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1.
Addict Behav ; 125: 107166, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782208

RESUMO

Adolescents encounter numerous challenges and need to restructure their social relationships when they enter secondary schools. Relationship adaptation is critical and failure in adaptation may be associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This novel study investigated the association between relationship adaptation and IGD and related mediation mechanisms via social support and loneliness among first-year secondary school students in Shanghai and Xi'an, China in 2018. Of 2573 participants, the prevalence of IGD was 13.1%. Relationship adaptation, social support, and loneliness were all significantly associated with IGD. The association between relationship adaptation and IGD was fully mediated by three indirect paths, including relationship adaptation â†’ social support â†’ IGD (effect size = 35.5%), relationship adaptation â†’ loneliness â†’ IGD (effect size = 34.3%), and relationship adaptation â†’ social support â†’ loneliness â†’ IGD (effect size = 6.1%). In conclusion, the observed high prevalence of IGD among first-year secondary school students in China was associated with poor relationship adaptation. The full mediation effects via social support and loneliness suggest that modification of these two psychosocial attributes may effectively reduce the harmful impacts of poor relationship adaptation on adolescent IGD. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm the findings.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151310, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743873

RESUMO

Globally, wetlands have been severely damaged due to natural environment and human activities. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of wetlands and their driving forces is essential for their effective protection. This study proposes a research framework to explore the interaction between the natural environment and human activities and its impact on wetland changes, by introducing Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model, then applying the methodology in Wuhan, a typical wetland city in China. The validity and reliability evaluation indicated that the PLS-SEM model is reasonable. The results showed that the area of wetlands in Wuhan decreased by 10.98% in 1990-2018 and four obvious direct pathways of influence were found. Positive soil and terrain conditions are conducive to maintaining wetlands, while rapid urbanization drastically reduce the distribution of wetlands. It is remarkable that the impact of climate on wetlands is gradually shifting from positive to negative. Furthermore, four potential indirect impact pathways affecting wetland distribution shown that urbanization and climate enhance the negative impact of terrain on wetland distribution, while their impacts on soil weaken soil's direct positive impact. This study provides a quantitative methodology for determining the causes of wetland loss; it can also be applied to other cities or regions, which is essential for applying more effective measures to protect wetlands.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 41-48, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite growing adoption of digital technologies, the gap between users and non-users (aka digital divide) persists. It is imperative to determine whether and how such a gap can lead to disparities in mental health outcomes among populations. However, few empirical studies have explored the effect of smartphone non-use on psychological well-being. METHODS: A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted among 26,951 college students in Shaanxi Province, China. Levels of depression and loneliness were first compared between smartphone non-users and their user counterparts. Based on the Conservation of Resources theory, structural equation modeling was then used to test the mediating roles of social support, quality of peer relationship, and self-esteem. RESULTS: Around 56.8% of smartphone non-users had probable depression and they reported significantly higher depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.52) and loneliness (Cohen's d = 0.30) than users. The hypothesized mediation model was well supported with good model fit. Lower levels of social support, quality of peer relationship, and self-esteem fully mediated the total effect of smartphone non-use status on loneliness and explained 69.4% of the total effect on depression. LIMITATIONS: Findings might be subject to self-reporting bias and limitations due to a cross-sectional design. CONCLUSIONS: The study adds new evidence that the minority group of smartphone non-users exhibited disproportionately greater psychological distress than users resulting from lower supportive social relationships and positive sense of self. The findings inform the future investigation into digital divide in smartphone use/access and its negative impact on population's psychological well-being.

4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(12): 5662-5673, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiologic studies are inconsistent regarding the association of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and/or fish intake with risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) incidence and progression. The objective was to determine these associations by conducting a meta-analysis of available studies. METHODS: Three electronic databases were searched for studies that quantified dietary omega-3 PUFA and/or fish intake from inception to December 2020 without language restriction. Three investigators independently assessed for inclusion and extracted data. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effects model. Potential dose-response associations were explored with the use of generalized least-squares trend estimation. RESULTS: 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Higher dietary intakes of omega-3 PUFA was significantly associated with 14% (relative risk [RR]: 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77, 0.96) and 29% (RR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.91) lower risk of early and late AMD, respectively. The dose-response analysis showed a 6% and 22% decrease in the risk of early and late AMD for each additional 1  g/d omega-3 PUFA intake. For individual omega-3 PUFA, the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was inversely associated with lower AMD risk, whereas no association was found for the alpha-linolenic acid. Consistent inverse associations were also found between fish intake and AMD. The pooled RRs comparing extreme categories of fish intake were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.90) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.85) for early and late AMD risk, respectively. Every 15 g/d of fish consumption was associated with 13% and 14% lower early and late AMD. In addition, fish intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of AMD progression (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of dietary omega-3 PUFA or fish was associated with a reduced risk of developing of AMD, which further supports that consumption of omega-3 PUFA-rich foods may be a new avenue nutritional approach to preventing AMD.

5.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 107, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerges in China, which spreads rapidly and becomes a public health emergency of international concern. Chinese government has promptly taken quarantine measures to block the transmission of the COVID-19, which may cause deleterious consequences on everyone's behaviors and psychological health. Few studies have examined the associations between behavioral and mental health in different endemic areas. This study aimed to describe screen time (ST), physical activity (PA), and depressive symptoms, as well as their associations among Chinese college students according to different epidemic areas. METHODS: The study design is cross-sectional using online survey, from 4 to 12 February 2020, 14,789 college students accomplished this online study, participants who did not complete the questionnaire were excluded, and finally this study included 11,787 college students from China. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 20.51 ± 1.88 years. 57.1% of the college students were male. In total, 25.9% of college students reported depression symptoms. ST > 4 h/day was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.48, 95%CI 0.37-0.59). COVID-19ST > 1 h/day was positively correlated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.54, 95%CI 0.43-0.65), compared with COVID-19ST ≤ 0.5 h/day. Compared with PA ≥ 3 day/week, PA < 3 day/week was positively associated with depression symptoms (ß = 0.01, 95%CI 0.008-0.012). Compared with low ST and high PA, there was an interaction association between high ST and low PA on depression (ß = 0.31, 95%CI 0.26-0.36). Compared with low COVID-19ST and high PA, there was an interaction association between high COVID-19ST and low PA on depression (ß = 0.37, 95%CI 0.32-0.43). There were also current residence areas differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified that high ST or low PA was positively associated with depressive symptoms independently, and there was also an interactive effect between ST and PA on depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Tela , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22324, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785695

RESUMO

This paper proposes a fully-actuated control method for a novel aerial manipulation system (AMS). A customized carbon frame structure supports the servo actuators, on which eight propellers group into pairs located. We present kinematics and dynamics modeling of the AMS based on Craig parameter method and recursive Newton-Euler equation, respectively. Then, an Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC)-Backstepping-Compensation controller is designed to control the exact position and orientation of the manipulator in the Cartesian space. Finally, the performance of the system is demonstrated through simulations and virtual experiments.

7.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 11(10): 4342-4353, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603989

RESUMO

Background: The present study aimed to investigate whether deep bone suppression imaging (BSI) could increase the diagnostic performance for solitary pulmonary nodule detection compared with digital tomosynthesis (DTS), dual-energy subtraction (DES) radiography, and conventional chest radiography (CCR). Methods: A total of 256 patients (123 with a solitary pulmonary nodule, 133 with normal findings) were included in the study. The confidence score of 6 observers determined the presence or absence of pulmonary nodules in each patient. These were first analyzed using a CCR image, then with CCR plus deep BSI, then with CCR plus DES radiography, and finally with DTS images. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the performance of the 6 observers in the detection of pulmonary nodules. Results: For the 6 observers, the average area under the curve improved significantly from 0.717 with CCR to 0.848 with CCR plus deep BSI (P<0.01), 0.834 with CCR plus DES radiography (P<0.01), and 0.939 with DTS (P<0.01). Comparisons between CCR and CCR plus deep BSI found that the sensitivities of the assessments by the 3 residents increased from 53.2% to 69.5% (P=0.014) for nodules located in the upper lung field, from 30.6% to 44.6% (P=0.015) for nodules that were partially/completely obscured by the bone, and from 33.2% to 45.8% (P=0.006) for nodules <10 mm. Conclusions: The deep BSI technique can significantly increase the sensitivity of radiology residents for solitary pulmonary nodules compared with CCR. Increased detection was seen mainly for smaller nodules, nodules with partial/complete obscuration, and nodules located in the upper lung field.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(42): 24478-24486, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698733

RESUMO

Sodium transition metal oxides with a layered structure are one of the most widely studied cathode materials for Na+-ion batteries. Since the mobility of Na+ in such cathode materials is a key factor that governs the performance of material, electrochemical and muon spin rotation and relaxation techniques are here used to reveal the Na+-ion mobility in a P2-type Na0.5MgxNi0.17-xMn0.83O2 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.07) cathode material. Combining electrochemical techniques such as galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique with µ+SR, we have successfully extracted both self-diffusion and chemical-diffusion under a potential gradient, which are essential to understand the electrode material from an atomic-scale viewpoint. The results indicate that a small amount of Mg substitution has strong effects on the cycling performance and the Na+ mobility. Amongst the tested cathode systems, it was found that the composition with a Mg content of x = 0.02 resulted in the best cycling stability and highest Na+ mobility based on electrochemical and µ+SR results. The current study clearly shows that for developing a new generation of sustainable energy-storage devices, it is crucial to study and understand both the structure as well as dynamics of ions in the material on an atomic level.

10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113857, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628234

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which poses a major threat to human life and health. Given its continued development, limiting the spread of COVID-19 in the population remains a challenging task. Currently, multiple therapies are being tried around the world to deal with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a variety of studies have shown that natural products have a significant effect on COVID-19 patients. The combination of SARS-CoV-2 S protein with Angiotensin converting enzyme II(ACE2) of host cell to promote membrane fusion is an initial critical step for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, screening natural products that inhibit the binding of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and ACE2 also provides a feasible strategy for the treatment of COVID-19. Establishment of high throughput screening model is an important basis and key technology for screening S protein-ACE2 blockers. Based on this, the molecular structures of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 and their processes in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 and host cell infection were firstly reviewed in this paper, with emphasis on the methods and techniques of screening S protein-ACE2 blockers, including Virtual Screening (VS), Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), Biochromatography, Biotin-avidin with Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay and Gene Chip Technology. Furthermore, the technical principle, advantages and disadvantages and application scope were further elaborated. Combined with the application of the above screening technologies in S protein-ACE2 blockers, a variety of natural products, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, alkaloids, were summarized, which could be used as S protein-ACE2 blockers, in order to provide ideas for the efficient discovery of S protein-ACE2 blockers from natural sources and contribute to the development of broad-spectrum anti coronavirus drugs.

11.
Leukemia ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635784

RESUMO

FZR1 has been implicated as a master regulator of the cell cycle and quiescence, but its roles and molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) are unclear. Here, we report that FZR1 is downregulated in SAA HSCs compared with healthy control and is associated with decreased quiescence of HSC. Haploinsufficiency of Fzr1 shows impaired quiescence and self-renewal ability of HSC in two Fzr1 heterozygous knockout mouse models. Mechanistically, FZR1 insufficiency inhibits the ubiquitination of RUNX1 protein at lysine 125, leading to the accumulation of RUNX1 protein, which disturbs the quiescence of HSCs in SAA patients. Moreover, downregulation of Runx1 reversed the loss of quiescence and impaired long-term self-renew ability in Fzr1+/- HSCs in vivo and impaired repopulation capacity in BM from SAA patients in vitro. Our findings, therefore, raise the possibility of a decisive role of the FZR1-RUNX1 pathway in the pathogenesis of SAA via deregulation of HSC quiescence.

12.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(12): 1637-1649, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520124

RESUMO

Cutaneous wound healing requires intricate synchronization of several key processes. Among them, local nerve regeneration is known to be vitally important for proper repair. However, the underlying mechanisms of local nerve regeneration are still unclear. Fibroblasts are one of the key cell types within the skin whose role in local nerve regeneration has not been extensively studied. In our study, we found skin fibroblasts were in tight contact with regenerated nerves during wound healing, while rare interactions were shown under normal circumstances. Moreover, skin fibroblasts surrounding the nerves were shown to be activated and reprogrammed to exhibit neural cell-like properties by upregulated expressing inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1) and ID3. Furthermore, we identified the regulation of integrin α6 (Itga6) by ID1/ID3 in fibroblasts as the mechanism for axon guidance. Accordingly, transplantation of the ID1/ID3-overexpressing fibroblasts or topical injection of ID1/ID3 lentivirus significantly promoted local nerve regeneration and wound healing following skin excision or sciatic nerve injury. Therefore, we demonstrated a new role for skin fibroblasts in nerve regeneration following local injury by directly contacting and guiding axon regrowth, which might hold therapeutic potential in peripheral nerve disorders and peripheral neuropathies in relatively chronic refractory wounds.

13.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 9923537, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512747

RESUMO

Background: Neuropathic pain is a common chronic pain, which is related to hypersensitivity to stimulus and greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Maladaptive gene changes and molecular signaling underlie the sensitization of nociceptive pathways. We previously found that the activation of microglial glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) could potently relieve formalin-, bone cancer-, peripheral nerve injury-, and diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. So far, little is known about how the gene profile changes upon the activation of GLP-1R signaling in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. Methods: Spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was performed to induce neuropathic pain in rats. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using von Frey filaments. The expression of IL-10, ß-endorphin, and µ-opioid receptor (MOR) was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and whole-cell recording. Measurements of cellular excitability of the substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons by whole-cell recording were carried out. R packages of differential gene expression analysis based on the negative binomial distribution (DESeq2) and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) were used to analyze differential gene expression and the correlated modules among GLP-1R clusters in neuropathic pain. Results: The GLP-1R agonist, exenatide, has an antiallodynic effect on neuropathic pain, which could be reversed by intrathecal injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline. Furthermore, differential gene expression analysis (WGCNA) indicated that intrathecal injections of exenatide could reverse the abnormal expression of 591 genes in the spinal dorsal horn induced by nerve injury. WGCNA revealed 58 modules with a close relationship between the microglial GLP-1R pathway and features of nerve injuries, including pain, ligation, paw withdrawal latency (PWL), and anxiety. The brown module was identified as the highest correlated module, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated that inflammatory responses were most correlated with PWL. To further unravel the changes of hyperalgesia-related neuronal electrophysiological activity mediated by microglia GLP-1 receptors, whole-cell recording identified that MOR agonism stimulated a robust outward current in the sham groups compared with the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) groups. This inhibitory effect on the SNL group was more sensitive than that of the sham group after bath application of ß-endorphin. Conclusions: Our results further confirmed that the GLP-1R pathway is involved in alleviating pain hypersensitivity mediated by spinal microglia activation, and inflammatory responses were the most correlated pathway associated with PWL changes in response to exenatide treatment. We found that the identification of gene regulation in response to GLP-1R activation is an effective strategy for identifying new therapeutic targets for neuropathic pain. Investigation for the activation of spinal microglial GLP-1R which might ameliorate inflammatory responses through gene expression and structural changes is providing a potential biomarker in pain management.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 699946, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513679

RESUMO

In recent decades, survival was significantly improved in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. But refractory and relapsed B-ALL still has aggressive clinical behavior and poor prognosis. Especially, the patients with central nervous system infiltration is very difficult to achieve complete remissions with routine treatment. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell therapy targeting CD-19 has shown to be a beneficial treatment approach in refractory and relapsed B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL). However, there are very few studies reporting to treatment of refractory and relapsed B cell ALL with central nervous system infiltration. Here, we reported one single case of a patient diagnosed with relapsed B cell ALL with CNS infiltration who was successfully treated by second generation CAR containing a co-stimulator CD28 or 4-1BB therapy. Long-term proliferation of CAR-T cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow was observed more than 18 months. After CAR-T treatment, the patient got toxicity of grade 1 cytokine release syndrome and achieved significantly 36 months event free survival of follow-up. It is suggested that CD-19 CAR containing CD28 or 4-1BB costimulatory may be an effective therapy in refractory and relapsed B cell ALL with central nervous system infiltration. Its toxicity is mild, and its safety is high. Clinical Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02349698.

15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e26840, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 in China occurred around the Chinese New Year (January 25, 2020), and infections decreased continuously afterward. General adoption of preventive measures during the Chinese New Year period was crucial in driving the decline. It is imperative to investigate preventive behaviors among Chinese university students, who could have spread COVID-19 when travelling home during the Chinese New Year break. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated levels of COVID-19-related personal measures undertaken during the 7-day Chinese New Year holidays by university students in China, and associated COVID-19-related cognitive factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional anonymous web-based survey was conducted during the period from February 1 to 10, 2020. Data from 23,863 students (from 26 universities, 16 cities, 13 provincial-level regions) about personal measures (frequent face-mask wearing, frequent handwashing, frequent home staying, and an indicator that combined the 3 behaviors) were analyzed (overall response rate 70%). Multilevel multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Only 28.0% of respondents (6684/23,863) had left home for >4 hours, and 49.3% (11,757/23,863) had never left home during the 7-day Chinese New Year period; 79.7% (19,026/23,863) always used face-masks in public areas. The frequency of handwashing with soap was relatively low (6424/23,863, 26.9% for >5 times/day); 72.4% (17,282/23,863) had frequently undertaken ≥2 of these 3 measures. COVID-19-related cognitive factors (perceptions on modes of transmission, permanent bodily damage, efficacy of personal or governmental preventive measures, nonavailability of vaccines and treatments) were significantly associated with preventive measures. Associations with frequent face-mask wearing were stronger than those with frequent home staying. CONCLUSIONS: University students had strong behavioral responses during the very early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. Levels of personal prevention, especially frequent home staying and face-mask wearing, were high. Health promotion may modify cognitive factors. Some structural factors (eg, social distancing policy) might explain why the frequency of home staying was higher than that of handwashing. Other populations might have behaved similarly; however, such data were not available to us.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Distanciamento Físico , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 674416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366843

RESUMO

Background: Clinical trials have proven that indigo naturalis is a candidate drug for treating ulcerative colitis (UC), but its therapeutic mechanism is still unclear. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect and mechanism of indigo naturalis to treat mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC. Methods: DSS-induced UC mice were treated with indigo naturalis (200 mg/kg), indigo (4.76 mg/kg), and indirubin (0.78 mg/kg) for 1 week. The anti-UC mechanism of indigo naturalis was studied by pathological section, inflammatory factor, western blot, and 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: According to body weight change, disease activity index, and colon length, indigo naturalis had the strongest anti DSS-induced UC effect, followed by indirubin and indigo. Pathological section showed that indigo naturalis, indigo, and indirubin could reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells, increase the secretion of intestinal mucus, and repair the intestinal mucosa. Indigo naturalis, indigo, and indirubin could reduce IL-1ß,IL-6, and TNF-α by inhibiting TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signal transduction. Indigo naturalis and indigo could also reduce IgA and IgG both in serum and colon tissue. In addition, indigo naturalis, indigo, and indirubin could adjust the gut microbiota structure of DSS-induced UC mice, reducing the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and increasing the abundance of probiotics. Conclusion: Indigo and indirubin are one of the main anti-UC components of indigo naturalis. INN could regulate intestinal flora, reduce inflammation, repair intestinal mucosa, and improve the physiological status of DSS-induced UC mice and its anti-UC mechanism may be involved in inhibiting TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signal transduction.

17.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(21): 5840-5849, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under physiological conditions, sputum produced during acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) can move passively with the cilia in the airway; the sputum is gradually excreted from the depth of the airways through the stimulation of the coughing reflex on the sensory nerve on the surface of the airway. However, when the sputum is thick, the cough is weak, or the tracheal cilia are abnormal, sputum accumulation may occur and affect the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lung. Furthermore, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in sputum may cause or aggravate the symptoms of pulmonary infection in patients, which is the main factor leading to AECOPD. Therefore, promoting effective drainage of sputum and maintaining airway opening are key points requiring clinical attention. AIM: To explore the effect of refined nursing strategies in patients with AECOPD and dysphagia. METHODS: We selected 126 patients with AECOPD and difficulty of expectoration at our hospital, and divided them into a refined care group and a routine care group, with 63 cases each, using a random number table. The two groups of patients were treated with expectorant, anti-infection, oxygen inhalation, and other basic treatment measures; patients in the refined care group were given refined nursing intervention during hospitalization, and the routine care group received conventional nursing intervention. The differences in sputum expectoration, negative pressure suction rate, blood gas parameters, dyspnea score measured through the tool developed by the Medical Research Council (MRC), and quality of life were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: After 7 d of intervention, the sputum expectoration effect of the refined care group was 62.30%, the effective rate was 31.15%, and the inefficiency rate was 6.56%. The sputum expectoration effect of the routine care group was 44.07%, the effective rate was 42.37%, and the inefficiency rate was 13.56%. The refined care group had better sputum expectoration than the routine care group (P < 0.05). The negative pressure suction rate in the refined care group was significantly lower than that of the routine care group during the treatment (22.95% vs 44.07%, P < 0.05). Before the intervention, the arterial oxygen saturation (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide saturation (PaCO2) values were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05); the PaO2 and PaCO2 values in the refined care group were comparable to those in the routine care group after 7 d of intervention (P > 0.05). Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in the MRC score between the two groups (P > 0.05); the MRC score of the refined care group was lower than that of the routine care group after 7 d of intervention, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Before intervention, there was no significant difference in the symptoms, activities, disease impact, or St. George's Respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) total scores between the two groups (P > 0.05). After 7 days of intervention, the symptoms, activities, and total score of SGRQ of the refined care group were higher than those of the routine care group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: AECOPD with thick sputum, weak coughing reflex, and abnormal tracheal cilia function will lead to sputum accumulation and affect the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lung. Patients with AECOPD who have difficulty expectorating sputum may undergo refined nursing strategies that will promote expectoration, alleviate clinical symptoms, and improve the quality of life.

18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3180-3187, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396735

RESUMO

The soaking and fermentation of Baphicacanthus cusia( Nees),the important intermediate link of Indigo Naturalis processing,facilitates the synthesis of indigo and indirubin precursors and the dissolution of endogenous enzymes and other effective components,while the role of microorganisms in the fermentation is ignored. The present study investigated the changes of microbial community structure in Indigo Naturalis processing based on 16 S amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics. Meanwhile,the contents of indigo,indirubin,isatin,tryptanthrin,indole glycoside,etc. were determined to explore the correlation between the microorganisms and the alterations of the main components. As demonstrated by the results,the microbial diversity decreased gradually with the fermentation,which bottomed out after the addition of lime. Proteobacteria,Bacteroidetes,and Firmicutes were the main dominant communities in the fermentation. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria declined gradually with the prolongation of fermentation time,and to the lowest level after the addition of lime. The relative abundance of Firmicutes increased,and that of Bacteroidetes decreased first and then increased. The contents of effective substances in Indigo Naturalis also showed different variation tendencies. As fermentation went on,indole glycoside decreased gradually; indigo first increased and then decreased; indirubin and isatin first decreased and then increased; tryptanthrin gradually increased. Those changes were presumedly related to the roles of microorganisms in the synthesis of different components. This study preliminarily clarified the important role of microorganisms in the soaking and fermentation and provided a scientific basis for the control of Indigo Naturalis processing and the preparation of high-quality Indigo Naturalis.


Assuntos
Indigofera , Microbiota , Fermentação , Índigo Carmim , Indóis
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3188-3197, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396736

RESUMO

Indigo Naturalis has a long history of medicinal use with particularity and complexity in its processing. Before the Ming dynasty,Indigo Naturalis was extracted from the top layer of zymotic fluid,called " purified Indigo Naturalis". In modern processing,the precipitate " crude Indigo Naturalis" is dried to produce Indigo Naturalis after impurity removal. The form of Indigo Naturalis slices has undergone significant changes in ancient and modern times. In view of this,the quality comparison between crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis was conducted in this study with modern analytical techniques. Firstly,chemical composition was analyzed with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS,and the chemical composition of scent with HS-SPME/GC-MS/MS. The content of indigo,indirubin,total ash,and water-soluble extract was determined as well as the inorganic composition in crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis. Then,their microscopic morphology was observed and the surface element composition was investigated. Finally,the antipyretic activities of crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis were compared in the fever rat model induced by lipopolysaccharide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results demonstrated that the purified Indigo Naturalis had a faster and more lasting antipyretic effect,while the crude Indigo Naturalis had almost no antipyretic effect. This study is of great significance to the research on processing technology of Indigo Naturalis and provides reference for the formulation of its quality standards,production specifications and calibration procedures.


Assuntos
Índigo Carmim , Indigofera , Animais , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338962

RESUMO

This study aims to develop and validate a checklist for IGD symptoms of Chinese adolescents based on the fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DISCA). We recruited 2144 secondary school students who reported that they had played Internet games in the past 12 months in two large cities of China. The 9 item of DISCA were all significantly and positively correlated and the scale reliability was satisfactory. The unidimensional structure of the scale was confirmed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), χ2/df = 246.18/27, CFI = .95, RMSEA = .06. Measurement invariance across gender and city groups was confirmed by Multiple-group CFA. Criterion validity was demonstrated by the significant positive associations between DISCA score and self-identified IGD, loss of control regarding time spent on Internet gaming, time spent on playing Internet games, depression, and suicidal ideation. DISCA is a brief, reliable, and validated assessment to measure adolescent IGD.

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