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1.
J Biol Chem ; : 101185, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509473

RESUMO

Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a multifunctional transmembrane protein. Beyond the function of the full-length VLDLR in lipid transport, the soluble ectodomain of VLDLR (sVLDLR) confers anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic roles in ocular tissues through inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. However, it remains unknown how sVLDLR is shed into the extracellular space. In this study, we present the first evidence that a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is responsible for sVLDLR shedding in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells using pharmacological and genetic approaches. Among selected proteinase inhibitors, an ADAM17 inhibitor demonstrated the most potent inhibitory effect on sVLDLR shedding. siRNA-mediated knockdown or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of ADAM17 diminished, while plasmid-mediated overexpression of ADAM17 promoted, sVLDLR shedding. The amount of shed sVLDLR correlated with an inhibitory effect on the Wnt signaling pathway. Consistent with these in vitro findings, intravitreal injection of an ADAM17 inhibitor reduced sVLDLR levels in the extracellular matrix in the mouse retina. In addition, our results demonstrated that ADAM17 cleaved VLDLR only in cells co-expressing these proteins, suggesting that shedding occurs in a cis manner. Moreover, our study demonstrated that aberrant activation of Wnt signaling was associated with decreased sVLDLR levels, along with downregulation of ADAM17 in ocular tissues of an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) model. Taken together, our observations reveal the mechanism underlying VLDLR cleavage and identify a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of disorders associated with dysregulation of Wnt signaling.

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 21385-21399, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499616

RESUMO

Ferroptosis, a novel form of regulated cell death, is closely associated with the occurrence and development of malignant tumors. Here, we utilized a bioinformatics approach to identify ferroptosis-related genes to establish a robust and reliable prognostic signature in breast cancer (BC). Univariate Cox regression and LASSO regression analyses of patient's survival and gene expression data identified a prognostic signature consisting of 10 ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs). The signature demonstrated a favorable prediction performance, and was validated in two independent datasets, GSE21653 and GSE25066. Analyses of immune infiltrates, tumor microenvironment, immune checkpoints, mutations, drug sensitivity, and clinicopathological features revealed significant differences between low- and high-risk BC patients. A multivariate analysis revealed that the signature was an independent prognostic predictor in BC, and a nomogram combining the risk score and tumor stage intuitively displayed high accuracy and reliability with respect to predicting the survival outcomes of BC patients. These findings indicate that the identified prognostic signature is a potential indicator predictive of prognosis and immunotherapeutic responses in BC patients.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6618257, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497852

RESUMO

Background: This study is aimed at investigating whether dapagliflozin adjunct to insulin therapy further improves glycemic control compared to insulin therapy alone in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: This single-centre, randomized, controlled, open-labeled trial recruited newly diagnosed T2D patients. Subjects were randomized 1 : 1 to the dapagliflozin add-on to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) group (DAPA) or the CSII therapy group for 5 weeks. Standard meal tests were performed 3 times at days -3, 7, and 35 for glucose, C-peptide, and insulin level determination. Two-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed at baseline and at the end of the study. The primary endpoint was the difference in the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGEs) between the groups. Results: A total of 66 subjects completed the study, with 34 and 32 patients in the DAPA and CSII groups, respectively. Patients in the DAPA group exhibited significant decreases in MAGE levels at the endpoint. We also observed that patients in the DAPA group had a lower homoeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and a higher homoeostasis model assessment B (HOMA-B) value at 1 week and 5 weeks compared to those with insulin therapy, respectively. In addition, our data showed that patients in the DAPA group showed a significantly lower insulin dose (0.07 U/kg) and weighed less than those in the CSII group. Conclusion: Our data indicate that dapagliflozin adjunct to insulin is a safe and effective therapy for improving glycemic variations, insulin sensitivity, and weight loss in newly diagnosed T2D patients.

5.
Diabetes Ther ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sarcopenia has increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The influence of glucose-lowering drugs on muscles in these patients remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between muscle mass/function and glucose-lowering drugs. METHODS: Data of 1042 hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. All the patients had stable hypoglycemic therapy in the last 3 months, and performed bioelectrical impedance analysis, grip strength, and gait speed tests on admission. RESULTS: Skeletal muscle index [6.81 (95% CI 6.67, 6.94) vs. 7.17 (7.09, 7.24) kg/m2], handgrip strength [23.41 (22.24, 24.58) vs. 26.93 (26.33, 27.54) kg], and gait speed [1.19 (1.15, 1.22) vs. 1.27 (1.25, 1.28) m/s] decreased in patients using acarbose compared with the others (all p < 0.001). Gait speed and skeletal muscle index remained lower in patients using acarbose compared to their matched patients in propensity score matching (p = 0.036 and 0.010, respectively). Among drug-naïve patients and patients using insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, or acarbose monotherapy, the acarbose group had lowest skeletal muscle index and handgrip strength [6.81 (6.52, 7.11) kg/m2 and 22.54 (19.28, 25.79) kg, p = 0.028 and 0.001, respectively]. CONCLUSION: Acarbose treatment was associated with decreased muscle mass and strength. Assessment and exercise of muscles in patients with long-term acarbose treatment should be considered.

7.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487615

RESUMO

The AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6)-like genes are ancient MADS-box genes and are functionally studied in a few model plants. The knowledge of these genes in wheat remains limited. Here, by studying a "double homoeolog mutant" of the AGL6 gene in tetraploid wheat, we showed that AGL6 was required for the development of all four whorls of floral organs with dosage dependent effect on floret fertility. Yeast two-hybrid analyses detected interactions of AGL6 with all classes of MADS-box proteins in the ABCDE model for floral organ development. AGL6 was found to interact with several additional proteins, including the G protein ß and γ (DEP1) subunits. Analysis of the DEP1-B mutant showed significant reduction in spikelet number per spike in tetraploid wheat, while over-expression of AGL6 in common wheat increased the spikelet number per spike and hence the grain number per spike. RNA-seq analysis identified the regulation of several meristem activity genes by AGL6, such as FUL2 and TaMADS55. Our work therefore extensively updated the wheat ABCDE model and proposed an alternative approach to improve wheat grain yield by manipulating the AGL6 gene.

8.
Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci ; 4: 21-41, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465168

RESUMO

The spatial organization of the genome in the cell nucleus is pivotal to cell function. However, how the 3D genome organization and its dynamics influence cellular phenotypes remains poorly understood. The very recent development of single-cell technologies for probing the 3D genome, especially single-cell Hi-C (scHi-C), has ushered in a new era of unveiling cell-to-cell variability of 3D genome features at an unprecedented resolution. Here, we review recent developments in computational approaches to the analysis of scHi-C, including data processing, dimensionality reduction, imputation for enhancing data quality, and the revealing of 3D genome features at single-cell resolution. While much progress has been made in computational method development to analyze single-cell 3D genomes, substantial future work is needed to improve data interpretation and multimodal data integration, which are critical to reveal fundamental connections between genome structure and function among heterogeneous cell populations in various biological contexts.

9.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500659

RESUMO

In this study, broilers were fed with heavy-metal-containing diets (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, As, Hg) at three rates (T1: 5 kg premix/ton feed, T2: 10 kg premix/ton feed and T3: 15 kg premix/ton feed) and Doxycycline (DOX) and Gatifloxacin (GAT) at low or high doses (T4: 31.2 mg DOX/bird/day and 78 mg GAT/bird/day, T5: 15.6 mg DOX/bird/day and 48 mg GAT/bird/day) to assess the accumulation of various heavy metals and the fate of two antibiotics in broiler manure after 35 days of aerobic composting. The results indicated that the two antibiotics changed quite differently during aerobic composting. About 14.96-15.84% of Doxycycline still remained at the end of composting, while Gatifloxacin was almost completely removed within 10 days of composting. The half-lives of Doxycycline were 13.75 and 15.86 days, while the half-lives of Gatifloxacin were only 1.32 and 1.38 days. Based on the Redundancy analysis (RDA), the concentration of antibiotics was significantly influenced by physico-chemical properties (mainly temperature and pH) throughout the composting process. Throughout the composting process, all heavy metal elements remained concentrated in organic fertilizer. In this study the Cr content reached 160.16 mg/kg, 223.98 mg/kg and 248.02 mg/kg with increasing premix feed rates, similar to Zn, which reached 258.2 mg/kg, 312.21 mg/kg and 333.68 mg/kg. Zn and Cr concentrations well exceeded the United States and the European soil requirements. This experiment showed that antibiotic residues and the accumulation of heavy metals may lead to soil contamination and pose a risk to the soil ecosystem.

10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 329, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE)-derived decellularized lenticules on intraocular pressure (IOP) and conjunctival scarring in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery. METHODS: Trabeculectomy was performed on both eyes of New Zealand rabbits. A decellularized lenticule was placed in the subconjunctival space in one eye of the rabbits (the decellularized lenticule group), and no adjunctive treatment was performed in the fellow eye (the control group). The filtering bleb features and IOP were evaluated 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after surgery, and histopathologic examination was performed 28 days after surgery. RESULTS: Decellularized lenticules significantly increased bleb survival and decreased IOP postoperatively in the rabbit model with no adverse side effects. The histopathologic results showed a larger subconjunctival space and less subconjunctival fibrosis in the decellularized lenticule group. CONCLUSIONS: Decellularized lenticules can prevent postoperative conjunctiva-sclera adhesion and fibrosis, and they may represent a novel antifibrotic agent for trabeculectomy.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Filtrante , Glaucoma , Trabeculectomia , Animais , Túnica Conjuntiva/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glaucoma/cirurgia , Pressão Intraocular , Coelhos
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009886, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547027

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) has infected humans for a long time, but its evolutionary history and geographic spread across Eurasia is still poorly understood. Here, we screened for pathogen DNA in 14 ancient individuals from the Bronze Age Quanergou cemetery (XBQ), Xinjiang, China. In 6 individuals we detected S. enterica. We reconstructed S. enterica genomes from those individuals, which form a previously undetected phylogenetic branch basal to Paratyphi C, Typhisuis and Choleraesuis-the so-called Para C lineage. Based on pseudogene frequency, our analysis suggests that the ancient S. enterica strains were not host adapted. One genome, however, harbors the Salmonella pathogenicity island 7 (SPI-7), which is thought to be involved in (para)typhoid disease in humans. This offers first evidence that SPI-7 was acquired prior to the emergence of human-adapted Paratyphi C around 1,000 years ago. Altogether, our results show that Salmonella enterica infected humans in Eastern Eurasia at least 3,000 years ago, and provide the first ancient DNA evidence for the spread of a pathogen along the Proto-Silk Road.

13.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the efficacy and safety of mirabegron in treating irritative symptoms induced by intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) after transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). METHODS: A total of 160 patients subjected to TURBT was randomly divided into the mirabegron group and placebo group with 80 patients in each group. Then, the patients were administered 25 mg mirabegron or placebo daily, starting the first day after BCG infusion. The first BCG perfusion was conducted at least 2 weeks after TURBT. The 3-day bladder diaries were completed in all patients, 1 day before BCG perfusion, and on the 1st, 6th, and 13th days after the first BCG perfusion. Overactive bladder symptom scores were completed 1 day before BCG perfusion, and on the 6th and 13th days after the first BCG perfusion. RESULTS: Symptom scores of bladder hyperactivity were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.001). Also, the frequency of nocturia, pollakiuria, micturition urgency, urinary incontinence and was significantly lower in group 1 than that in group two (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that mirabegron is a valuable clinical drug for the management of irritative symptoms after TURBT with subsequent intravesical BCG perfusion.

14.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416065

RESUMO

Drought and salt stresses impose major constraints on soybean production worldwide. However, improving agronomically valuable soybean traits under drought conditions can be challenging due to trait complexity and multiple factors that influence yield. Here, we identified a nuclear factor Y C subunit (NF-YC) family transcription factor member, GmNF-YC14, which formed a heterotrimer with GmNF-YA16 and GmNF-YB2 to activate the GmPYR1-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway to regulate stress tolerance in soybean. Notably, we found that CRISPR/Cas9-generated GmNF-YC14 knockout mutants were more sensitive to drought than wild-type soybean plants. Furthermore, field trials showed that overexpression of GmNF-YC14 or GmPYR1 could increase yield per plant, grain plumpness, and stem base circumference, thus indicating improved adaptation of soybean plants to drought conditions. Taken together, our findings expand the known functional scope of the NF-Y transcription factor functions and raise important questions about the integration of ABA signaling pathways in plants. Moreover, GmNF-YC14 and GmPYR1 have potential for application in the improvement of drought tolerance in soybean plants.

15.
Mol Ther ; 29(9): 2754-2768, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365033

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) represent a large group of non-coding RNAs that are widely detected in mammalian cells. Although most circRNAs are generated in a sense orientation, there is a group of circRNAs that are synthesized in an antisense orientation. High-throughput analysis of breast cancer specimens revealed a significant enrichment of 209 antisense circRNAs. The tumor suppressor SCRIB was shown to potentially produce thirteen circRNAs, three of which are in an antisense orientation. Among these three circRNAs, circSCRIB (hsa_circ_0001831) was the most enriched in the breast cancer panel. This antisense SCRIB circRNA was shown to span one intron and two exons. We hypothesized that this circRNA could decrease pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. To test this, we generated a hsa_circ_0001831 expression construct. We found that there was decreased SCRIB mRNA production but increased cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In comparison, an exonic sequence construct did not affect mRNA splicing but decreased protein translation, leading to increased E-cadherin expression and decreased expression of N-cadherin and vimentin. Thus, there was increased cell migration, invasion, proliferation, colony formation, and tumorigenesis. Our study suggests a novel modulatory role of antisense circRNAs on their parental transcripts. This may represent a promising approach for developing circRNA-directed therapy.

16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 669125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422741

RESUMO

Background: Child unintentional injuries have become a hot topic worldwide, and substantial regional disparities existed in causes and characteristics. To date, limited data are available to investigate the causes and characteristics of child unintentional injuries from hospitals for children in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2017 and December 2018 in Shanghai, China. Patients aged <18 years with an unintentional injury presented to the emergency department were enrolled. Demographic information, Pediatric Risk for Mortality III score, and outcome variables were retrieved from electronic health records (EHRs). Frequencies and proportions of categorical variables and means and SDs of continuous variables are presented. Chi-square test and Student's t-test were used for the comparison between groups, as appropriate. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate potential risk factors for admission to the hospital. Results: A total of 29,597 cases with unintentional injuries were identified between January 2017 and December 2018, with boys vs. girls ratio of 1.75. Preschool children account for approximately two-thirds of unintentional injuries in the emergency department. A distinctive pattern of mechanisms of unintentional injuries between gender was documented, and sports injury was significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.2 vs. 7.8%). Compared with Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) Grade 3 patients, Grade 2 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.93-4.63, P < 0.001] and Grade 1 (OR = 74.85, 95% CI = 12.93-433.14, P < 0.001) patients had higher risk of inhospital admission. For causes of injuries, compared with falling, foreign body and poison had a lower risk of inhospital admission, while transport injury (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.07-1.59, P = 0.008) and high fall injury (OR = 2.58. 95% CI =1.48-4.49, P < 0.001) had a significantly higher risk of admission. Conclusions: There was a significant relationship between age-groups and unintentional injuries between gender, with decreased injuries among girls growing up older. Preventive measures should be taken to reduce transport injury and high fall injury, which had a significantly higher risk of admission.

17.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 249, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the safety and long-term clinical efficacy of gelatin sponge microparticles combined with the chemotherapy drug pirarubicin for hepatic transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (GSMs-TACE) in order to treat breast cancer liver metastasis (BCLM). METHODS: Twenty-seven BCLM patients who underwent GSMs-TACE from July 2010 to July 2016 were enrolled. Tumor target blood vessels were slowly and regionally embolized with absorbable gelatin sponge particles and pirarubicin injections. Plain computed tomography (CT) scans and biochemical indexes were re-examined at 4 days after treatment, and enhanced CT scans or magnetic resonance images and biochemical indexes, 1 month later. For patients with stable tumors, the follow-up period was 2 to 3 months, and the tumor response was evaluated using Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Adverse reactions, survival time, and prognostic factors were assessed. RESULTS: By October 2019, 27 patients with BCLM had undergone GSMs-TACE, with an average of 2.44 ± 1.58 treatments. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 62.96%, 22.22%, and 14.81%, respectively, and the mOS was 22.0 months. No serious complications, such as acute liver failure and liver abscess, had occurred. There were two cases of acute cholecystitis that recovered after symptomatic treatment. Multivariate analysis of the prognosis showed that the primary tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, and time to postoperative liver metastasis and combination therapy were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prognosis of BCLM was poor. GSMs-TACE was safe and effective for BCLM treatment and could prolong the median survival time of patients. Therefore, it is worthy of widespread clinical application.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Gelatina , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445203

RESUMO

Wheat is a major staple food crop worldwide, due to its total yield and unique processing quality. Its grain yield and quality are threatened by Fusarium head blight (FHB), which is mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. Salicylic acid (SA) has a strong and toxic effect on F. graminearum and is a hopeful target for sustainable control of FHB. F. graminearum is capable of efficientdealing with SA stress. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we characterized FgMFS1 (FGSG_03725), a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter gene in F. graminearum. FgMFS1 was highly expressed during infection and was upregulated by SA. The predicted three-dimensional structure of the FgMFS1 protein was consistent with the schematic for the antiporter. The subcellular localization experiment indicated that FgMFS1 was usually expressed in the vacuole of hyphae, but was alternatively distributed in the cell membrane under SA treatment, indicating an element of F. graminearum in response to SA. ΔFgMFS1 (loss of function mutant of FgMFS1) showed enhanced sensitivity to SA, less pathogenicity towards wheat, and reduced DON production under SA stress. Re-introduction of a functional FgMFS1 gene into ∆FgMFS1 recovered the mutant phenotypes. Wheat spikes inoculated with ΔFgMFS1 accumulated more SA when compared to those inoculated with the wild-type strain. Ecotopic expression of FgMFS1 in yeast enhanced its tolerance to SA as expected, further demonstrating that FgMFS1 functions as an SA exporter. In conclusion, FgMFS1 encodes an SA exporter in F. graminearum, which is critical for its response to wheat endogenous SA and pathogenicity towards wheat.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fusarium/genética
19.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431758

RESUMO

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the coenzyme of more than 140 enzymes and is widely used in various fields. In this study, to enhance the production of PLP in Escherichia coli BL21, the recombinant strain E. coli BL21/pETDuet-1-pdxj-zwf-dxs was constructed. The concentration of PLP in this strain was 82.69 mg/L, which was increased by 1.38-fold as compared to that in E. coli BL21. Glucose, yeast extract, and pH had an obvious impact on the concentration of PLP, and their optimal levels were 34.89 g/L, 31.17 g/L, and 10.07, respectively. The concentration of PLP under the optimal condition reached 2.23 g/L. The time-course analysis showed that the highest concentration of PLP was 2.32 g/L in recombinant strain after the induction for 12 h by 0.1 mM IPTG in a 1 L shake flask, which was increased by 38.76-fold as compared to that in E. coli BL21. This study provides a good basis for the efficient production of PLP in E. coli BL21.

20.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 53(9): 1227-1236, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350954

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is the main pathological basis for ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes have the potential to alleviate AS, while the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of MSC-derived exosomes in AS. The AS mouse model was prepared by feeding ApoE-/- mice with high-fat diet. AS mice were administered with MSC-derived exosomes, and the atherosclerotic plaque area was analyzed by Oil Red O staining. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were incubated with MSC-derived exosomes. The macrophage infiltration, macrophage proportion, and cell migration were estimated by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, or Transwell assay. The relationship between miR-21a-5p and kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 2 (ERK2) was verified by luciferase reporter assay. We found that MSC-derived exosomes promoted M2 polarization of macrophages and reduced plaque area and macrophage infiltration in AS mice. miR-21a-5p overexpression caused an increase of M2 macrophages in RAW264.7 cells and led to a decrease in migration of RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, both KLF6 and ERK2 are the targets of miR-21a-5p. MSC-derived exosomes containing miR-21a-5p promoted M2 polarization of RAW264.7 cells by suppressing KLF6 expression. MSC-derived exosomes containing miR-21a-5p inhibited migration of RAW264.7 cells through inhibiting the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In conclusion, MSC-derived exosomes containing miR-21a-5p promote macrophage polarization and reduce macrophage infiltration by targeting KLF6 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thereby attenuating the development of AS. Thus, MSC-derived exosomes may be a promising treatment for AS.

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