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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130814, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428689

RESUMO

Furfural compounds are produced during infant formula production when heat treatment is involved. In this study, a robust method was established for determining potential and free furfural compounds (furfural, 5-methyl-2-furfural, 2-acetylfuran and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural) using a modified QuEChERS technique coupled with GC-MS/MS. Further, 36 samples of two batches, covering the whole infant formula production chain were analyzed by the method to investigate how furfurals evolved during process. Then risk assessment was conducted using the Toxtree and T.E.S.T. software and evaluated by hazard quotient. Results showed the contents of bound and free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural demonstrated largest increase during spray-drying (6-11 times) and homogenization stages (12-33 times), respectively. As the sum up of bound and free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural was found can cause safety risks in the production chain due to the high hazard quotient value (3.11), indicating it should be controlled in homogenization and spray-drying stages.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 150735, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606867

RESUMO

Mobilization of trace metals in the rhizosphere of macrophytes is controlled by root-driven chemical changes, especially the steep gradients of O2 and pH from the rhizosphere to bulk sediments. Here, the O2 and pH dynamics, and the distribution of trace metal, in the rhizosphere of Vallisneria spiralis were obtained using planar optodes and diffusive gradients in thin films, respectively. Radial O2 loss (ROL) and acidification occurred on all visible roots of V. spiralis and exhibited highly spatiotemporal dynamics depending on the root growth and various environmental conditions. Trace metals showed different mobilization mechanisms in the rhizosphere. ROL and produced Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides decreased the mobility of Fe, As, Co, V and W in the rhizosphere. However, Mn, Ni and Cu exhibited greater mobility in the rhizosphere than bulk sediments as a result of the oxidation of metal sulfide and proton-induced dissolution of minerals. In particular, Co and Ni presented increased activity at the interface between rhizosphere and bulk sediment, which was attributed to the redox dissolution processes of Fe and Mn as a result of ROL and rhizosphere acidification. These results provide new insights into the roles of macrophyte root-induced O2 and pH changes in controlling trace metal mobility in sediments.

4.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613712

RESUMO

Transmembrane signal transduction is of profound significance in many biological processes. The dimerization of cell-surface receptors is one prominent mechanism by which signals are transmitted across the membrane and trigger intracellular cascade amplification reactions. Recreating such processes in artificial systems has potential applications in sensing, drug delivery, bioengineering, and providing a new route for a deep understanding of fundamental biological processes. However, it remains a challenge to design artificial signal transduction systems working by the receptor dimerization mechanism in a predictable and smart manner. Here, benefitting from DNA with features of programmability, controllability, and flexible design, we use DNA as a building material to construct an artificial system mimicking dimerization of receptors for signal transduction and cascade amplification. DNA-based membrane-spanning receptor analogues are designed to recognize external signals, which drives two receptors into close spatial proximity to activate DNAzymes inside the cell-mimicking system. The activation of the DNAzyme initiates the catalyzed cleavage of encapsulated substrates and leads to the release of fluorescent second messengers for signal amplification. Such an artificial signal transduction system extends the range of biomimetic DNA-based signaling systems, providing a new avenue to study natural cell signaling processes and artificially regulate biological processes.

5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628806

RESUMO

Objective:To explore the distribution of pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity among patients with chronic suppurative otitis media. Methods:Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media who were hospitalized in the Department of Otolaryngology, People's Hospital, Peking University for surgery from January 1, 2019 to May 1, 2021 were enrolled as the subjects, then take the deep secretions of the external auditory canal for bacterial culture. Finally, the distribution and drug sensitivity of the pathogenic bacteria are analyzed. Results:A total of 126 patients were enrolled, of which 53 were culture-positive, and 57 strains of bacteria were isolated, including 47 strains of Gram-positive cocci, 10 strains of Gram-negative bacilli. Among Gram-positive cocci, 24 methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus(MSSA) strains, 7 methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) strains, 14 coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains, 1 strain enterococcus faecium, and 1 strain otitis Zurich. 4 strains(4/10) of pseudomonas aeruginosa among Gram-negative bacilli. Among them, MSSA has a high resistance rate to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, and gentamicin, and high sensitivity to oxacillin, vancomycin, linezolid, and rifampin. MRSA is highly resistant to common antibiotics except vancomycin, rifampicin, and linezolid. The Gram-negative bacilli have higher resistance rates to levofloxacin, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, and piperacillin/tazobactam, and to meropenem, imipenem, amika star, cefepoxime, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and tobramycin are more sensitive. The results of univariable and multivariable analysis showed that age and bacterial infection were independent factors related to dry ears, and the duration of the disease history was a non-independent factor. Conclusion:The main pathogenic bacteria infections in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media are MSSA, MRSA, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whether it is combined with bacterial infection and age are independent factors related to whether patients with chronic suppurative otitis media could have dry ears. Therefore, patients with chronic suppurative otitis media should be treated with specific antibiotics or surgical interventions as soon as possible in combination with drug sensitivity results to avoid prolonging disease course or causing serious infectious complications.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Otite Média Supurativa , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
6.
Urol J ; 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606083

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the treatment outcomes of robotic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (R-RPLND) versus laparoscopic RPLND (L-RPLND) for clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumors (NSGCTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with stage I NSGCTs who underwent robotic or laparoscopic RPLND between 2008 and 2017.  Perioperative data and oncologic outcomes were reviewed and compared between the two groups. Progression-free survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and compared between two groups. RESULTS: A total of 31 and 28 patients underwent R-RPLND and L-RPLND respectively. The preoperative characteristics of the patients were comparable in the two groups. Patients in R-RPLND group had significantly shorter median operative time (140 vs. 175 minutes, P < .001), a shorter median duration to surgical drain removal (2 vs. 4 days, P = .002) and a shorter median postoperative hospital stay (5 vs. 6 days, P = .001). There were no statistical differences in intra- and post-operative complication rate between the groups and the oncologic outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: In expert hands, R-RPLND and L-RPLND were comparable in oncological parameter and morbidity rate; R-RPLND showed superiority in operation duration, median days to surgical drain removal and postoperative hospital stay for stage I NSGCTs. Multicenter and randomized studies with good power of study and sufficient follow-up duration are required to validate our result.

7.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494867

RESUMO

The yields of edible rhizome from the cultivation of the perennial hydrophyte lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) can be severely reduced by rhizome rot disease caused by Fusarium species. There is a lack of rapid field-applicable methods for detection of these pathogens on lotus plants displaying symptoms of rhizome-rot. Fusarium commune (91%) and Fusarium oxysporum (9%) were identified at different frequencies from lotus samples showing symptoms of rhizome-rot. As these two species can cause different severity of disease and their morphology is very similar, molecular-diagnostic based methods to detect these two species were developed. Based on the comparison of the mitochondrial genome of the two species, three specific DNA loci targets were found. The designed primer sets for conventional PCR, qPCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) precisely distinguished the above two species when isolated from lotus and other plants. The LAMP detection limits were 10 pg/µl and 1 pg/µl of total DNA for F. commune and F. oxysporum, respectively. We also carried out field-mimicked experiments on lotus seedlings and rhizomes (including inoculated samples and field diseased samples), and the results indicated that the LAMP primer sets and the supporting portable methods are suitable for the rapid diagnosis of the lotus disease in the field. The LAMP-based detection method will aid in the rapid identification of whether F. oxysporum or F. commune are infecting lotus plants with symptoms of rhizome-rot, and can facilitate efficient pesticide use and prevent the disease spread through vegetative propagation of Fusarium-infected lotus rhizomes.

8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2803-2812, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472298

RESUMO

Bacitracin is a broad-spectrum antibiotics mainly produced by Bacillus, and is used as veterinary medicine in the fields of livestock and poultry breeding. Insufficient supply of precursor amino acids might be an important factor that hinders high-level microbial production of bacitracin. We investigated the effect of strengthening L-cysteine supply on bacitracin production by an industrial bacitracin producer, Bacillus licheniformis DW2. Overexpression of cysK encoding L-cysteine synthase led to a 9.17% increase of the bacitracin titer. Moreover, overexpression of cysE encoding L-serine acetyltransferase and cysP encoding thiosulfate/sulfate intracellular transporter increased the bacitracin titers by 7.23% and 8.52%, respectively. Moreover, overexpression of a putative cystine importer TcyP led to a 29.19% increase of intracellular L-cysteine, and bacitracin titer was increased by 7.79%. Subsequently, the strong promoter PbacA was used to replace the promoters of genes cysP, cysE and tcyP in strain DW2::ysK, respectively. The resulted strain CYS4 (DW2::cysK-PbacA-(cysP)-PbacA(cysE)- PbacA(tcyP) produced 910.02 U/mL bacitracin, which was 21.10% higher than that of the original strain DW2 (747.71 U/mL). Together with the experiments in 3 L fermenters, this research demonstrated that enhancing intracellular L-cysteine supply is an effective strategy to increase bacitracin production of B. licheniformis.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Aminoácidos , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Bacitracina , Cisteína , Engenharia Metabólica
9.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3599-3608, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522187

RESUMO

Objective: The easy liver fibrosis test (eLIFT) is a novel predictor of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease (CLD). This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the eLIFT for liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD patients. Methods: We enrolled 1125 patients with CLD who underwent liver biopsy. The predictive accuracy for liver inflammation and fibrosis of the eLIFT was assessed and compared to that of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio (GPR) by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and decision curve analysis (DCA). Results: The areas under the ROC curves (AUROCs) of the eLIFT for assessing liver inflammation G ≥ 2 and G ≥ 3 were 0.77 (0.75-0.80) and 0.81 (0.79-0.84), with cut-offs of 8.0 and 11.0, respectively. The AUROCs of the eLIFT for predicting fibrosis stages S ≥ 2 and S4 were 0.72 (0.70-0.76) and 0.76 (0.72-0.80), with cut-offs of 9.0 and 10.0, respectively. In discriminating G≥2 inflammation, the AUROC of the eLIFT was better than that of the FIB-4, with no difference compared with the GPR, but lower than that of the APRI. When discriminating G≥3 inflammation, the AUROC of the eLIFT was comparable to that of the APRI and GPR but superior to that of the FIB-4. There were no significant differences between the four indexes for predicting S≥2 and S4. Conclusion: The eLIFT is a potentially useful noninvasive predictor of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with CLD.

10.
Kidney Int ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534552

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested the role of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in protection against kidney ischemia reperfusion injury via their immunosuppressive properties. Unfortunately, the associated mechanisms of Tregs in kidney ischemia reperfusion injury have not been fully elucidated. Semaphorin 4A (Sema4A) is essential for maintaining the immunosuppressive capacity of Tregs in tumors. However, whether Sema4A can alleviate kidney ischemia reperfusion injury through Tregs has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the effect and mechanism of Sema4A on the development of kidney ischemia reperfusion injury. Administration of recombinant human Sema4A-Fc chimera protein prior to ischemia reperfusion injury promoted the expansion and function of Tregs and decreased the accumulation of neutrophils and proinflammatory macrophages thereby attenuating functional and histological injury of the injured kidneys. Depletion of Tregs abrogated the protective effect of Sema4A on kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, suggesting Tregs as the main target cell type for Sema4A in the development of this injury. Mechanistically, Sema4A bound to neuropilin 1 (Nrp1), a cell surface receptor for Sema4A and other ligands and a key regulator of Tregs, which then promoted recruitment of phosphatase and tensin homologue and suppressed the Akt-mTOR pathway in Foxp3Cre mice but not in Nrp1f/fFoxp3Cre mice. Consistently, Treg-specific deletion of Nrp1 blocked the effect of Sema4A on the expansion and function of Treg cells. Thus, our results demonstrate that the Sema4A-Nrp1 axis alleviates the development of ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting the stability and function of Tregs in mouse kidneys.

11.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(9): 1379-1389, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548614

RESUMO

The aorta contains numerous cell types that contribute to vascular inflammation and thus the progression of aortic diseases. However, the heterogeneity and cellular composition of the ascending aorta in the setting of a high-fat diet (HFD) have not been fully assessed. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on ascending aortas from mice fed a normal diet and mice fed a HFD. Unsupervised cluster analysis of the transcriptional profiles from 24,001 aortic cells identified 27 clusters representing 10 cell types: endothelial cells (ECs), fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), immune cells (B cells, T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells), mesothelial cells, pericytes, and neural cells. After HFD intake, subpopulations of endothelial cells with lipid transport and angiogenesis capacity and extensive expression of contractile genes were defined. In the HFD group, three major SMC subpopulations showed increased expression of extracellular matrix-degradation genes, and a synthetic SMC subcluster was proportionally increased. This increase was accompanied by upregulation of proinflammatory genes. Under HFD conditions, aortic-resident macrophage numbers were increased, and blood-derived macrophages showed the strongest expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Our study elucidates the nature and range of the cellular composition of the ascending aorta and increases understanding of the development and progression of aortic inflammatory disease.

12.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 89: 105475, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subtalar arthroereisis refers to the implantation of a sinus tarsi implant for the treatment of flexible flatfoot. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to correct the flatfoot deformity and contact pressure of the posterior subtalar joint between two types of self-locking wedge implants and between two different positions for the same device in a cadaveric flatfoot model. METHODS: The flatfoot model was created in ten cadaver feet through ligament sectioning and cyclic loading. Three kinds of arthroereisis procedures were evaluated: Talar-Fit (type I self-locking wedge implant) anchored in the sinus portion of the tarsal sinus (T-sinus group), Talar-Fit in the canalis portion (T-canalis group), and HyProCure (type II) in the canalis portion (H group). Corrective ability in the sagittal and transverse planes were measured with clinometers. Contact pressure was measured with pressure-sensitive films. FINDINGS: T-canalis group provided more sagittal (mean difference for size 10 mm: 1.9°, P = 0.014; mean difference for size 11 mm: 3.1°, P = 0.037) and transverse (mean difference for size 8 mm: 1.8°, P = 0.049; mean difference for size 11 mm: 2.2°, P = 0.049) corrections than T-sinus group. The flattening process shifted the peak pressure of the posterior subtalar joint to the posteromedial side (P < 0.05) and arthroereisis helped the distribution of contact pressure restore uniformity (all P > 0.05). INTERPRETATION: A self-locking wedge implant inserted in the canalis portion of the tarsal sinus achieved better correction than an implant inserted in the sinus portion.

13.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(4): 661-669, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498933

RESUMO

Students' preferences and engagement with online educational resources and activities are crucial for academic success in the context of online medical education. This study investigated the preferences of Chinese medical students regarding the teaching strategies used by instructors and their relationship with course difficulty level, student's academic performance, and perceived effectiveness. Survey data (n = 375) were collected from the medical students from one of the largest medical schools in Southern China during the spring semester of 2020. First, exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that there were three latent factors behind online teaching strategies, including teacher-led instructional strategies, supervised and monitored learning strategies, and self-directed learning strategies. Instructional activities under teacher supervision and monitoring received the highest rating while teacher-led strategies received the lowest ratings. Second, the popularity of the three online instructional strategies we have identified was positively associated with students' perceived effectiveness of online teaching and their self-reported academic performance. Third, analysis of the quantified answers to the open-ended question reported a positive association between the perceived difficulty level of the courses and students' preference of teacher-led strategies. It also manifested a positive correlation between perceived effectiveness level of the online teaching and the use of self-directed learning strategies before their online lectures. Further implications of the findings are fully discussed.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Faculdades de Medicina
14.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547941

RESUMO

A new highly transformed sorbicillinoid derivative, trichoreesin A (1), and four known monomeric sorbicillinoids, sorbicillin (2), 2',3'-dihydrosorbicillin (3), 3-demethylsorbicillin (4), and sohirnone A (5), were discovered from Trichoderma reesei Z56-8, an epiphyte from the marine brown alga Sargassum sp. The structure and relative configuration of 1 were determined by interpretation of UV, IR, NMR, and MS signals, and its absolute configuration was assigned by analysis of ECD data aided by quantum chemical calculations. This is the first survey of metabolites from marine algicolous T. reesei. Compound 1 represents the first bicyclic vertinolide derivative, and it possesses inhibition of several marine phytoplankton species.

15.
Cell Metab ; 33(10): 2059-2075.e10, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536344

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major cause of adverse outcomes of revascularization after myocardial infarction. To identify the fundamental regulator of reperfusion injury, we performed metabolomics profiling in plasma of individuals before and after revascularization and identified a marked accumulation of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12)-dependent 12-HETE following revascularization. The potent induction of 12-HETE proceeded by reperfusion was conserved in post-MIR in mice, pigs, and monkeys. While genetic inhibition of Alox12 protected mouse hearts from reperfusion injury and remodeling, Alox12 overexpression exacerbated MIR injury. Remarkably, pharmacological inhibition of ALOX12 significantly reduced cardiac injury in mice, pigs, and monkeys. Unexpectedly, ALOX12 promotes cardiomyocyte injury beyond its enzymatic activity and production of 12-HETE but also by its suppression of AMPK activity via a direct interaction with its upstream kinase TAK1. Taken together, our study demonstrates that ALOX12 is a novel AMPK upstream regulator in the post-MIR heart and that it represents a conserved therapeutic target for the treatment of myocardial reperfusion injury.

16.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 7156-7164, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546852

RESUMO

Tinnitus is deemed as the result of abnormal neural activities in the brain, and Homer proteins are expressed in the brain that convey nociception. The expression of Homer in tinnitus has not been studied. We hypothesized that expression of Homer in the auditory cortex was altered after tinnitus treatment. Mice were injected with sodium salicylate to induce tinnitus. Expression of Homer was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry assays. We found that Homer1 expression was upregulated in the auditory cortex of mice with tinnitus, while expression of Homer2 or Homer3 exhibited no significant alteration. Effects of two inhibitors of metabolic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), noncompetitive 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and competitive α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), on the tinnitus scores of the mice and on Homer1 expression were detected. MPEP significantly reduced tinnitus scores and suppressed Homer1 expression in a concentration dependent manner. MCPG had no significant effects on tinnitus scores or Homer1 expression. In conclusion, Homer1 expression was upregulated in the auditory cortex of mice after tinnitus, and was suppressed by noncompetitive mGluR5 inhibitor MPEP, but not competitive mGluR5 inhibitor MCPG.

17.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(9): 2331-2339, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449215

RESUMO

Bacillus licheniformis DW2 is an important industrial strain for bacitracin production, and it is also used for biochemical production, however, the lack of effective toolkit for precise regulation of gene expression hindered its application seriously. Here, a gradient strength promoter library was constructed based on bacitracin synthetase gene cluster promoter PbacA. First, different PbacA promoter variants were constructed via coupling PbacA with various 5'-UTRs, and expression ranges of 32.6-741.8% were attained among these promoters. Then, three promoters, PUbay (strong), PbacA (middle), and PUndh (weakest), were applied for red fluorescent protein (RFP) and keratinase expression assays, and these promoters were proven to have good universality for different proteins. Second, the promoter of bacitracin synthetase gene cluster was replaced by these three promoters, and bacitraicn titer was enhanced by 14.62% when PUbay was applied, which was decreased by 98.05% under the mediation of PUndh compared with that of the original strain DW2. Third, promoters PUbay, PUyvgO, and PUndh were selected to regulate the expression levels of critical genes that are responsible for pucheriminic acid synthesis, and pucheriminic acid yield was increased by 194.1% via manipulating synthetic and competitive pathways. Finally, promoters PUbay, PbacA, and PUndh were applied for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and RFP expression in Escherichia coli, and consistent effects were attained based on our results. Taken together, a gradient strength promoter library was constructed in this research, which provided an effective toolkit for fine-tuning gene expression and reprogramming metabolite metabolic flux in B. licheniformis.

18.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(17): 3403-3414, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403251

RESUMO

In recent years, purely organic room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) has aroused wide concern and promotes the development of the supramolecular phosphorescence. Different from organic crystallization, polymerization, or matrix rigidification, supramolecular strategy mainly takes advantage of the synergy between supramolecular co-assembly and strong binding by macrocyclic host compounds (cucurbit[n]urils, cyclodextrins, etc.) to overcome deficiencies such as poor processability and water solubility and improves RTP materials' quantum efficiency and lifetime in the solid state or in an aqueous solution. Meanwhile, it expands application, especially in aqueous solution, in cell imaging. Therefore, supramolecular phosphorescence will become a new growth point and will have broad application prospects in chemistry, biology, and material science.This Account focuses on the uniquely synergetic advantages of co-assembly and host-guest interaction from macrocyclic hosts for enhancing RTP. This Account starts with a brief introduction of the recent development of organic RTP materials as well as the host-guest interaction and co-assembly. Then, we introduce a supramolecular solid-state RTP strategy involving an ultrahigh phosphorescent quantum yield via the tight encapsulation of macrocyclic host cucurbit[6]uril, an ultralong lifetime via changing the substituents of phosphors, and long-lived and bright RTP by the synergy of host-guest interaction and polymerization. Meanwhile, the applications of solid-state RTP materials for anti-counterfeiting and data encryption are presented. The third part will be the water-phase supramolecular phosphorescence systems constructed by water-soluble macrocyclic host cucurbit[8]uril. Host-guest interaction and polymerization worked together toward efficient phosphorescence in aqueous solution, and the multi-stage assembly promoted phosphorescent applications such as cell targeted imaging and energy transfer. A humidity sensor and data encryption by the conversion of supramolecular hydrogels and xerogels are also involved. In the summary section, we present perspectives and possible research directions for supramolecular phosphorescence.Furthermore, on the basis of previous research, we would like to conclude and propose the developing concept of "macrocycles enhance guest's phosphorescence", and this concept not only means that the macrocyclic host limits the movement of the guest compound or promotes interactions between guest compounds but also involves the synergetic enhancement centered on macrocyclic compounds via multi-stage supramolecular assembly which further improves the efficiency of RTP, water solubility, and biocompatibility. And we believe that this concept will be able, together with theory of "assembly-induced emission" and "aggregation-induced emission", to accelerate the development of purely organic RTP materials.

19.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462884

RESUMO

The abnormal expressions of enhancer-associated genes have been reported to be correlated with poor prognosis of tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM). The objective of the current study is to predict prognosis by identifying enhancer-associated genes (EAGs). The profiles of genome-wide expressions of low-grade glioma (LGG) and GBM tissues in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were obtained to explore the expression patterns of EAGs in diffuse glioma. The capacity of prognosis prediction was validated by Rembrandt and GSE16011. Moreover, qPCR was utilized to confirm the effect of JQ1 and THZ1 on the EAGs. We detected 35 differentially expressed EAGs, which were predictive of overall survival. These candidate EAGs were then subjected to the multivariate cox regression analysis and were further scoped down to four signature genes, including TRAM2, SMAGP, KDELC2, and C7ORF25. A total of 662 patients were then stratified according to the expression levels of these four signature genes. The high-risk group accounted for poorer prognosis based on the Rembrandt and GSE16011 databases. The results of qPCR also demonstrated that the expression of the four EAGs could be abolished by JQ1 (bromodomain inhibitor) and THZ1 (CDK7 inhibitor) treatment. Our study not only highlights the potential role of EAGs, which can be used to improve clinical prognosis prediction in patients with diffuse glioma, but also sheds light on the specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets for diffuse glioma patients.

20.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423676

RESUMO

Crizotinib is highly efficacious and more tolerable than chemotherapy for ALK+ non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its progression-free survival benefit and intracranial efficacy have limitations. Head-to-head comparisons of next-generation ALK inhibitors in patients with ALK+ NSCLC progressing on crizotinib will contribute toward optimizing survival. This international, Phase III, randomized, open-label study (ALTA-3) will therefore assign patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK+ NSCLC progressing on crizotinib to receive either brigatinib 180 mg qd (7-day lead-in at 90 mg qd) or alectinib 600 mg twice daily. The primary end point is progression-free survival as assessed by a blinded Independent Review Committee; the key secondary end point is overall survival. Trial registration number: NCT03596866 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

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