cluster analysis revealed that inflammation, senescence, and tumor were popular terms related to the cGAS-STING pathway recently. Keywords burst detection suggested that STING-dependent innate immunity and NF-κB-dependent broad antiviral response were newly-emerged hotspots in this area. Conclusions: This bibliometric analysis shows that publications related to the cGAS-STING pathway tend to increase continuously. The research focus has shifted from the mechanism how cGAS senses dsDNA and cGAMP binds to STING to the roles of the cGAS-STING pathway in different pathological state.


Assuntos
Interferon gama , Proteínas de Membrana , Bibliometria , DNA/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2394, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504911

RESUMO

C-C bond forming cross-couplings are convenient technologies for the construction of functional molecules. Consequently, there is continual interest in approaches that can render traditionally inert functionality as cross-coupling partners, included in this are ketones which are widely-available commodity chemicals and easy to install synthetic handles. Herein, we describe a dual catalytic strategy that utilizes dihydroquinazolinones derived from ketone congeners as adaptative one-electron handles for forging C(sp3) architectures via α C-C cleavage with aryl and alkyl bromides. Our approach is achieved by combining the flexibility and modularity of nickel catalysis with the propensity of photoredox events for generating open-shell reaction intermediates. This method is distinguished by its wide scope and broad application profile--including chemical diversification of advanced intermediates--, providing a catalytic technique complementary to existing C(sp3) cross-coupling reactions that operates within the C-C bond-functionalization arena.


Assuntos
Níquel , Processos Fotoquímicos , Alquilação , Catálise , Cetonas , Níquel/química , Oxirredução
5.
Org Biomol Chem ; 20(22): 4635-4639, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611674

RESUMO

A Rh2(OAc)4 catalyzed intermolecular aldol-type interception of phenolic oxonium ylides with isatins has been developed, which provides an effective access to 2,2-disubstituted dihydrobenzofuran derivatives containing 3-hydroxyoxindole in high yields and with high diastereoselectivities under mild reaction conditions. The antiproliferation activity of these synthesized dihydrobenzofuran and 3-hydroxyoxindole hybrid products has been tested via the CCK8 assay in different cancer cell lines; compounds 3s and 3t exhibit good anticancer potency against human colon cancer cells (HCT116 cells, 3s: IC50 = 15.99 µM; 3t: IC50 = 14.48 µM) compared to other tested compounds.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
6.
Bioengineered ; 13(5): 12224-12236, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577353

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular disease caused by diabetes. Tanshinone IIA has been indicated to ameliorate streptozotocin-induced DN. This study explores the effect of tanshinone IIA on high glucose-induced renal tubular epithelial cell pyroptosis and inflammation. High glucose-stimulated HK-2 cells were used as the in-vitro model of DN and were treated with tanshinone IIA at concentrations of 1, 5, 10 µM for 24 h with the same doses of tolbutamide as the control. After tanshinone IIA treatment, HK-2 cells were transfected with pcDNA-transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) or sh-TGFB1 for 48 h. RT-qPCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, and IL-18. Cell apoptosis and pyroptosis were detected by flow cytometry and cell immunofluorescence. Bioinformatics screening predicted that tanshinone IIA might be an effective component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae) for the treatment of DN. Tanshinone IIA exerted a protective effect in the in-vitro model of DN by suppressing inflammation and pyroptosis via the TGFB1-dependent pathway. Tanshinone IIA inhibited high glucose-induced renal tubular epithelial cell inflammation and cell death through pyroptosis by regulating TGFB1, indicating the therapeutic potential of tanshinone IIA for DN treatment.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Piroptose , Abietanos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo
7.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(3)2022 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological characteristics of the common pathogens underlying acute haematogenous osteoarticular infection (AHOI) and their resistance to drugs have temporal and regional differences. AIMS: To determine the antimicrobial treatment most effective for culture-negative AHOI patients and those without bacterial cultures. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical data of children with AHOI who were culture positive from January 2007 to December 2021. And the distribution of the main pathogens and the drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus were analysed in different time periods, age groups and infection types. RESULTS: A total of 188 cases met the inclusion criteria, including 97 cases of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO), 75 cases of septic arthritis (SA) and 16 cases of AHO concomitant with SA. The commonest causative pathogen in local children was S. aureus of Gram-positive cocci, followed by Streptococcus, and occasionally Gram-negative bacilli. The distribution of S. aureus had no significant correlation with age or infection type. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 81.82%, 90.91% and 96.15% of all pathogens, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 24.22%, 53.33% and 76.00% of S. aureus in 2007-11, 2012-16 and 2017-21, respectively. The frequency of MRSA infection showed an increasing trend over time. CONCLUSION: Staphylococcus aureus is still the main pathogen of AHOI in local children. The proportion of MRSA in S. aureus has also increased over time to 76% in the last 5 years, and the increased proportion of MRSA can affect the choice of initial empirical medication.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Osteomielite , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Doença Aguda , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/epidemiologia , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There has been inability to generalize the proposed benefit of subxiphoid uniportal thoracoscopic surgery (SVATS) as having less postoperative pain than uniportal intercostal thoracoscopic surgery (UVATS) due to some sort of preoperative selection bias. So, we conducted this prospective, single blinded, randomized controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis that SVATS may have less early postoperative pain than UVATS in patients who would undergo major lung resection for early-stage lung cancer. METHODS: 262 patients were randomly allocated between 2 groups (each has 131 patients) according to the approach; the 1st UVATS group and the 2nd SVATS group. Numerical rating scale (NRS) of pain was collected at 24 hours and 48 hours during rest and cough. In addition, different perioperative variables were analyzed and compared between both groups. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analysis showed that type of the surgical approach was a significant predictor for postoperative NRS. NRS was significantly lower in SVATS group after 24 hours during rest and cough and after 48 hours during cough. Postoperatively, patients in SVATS groups moved out of bed significantly earlier (16.37(2.54) vs 18.05(3.29) hours, p < 0.001). SVATS group showed significant higher rate of intraoperative arrhythmia (20(15.3%) vs 3(2.3%) patients, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: SVATS major pulmonary resection in early-stage lung cancer is associated with less early postoperative pain than UVATS approach. Operating upon patients with cardiac problems through SVATS approach is still a limiting factor for randomization due to the potential compression on the heart with resulting arrhythmia. REGISTRATION: The trial was registered under clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT03331588. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03331588.

9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 5918954, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528515

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation, resulting in high morbidity and mortality in severe cases. Given the antioxidative effect of molecular hydrogen, some recent studies suggest the potential use of molecular hydrogen as a biomedicine for the treatment of ARDS. In this study, we aimed to explore the protective effects of magnesium hydride (MgH2) on two types of ARDS models and its underlying mechanism in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS model of the A549 cell line. The results showed that LPS successfully induced oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, and barrier breakdown in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). MgH2 can exert an anti-inflammatory effect by down-regulating the expressions of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α). In addition, MgH2 decreased oxidative stress by eliminating intracellular ROS, inhibited apoptosis by regulating the expressions of cytochrome c, Bax, and Bcl-2, and suppressed barrier breakdown by up-regulating the expression of ZO-1 and occludin. Mechanistically, the expressions of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-P65, NLRP3, and cleaved-caspase-1 were decreased after MgH2 treatment, indicating that AKT/mTOR and NF-κB/NLRP3/IL-1ß pathways participated in the protective effects of MgH2. Furthermore, the in vivo study also demonstrated that MgH2-treated mice had a better survival rate and weaker pathological damage. All these findings demonstrated that MgH2 could exert an ARDS-protective effect by regulating the AKT/mTOR and NF-κB/NLRP3/IL-1ß pathways to suppress LPS-induced inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress injury, apoptosis, and barrier breakdown, which may provide a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of ARDS.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Animais , Apoptose , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Magnésio/farmacologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
10.
Front Surg ; 9: 890689, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574552

RESUMO

Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Objective: We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and accuracy of full-endoscopic posterior lumbar interbody fusion (FE-PLIF) by assessing the learning curve and initial clinical outcomes. Summary of Background Data: Low back pain is one of the crucial medical conditions worldwide. FE-PLIF has been reported to be a minimally invasive method to treat mechanical low back pain, but there lacks a thorough evaluation on this new technique. Methods: The patients were divided into three groups in the order of operating date, implying that Group A consisted of the initial 12 cases, Group B the subsequent 12 cases, and Group C the last 12 cases. The data of patients were reviewed for gender, age, preoperative symptoms, satisfaction, as well as clinical outcomes demonstrated by visual analog scale (VAS). The operative time and intraoperative fluoroscopy were recorded to demonstrate the learning curve and the extent of radiographic exposure. Statistical significance was set at a p < 0.05 (two-sided). Results: The patients enrolled in this study were followed up at an average of 1.41 ± 0.24 years. Overall, patients were satisfied with the surgery. The average number of intraoperative fluoroscopy was 6.97 ± 0.74. A significant improvement was observed in the VAS of both lumbar pain and leg pain. The overall fusion rate was 77.7%. Complications were reported in two patients in Group A, one in Group B, and none in Group C. The average operative time showed a trend of gradual decline. The learning curve was characterized using a cubic regression analysis as y = -27.07x + 1.42x2-0.24x3 + 521.84 (R 2 = 0.617, p = 0.000). Conclusions: FE-PLIF is an effective and safe method for treating low back pain caused by short-segmental degenerative diseases. The learning curve of this technique is steep at the initial stage but acceptable and shows great potential for improvement.

11.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 13(10): 1558-1565, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476397

RESUMO

The current diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mainly rely on such measures as amyloid-ß (Aß) and tau neuropathology biomarkers in vivo via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, which had been systematically studied in Caucasian individuals, whereas diagnostic performances of these approaches in Chinese dementia population still remain unclear. This study investigated the associations between the levels of CSF core AD biomarkers, including phosphorylated tau (p-Tau181), total tau (t-Tau), Aß42, and Aß40 measured by the single-molecule array (Simoa) and cerebral Aß deposition status assessed by 18F-Florbetapir PET (Aß PET), and evaluated the predictive values of CSF core AD biomarkers in discriminating Aß PET status in a clinical dementia cohort of the Chinese population, which consisted of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD dementia, and non-Alzheimer's dementia disease (Non-ADD). Global standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated by Aß PET, which was divided into positive (Aß+) and negative (Aß-) through visual analysis. CSF p-Tau181 and p-Tau181/t-Tau ratio were positively correlated with the global SUVR, while CSF Aß42 and Aß42/Aß40 ratio were negatively correlated with the global SUVR. CSF Aß40 has the highest predictive value in discriminating the MCI group from the AD group, while CSF p-Tau181 was applied to discriminate the AD group from the non-ADD group. CSF Aß42/Aß40 ratio, as the optimal predictive factor, was combined with APOE ε4 status rather than age and education, which could improve the predictive ability in differentiating the Aß+ group from the Aß- group. The results reveal the universal applicability of CSF core AD biomarkers and Aß PET imaging in Chinese dementia population, which is helpful in clinical practice and drug trials in China.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Proteínas tau
12.
J Pain Res ; 15: 939-947, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411186

RESUMO

Purpose: It is pivotal to optimize perioperative analgesia in order to fit a transition in the surgical approach for removing mediastinal tumors, from sternotomy to trans-subxiphoid robotic thymectomy (TRT). Serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) is a safe, effective and easy to perform analgesic technology, which could provide analgesia in thoracic and upper abdominal surgery. However, the efficacy of SAPB analgesia in the patients undergoing TRT is unclear and has never been described in scientific literature. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonic-guided low SAPB on analgesia and the quality of recovery (QoR) following the TRT. Study Design and Methods: In this prospective double-blind, randomized controlled design trial, 40 adults scheduled for TRT will be randomly allocated to the low SAPB group (Group S) and placebo control group (Group C). The patient of Group S will be performed SAPB bilaterally at the level of T8-T9 under ultrasound guidance with 40 mL 0.375% ropivacaine after anesthesia induction. Group C will be administered normal saline at the same volume and timing. The primary study outcome is the global Quality of Recovery-40 (QoR-40) score on postoperative days (POD) 1. The secondary endpoints are numeric rating scale (NRS) scores and sufentanil consumption at different time points after surgery, QoR-40 scores on POD 2, 30 and 90, chronic pain at POD 90, and the incidence of perioperative adverse events. Discussion: This is the first prospective trial to shed light on the efficacy of ultrasonic-guided low SAPB on postoperative pain and recovery after TRT. The findings will provide a new strategy of perioperative pain management for TRT.

13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396533

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of cardiac fibroblasts is the main cause and character of cardiac fibrosis, and inhibition of cardiac fibrosis becomes a promising treatment for cardiac diseases. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and Hippo pathway is recently recognized as key signaling mechanisms in cardiovascular diseases. In this study we explored the potential roles of PAF and Hippo signaling pathway in cardiac fibrosis. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in mice by left anterior descending artery ligation. After 28 days, the mice were sacrificed, and the hearts were collected for analyses. We showed that PAF receptor (PAFR) and yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1, a key effector in the Hippo pathway) were significantly increased in the heart of MI mice. Increased expression of PAFR and YAP1 was also observed in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated mouse cardiac fibroblasts. In mouse cardiac fibroblasts, forced expression of YAP1 increased cell viability, resulted in collagen deposition and promoted fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. We showed that PAF induced fibrogenesis through activation of YAP1 and promoted its nuclear translocation via interacting with PAFR, while YAP1 promoted the expression of PAFR by binding to and activating transcription factor TEAD1. More importantly, silencing PAFR or YAP1 by shRNA, or using transgenic mice to induce the conditional deletion of YAP1 in cardiac fibroblasts, impeded cardiac fibrosis and improved cardiac function in MI mice. Taken together, this study elucidates the role and mechanisms of PAFR/YAP1 positive feedback loop in cardiac fibrosis, suggesting a potential role of this pathway as novel therapeutic targets in cardiac fibrosis.

14.
Asian J Androl ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439874

RESUMO

Body mass index (BMI) has been increasing globally in recent decades. Previous studies reported that BMI was associated with sex hormone levels, but the results were generated via linear regression or logistic regression, which would lose part of information. Quantile regression analysis can maximize the use of variable information. Our study compared the associations among different regression models. The participants were recruited from the Center of Reproductive Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University (Changchun, China) between June 2018 and June 2019. We used linear, logistic, and quantile regression models to calculate the associations between sex hormone levels and BMI. In total, 448 men were included in this study. The average BMI was 25.7 (standard deviation [s.d.]: 3.7) kg m-2; 29.7% (n = 133) of the participants were normal weight, 45.3% (n = 203) of the participants were overweight, and 23.4% (n = 105) of the participants were obese. The levels of testosterone and estradiol significantly differed among BMI groups (all P < 0.05). In linear regression and logistic regression, BMI was associated with testosterone and estradiol levels (both P < 0.05). In quantile regression, BMI was negatively associated with testosterone levels in all quantiles after adjustment for age (all P < 0.05). BMI was positively associated with estradiol levels in most quantiles (≤80th) after adjustment for age (all P < 0.05). Our study suggested that BMI was one of the influencing factors of testosterone and estradiol. Of note, the quantile regression showed that BMI was associated with estradiol only up to the 80th percentile of estradiol.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(16): 9509-9520, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388810

RESUMO

Soluble H2S widely exists in natural gas or oil potentially corroding oil/gas pipelines. Furthermore, it can affect the hydrate formation condition, resulting in pipeline blockage; the nucleation mechanism from mixed gas including H2S is still largely unclear. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to reveal the effects of different initial mixed H2S/CH4 compositions on the hydrate nucleation and growth process. The geometric details of the nanobubbles and gas composition in the nanobubbles were analyzed; the size of the nanobubbles was found to decrease from 3.4 nm to 1.4 nm. With the increase in the initial H2S proportion, the diameter of the nanobubbles decreased; more guest molecules were dissolved in the water, which improved the initial concentration of guest molecules in the water. A multi-site nucleation process was observed, and separate hydrate clusters could grow independently until the simulation box limited their growth due to high local H2S concentration as a potential nucleation location. When the initial proportion of mixed gas approaches, H2S preferred to occupy and stabilize the incipient cage. Moreover, 512, 4151062, and 51262 cages accounted for approximately 95% of the first hydrate cage. Nucleation rates were shown to increase from 4.62 × 1024 to 9.438 × 1026 nuclei cm-3 s-1. The present high subcooling and H2S concentration provided a high driving force to promote mixed hydrate nucleation and growth. The proportion of cages occupied by H2S increased with increasing initial H2S proportion, but the largest enrichment factor of 1.38 occurred at 10% initial H2S/CH4 mixed gas.

16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 2453617, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355864

RESUMO

Objective: Mitochondrial damage contributes to extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and renal fibrosis. In this study, we aimed (1) to investigate whether fluorofenidone (AKF-PD) can attenuate mitochondrial damage in two renal fibrosis models: unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and (2) to explore the underlying mechanism. Method: Mitochondrial damage and renal lesions were analyzed in the UUO and IRI models. Mitochondrial energy metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative stress were measured to assess the effect of AKF-PD on mitochondrial damage and to explore the underlying mechanism. In addition, HK-2 cells were stimulated with TGF-ß with and without AKF-PD. The mitochondrial morphology, mtROS, ATP contents, and redox-related proteins were then examined. Results: In both UUO and IRI models, AKF-PD relieved renal fibrosis, maintained mitochondrial structure, and increased mitochondrial DNA copy numbers. The protection was associated with (1) sustaining mitochondrial energy metabolism, evident by elevations of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes; (2) improving mitochondrial biogenesis with increases of TFAM, NRF1, PGC-1α, and SIRT1; and (3) reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress likely via regulating SOD2, SIRT3, and NOX4 expressions. In HK-2 cells treated with TGF-ß, AKF-PD protected mitochondria along with improving mitochondrial morphology, enhancing ATP production, reducing mtROS, and regulating SOD2, SIRT3, and NOX4 expression. Conclusion: We demonstrate that AKF-PD inhibited renal fibrosis at least in part via protecting mitochondria from damages developed in the UUO and IRI models. The mitochondrial protection was associated with sustaining mitochondrial energy metabolism, improving mitochondrial biogenesis, and reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress. This research verified the protective effect of AKF-PD on mitochondria in the UUO and IRI models and elaborated the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Obstrução Ureteral , Fibrose , Humanos , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Piridonas/farmacologia , Piridonas/uso terapêutico
17.
Opt Express ; 30(5): 8303-8316, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299574

RESUMO

In this paper, a conformal optical transparent metamaterial absorber (COTMA) is proposed based on the circuit analog optimization method (CAOM), which can effectively enhance the optimization speed in the metamaterial absorber structure design by quantifying the equivalent circuit parameters. The operating frequency band can be customized at any band through CAOM, such as microwave, terahertz, and near-infrared frequencies. Here, a five-square-patch structure absorber with transparency and flexible properties is achieved. The simulated and measured incident electromagnetic (EM) wave absorptions of COTMA can reach above 90% in 15.77 - 38.69 GHz band. Meanwhile, COTMA exhibits excellent conformal EM absorption, a thinner substrate (0.078 wavelength at 15.77 GHz), lower structure complexity and polarization independence, and it can also be adapted to the EM absorption of different curved screens. This design is expected to have potential applications for wearable electronics, curved surface screens and OLED displays.

18.
Indian J Surg ; : 1-18, 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228782

RESUMO

There have been many major developments in the use of augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR) technologies in the context of global surgical research, yet few reports on the trends in this field have been published to date. This study was therefore designed to explore these worldwide trends in this clinically important field. Relevant studies published from 1 January 2009 through 13 October 2020 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) tool of the Web of Science database. Bibliometric techniques were then used to analyze the resultant data, with visual bibliographic coupling, co-authorship, co-citation, co-occurrence, and publication trend analyses subsequently being conducted with GraphPad Prism 8 and with the visualization of similarities (VOS) software tool. There is no patient and public involved. In total, 6221 relevant studies were incorporated into this analysis. At a high level, clear global annual increases in the number of publications in this field were observed. The USA made the greatest contributions to this field over the studied period, with the highest H-index value, the most citations, and the greatest total link strength for analyzed publications. The country with the highest number of average citations per publication was Scotland. The Surgical Endoscopy And Other Interventional Techniques journal contributed the greatest number of publications in this field. The University of London was the institution that produced the greatest volume of research in this field. Overall, studies could be broadly classified into five clusters: Neurological Research, Surgical Techniques, Technological Products, Rehabilitative Medicine, and Clinical Therapy. The trends detected in the present analysis suggest that the number of global publications pertaining to the use of AR, VR, and MR techniques in surgical research is likely to increase in the coming years. Particular attention should be paid to emerging trends in related fields including MR, extended reality, head-mounted displays, navigation, and holographic images.

19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 7837837, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35265265

RESUMO

Exosomes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have the capacity to regulate various biological events associated with sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including cellular immunometabolism, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, allowing them to exert therapeutic effects. However, little is known about which type of hMSC-derived exosomes (hMSC-exo) is more effective and suitable for the treatment of sepsis-induced ARDS. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of hMSC-derived exosomes from human adipose tissue (hADMSC-exo), human bone marrow (hBMMSC-exo), and human umbilical cord (hUCMSC-exo) in the treatment of sepsis-induced ARDS. We cocultured lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells with the three kinds of hMSCs and found that all hMSCs reduced the glycolysis level and the content of lactic acid in macrophages. Accordingly, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines also decreased. Notably, the protective effects of hMSCs from adipose tissue were more obvious than those of bone marrow and umbilical cord hMSCs. However, this protective effect was eliminated when an exosome inhibitor, GW4869, was added. Subsequently, we extracted and cocultured hMSC-derived exosomes with LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and found that all three kinds of exosomes exerted a similar protective effect as their parental cells, with exosomes from adipose hMSCs showing the strongest protective effect. Finally, an experimental sepsis model in mice was established, and we found that all three types of hMSCs have obvious lung-protective effects, in reducing lung injury scores, lactic acid, and proinflammatory cytokine levels in the lung tissues and decreasing the total protein content and inflammatory cell count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and also can attenuate the systemic inflammatory response and improve the survival rate of mice. Intravenous injection of three types of hMSC-exo, in particular those derived from adipose hADMSCs, also showed lung-protective effects in mice. These findings revealed that exosomes derived from different sources of hMSCs can effectively downregulate sepsis-induced glycolysis and inflammation in macrophages, ameliorate the lung pathological damage, and improve the survival rate of mice with sepsis. It is worth noting that the protective effect of hADMSC-exo is better than that of hBMMSC-exo and hUCMSC-exo.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Sepse/complicações , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
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