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1.
NanoImpact ; 25: 100392, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35559896

RESUMO

Quantum dots (QDs), also known as semiconductor QDs, have specific photoelectricproperties which find application in bioimaging, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the application of QDs is often limited by issues related to health risks and potential toxicity. The purpose of this study was to provide evidence regarding the safety of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs by exploring the detailed mechanisms involved in its hepatotoxicity. This study showed that CdTe QDs can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes after being taken up by hepatocytes, which triggers a significant mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway, leading to hepatocyte apoptosis. CdTe QDs-induce mitochondrial cristae abnormality, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization. Meanwhile, CdTe QDs can change the morphology, function, and quantity of mitochondria by reducing fission and intimal fusion. Importantly, inhibition of ROS not only protects hepatocyte viability but can also interfere with apoptosis and activation of mitochondrial dysfunction. Similarly, the exposure of CdTe QDs in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice showed that CdTe QDs caused oxidative damage and apoptosis in liver tissue. NAC could effectively remove excess ROS could reduce the level of oxidative stress and significantly alleviate CdTe QDs-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. CdTe QDs-induced hepatotoxicity may originate from the generation of intracellular ROS, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, which was potentially regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. This study revealed the nanobiological effects of CdTe QDs and the intricate mechanisms involved in its toxicity at the tissue, cell, and subcellular levels and provides information for narrowing the gap between in vitro and in vivo animal studies and a safety assessment of QDs.

2.
Anim Nutr ; 9: 143-158, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573095

RESUMO

Microplastics are emergent contaminants threatening aquatic organisms including aquacultured fish. This study investigated the effects of high-density polyethylene (HDPE, 100 to 125 µm) on yellow perch (Perca flavescens) based on integrative evaluation including growth performance, nutritional status, nutrient metabolism, fish health, and gut microbial community. Five test diets (0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 g HDPE/100 g diet) containing 41% protein and 10.5% lipid were fed to juvenile perch (average body weight, 25.9 ± 0.2 g; n = 15) at a feeding rate of 1.5% to 2.0% body weight daily. The feeding trial was conducted in a flow-through water system for 9 wk with 3 tanks per treatment and 15 yellow perch per tank. No mortality or HDPE accumulation in the fish was found in any treatments. Weight gain and condition factor of fish were not significantly impacted by HDPE (P > 0.05). Compared to the control group, fish fed the 8% HDPE diet had significantly decreased levels of protein and ash (P < 0.05). In response to the increasing levels of HDPE exposure, the hepatosomatic index value, hepatocyte size, and liver glycogen level were increased, but lipid content was reduced in the liver tissues. Compared to the control treatment, fish fed the 8% HDPE diet had significant accumulations of total bile acids and different metabolism pathways such as bile acid biosynthesis, pyruvate metabolism, and carnitine synthesis. Significant enterocyte necrosis was documented in the foregut of fish fed the 2% or 8% HDPE diet; and significant cell sloughing was observed in the midgut and hindgut of fish fed the 8% HDPE diet. Fish fed the 2% HDPE diet harbored different microbiota communities compared to the control fish. This study demonstrates that HDPE ranging from 100 to 125 µm in feed can be evacuated by yellow perch with no impact on growth. However, dietary exposure to HDPE decreased whole fish nutrition quality, altered nutrient metabolism and the intestinal histopathology as well as microbiota community of yellow perch. The results indicate that extended exposure may pose a risk to fish health and jeopardize the nutrition quality of aquacultured end product. This hypothesis remains to be investigated further.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561287

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is essential to prevent the risk of ischemia events, but it is difficult to avoid concurrent bleeding events. East Asians are associated with a higher tendency of bleeding than Caucasians, which may affect the DAPT duration. Therefore, this network meta-analysis to explore optimum DAPT duration for East Asians. The related randomized controlled trials that compared the different DAPT duration in East Asian patients were included by searching PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library database. The outcomes included myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, all-cause death, stroke and major bleeding. In addition, net adverse cardiac and cardiovascular events (NACCE) as a composite outcome in this study. We calculated the odds risk (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for endpoint events by the fixed effects model in the Bayesian network frame. We included a total of twelve randomized controlled trials with 30,640 patients. Compared with 12 months DAPT, 1-3 months DAPT is effective in myocardial infarction (OR 0.72, 0.46-1.08), stents thrombosis (OR 1.27 0.59-2.84), all-cause death (OR 0.91 0.65-1.28) and stroke (OR 0.89 0.57-1.39). The 1-3 months DAPT was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding compared with 12 months DAPT (OR 0.55, 0.4-0.76), 6-months DAPT (OR 0.54, 0.31-0.94) and > 12 months DAPT (OR 0.43, 0.28-0.65). In addition, more than 12 months of DAPT did not reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction (OR 0.75, 0.51-1.11) and increased the risk of major bleeding (OR 1.28, 0.88-1.87) compared with 12 months DAPT. The 1-3 months DAPT was more secure and effective than the other three DAPT strategies. Although East Asians have a higher risk of bleeding, more than 12 months of DAPT does not increase this incidence of major bleeding.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2853, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606352

RESUMO

The second near-infrared (NIR-II) window is a fundamental modality for deep-tissue in vivo imaging. However, it is challenging to synthesize NIR-II probes with high quantum yields (QYs), good biocompatibility, satisfactory pharmacokinetics, and tunable biological properties. Conventional long-wavelength probes, such as inorganic probes (which often contain heavy metal atoms in their scaffolds) and organic dyes (which contain large π-conjugated groups), exhibit poor biosafety, low QYs, and/or uncontrollable pharmacokinetic properties. Herein, we present a bioengineering strategy that can replace the conventional chemical synthesis methods for generating NIR-II contrast agents. We use a genetic engineering technique to obtain a series of albumin fragments and recombinant proteins containing one or multiple domains that form covalent bonds with chloro-containing cyanine dyes. These albumin variants protect the inserted dyes and remarkably enhance their brightness. The albumin variants can also be genetically edited to develop size-tunable complexes with precisely tailored pharmacokinetics. The proteins can also be conjugated to biofunctional molecules without impacting the complexed dyes. This combination of albumin mutants and clinically-used cyanine dyes can help widen the clinical application prospects of NIR-II fluorophores.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512058

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) plus antithrombotic strategy in patients with coronary artery diseases compared with antithrombotic strategy alone. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Chinese Biomedical Medical Literature databases to retrieve randomized controlled trials investigating PPIs combined with antithrombotic strategy in coronary artery diseases. The primary efficacy outcome was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary safety outcome was gastrointestinal events. Secondary outcomes included all-cause death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, significant bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions, and gastroduodenal ulcer. 43,943 patients were enrolled from nineteen trials. The incidence of MACCE (relative risk (RR) 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.15), all-cause death (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.69-1.01), cardiovascular death (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.69-1.12), myocardial infarction (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.88-1.09), stent thrombosis (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.76-1.34), and gastroduodenal ulcer (RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.13-1.29) did not increase significantly in patients receiving PPIs compared with patients without those. There were significant differences in the risk of gastrointestinal events (RR 0.34; 95% CI 0.21-0.54), significant bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions (RR 0.09; 95% CI 0.03-0.28) between the two groups. In patients with coronary artery diseases, PPIs plus antithrombotic strategy could reduce the risk of gastrointestinal events and significant bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions, but may not affect the incidence of MACCE, all-cause death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and gastroduodenal ulcer (PROSPERO: CRD42021277899, date of registration 10/10/2021).

6.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267127, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522667

RESUMO

Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) designated as ZNP-4, isolated from the rhizosphere of Ziziphus nummularia, was identified as Enterobacter cloacae following 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolated strain exhibited various plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (ACCD) activity was evaluated under diverse physiological conditions that could be useful for minimizing the abiotic stress-induced inhibitory effects on wheat plants. The strain showed resistance to salt (NaCl) and metal (ZnSO4) stress. The effect of E. cloacae ZNP-4 on the augmentation of plant growth was studied under salinity stress of 150 mM (T1 treatment) & 200 mM (T2 treatment) NaCl. The inoculation of strain ZNP-4 significantly improved the various growth parameters of wheat plant such as shoot length (41%), root length (31%), fresh weight (28%), dry weight (29%), photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a (62%) and chlorophyll b (34%). Additionally, the strain was found to be efficient for minimizing the imposed Zn stress in terms of improving plant growth, biomass and photosynthetic pigments in pots containing different levels of metal stress of 150 mg kg-1 (treatment T1) and 250 mg kg-1 (treatment T2). Isolate ZNP-4 also improved the proline content and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level under both salinity and metal stress, therefore maintaining the membrane integrity. Furthermore, bacterial inoculation increased the activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX). The positive effects of PGPR occurred concurrently with the decrease in abiotic stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-) contents. Overall, the observed results indicate that use of bacteria with such beneficial traits could be used as bio-fertilizers for many crops growing under stress conditions.


Assuntos
Enterobacter cloacae , Triticum , Carbono-Carbono Liases , Clorofila A , Enterobacter cloacae/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos , Piridinas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/genética
7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prepubertal BMI on pubertal growth patterns, and the influence of prepubertal BMI and pubertal growth patterns on long-term BMI among Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 9606 individuals aged between 7 and 18 years from longitudinal surveys in Zhongshan city of China from 2005 to 2016 were enrolled. Age at peak height velocity (APHV) and peak height velocity (PHV) were estimated using Super-Imposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR) model. Associations between prepubertal BMI, APHV, PHV, and long-term overweight and obesity were assessed by linear regression and multinominal logistic regression. Scatter plots were elaborated to show the associations between prepubertal BMI and pubertal growth patterns according to prepubertal BMI categories. RESULTS: Prepubertal BMI Z-Score was positively correlated with long-term BMI Z-Score, and negatively correlated with APHV in both sexes. In addition, there was a negative association between prepubertal BMI Z-Score and PHV in boys. With 1-year decrease in APHV, risk of long-term underweight decreased by 92%, while overweight increased by 33% in boys. Corresponding risk of long-term underweight and overweight for girls decreased by 42% and increased by 20%, respectively. CONCLUSION: High prepubertal BMI levels were associated with earlier APHV and lower PHV, and the early onset of pubertal development could increase the risks of long-term overweight and obesity at 17-18 years of age both in boys and girls. Such evidence emphasized the importance of reducing prepubertal obesity risks combined with appropriate pubertal development timing, including later APHV and higher PHV, so as to prevent the obesity and related cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

8.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501392

RESUMO

Many spatially resolved transcriptomic technologies do not have single-cell resolution but measure the average gene expression for each spot from a mixture of cells of potentially heterogeneous cell types. Here, we introduce a deconvolution method, conditional autoregressive-based deconvolution (CARD), that combines cell-type-specific expression information from single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) with correlation in cell-type composition across tissue locations. Modeling spatial correlation allows us to borrow the cell-type composition information across locations, improving accuracy of deconvolution even with a mismatched scRNA-seq reference. CARD can also impute cell-type compositions and gene expression levels at unmeasured tissue locations to enable the construction of a refined spatial tissue map with a resolution arbitrarily higher than that measured in the original study and can perform deconvolution without an scRNA-seq reference. Applications to four datasets, including a pancreatic cancer dataset, identified multiple cell types and molecular markers with distinct spatial localization that define the progression, heterogeneity and compartmentalization of pancreatic cancer.

9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8102, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577978

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sleep problems with asthma and allergic rhinitis among Chinese preschoolers. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Guangzhou, China. Children aged 3-6 years were recruited from 32 kindergartens in 7 administrative districts. Asthma, allergic rhinitis and sleep problems were evaluated using a valid questionnaire. Binary logistic regression models were employed to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations of asthma and allergic rhinitis with short sleep duration, late bedtime and frequent nocturnal awakening. We included 4876 preschool children in the current analysis. Of these, 182 (3.7%) diagnosed as asthma, and 511 (10.5%) diagnosed as allergic rhinitis. Frequent nocturnal awakening was associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis, with adjusted OR were 1.49 (95% CI 1.05-2.13) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.27-1.99), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed the OR for frequent nocturnal awakening with asthma was higher in girls (1.68; 95% CI 1.02-2.78) than in boys (1.35; 95% CI 0.81-2.24), but the OR for frequent nocturnal awakening with allergic rhinitis were similar in girls (1.73; 95% CI 1.15-2.30) and boys (1.57; 95% CI 1.17-2.12). No significant associations of short sleep duration and late bedtime with asthma or allergic rhinitis were identified. Our data suggested that frequent nocturnal awakening was associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis among preschoolers, and the association of frequent nocturnal awakening with asthma differed by gender. Further studies are warranted to address the causal relationship between nocturnal awakening and asthma and allergic rhinitis.

10.
Pain Ther ; 11(2): 723-729, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438464

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Painful tic convulsif syndrome is ipsilateral facial trigeminal neuralgia combined with hemifacial spasm, which is relatively rare in the clinic. Microvascular decompression is currently considered to be an effective treatment. We report extracranial radiofrequency treatment of painful tic convulsif syndrome under local anesthesia, a technique which provides a safer and more economical treatment for this kind of patient. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of painful tic convulsif syndrome which was treated with extracranial radiofrequency therapy of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve. After operations, the symptoms of pain and spasm were relieved immediately, but the right facial numbness and facial paralysis (House-Brackmann grade III) were left. The facial paralysis was completely relieved after 3 months of follow-up, and there was no recurrence of trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm after 35 months. DISCUSSION: Painful tic convulsif syndrome is a combination of ipsilateral facial trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm, which is relatively rare in the clinic. So far, only one treatment method of microvascular decompression has been reported for the disease. We report the first case of CT-guided extracranial radiofrequency therapy for painful tic convulsif syndrome. CONCLUSION: Extracranial radiofrequency therapy can provide safe and economical treatment for patients with painful tic convulsif syndrome.

11.
Med Mycol ; 60(4)2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362524

RESUMO

Cryptococcus is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus and is the major cause of fungal meningitis. The cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assay (LFA) is an immunochromatographic test system that has simplified diagnosis as a point-of-care test. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide detection FungiXpert (Genobio Pharmaceutical, Tianjin, China) using serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis and investigated the cross-reaction of the assays to pathogenic fungi and bacterium by comparing it to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved IMMY CrAg LFA. Eighty CSF and 119 serum/plasma samples from 158 patients were retrospectively collected to test for qualitative or semi-quantitative detection of CrAg. Cross-reaction of the assays was tested using 28 fungi and 1 bacterium. Compared to IMMY CrAg LFA, the FungiXpert LFA demonstrated 99.1% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity in the qualitative test. In the 96 semi-quantitative CrAg assay results, 39 (40.6%) test titers of FungiXpert LFA were 1-2 dilutions higher than those of IMMY CrAg LFA. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of the Semi-quantitative results of CrAg titer tests via the two assays was 0.976. Similar to IMMY CrAg LFA, FungiXpert LFA showed cross-reactivity with Trichosporon asahii. Compared with the IMMY CrAg LFA, the FungiXpert LFA showed an equal, yet, excellent performance. However, it is important to note that these two assays have potential cross-reactivity to T. asahii when diagnosing patients. FungiXpert LFA is a rapid screening method for the effective and practical diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcosis. LAY SUMMARY: The FungiXpert LFA was developed to diagnose fungal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus yeasts, by using serum or cerebrospinal fluid. It was compared to an existing lateral flow assay (LFA). The FungiXpert LFA performed well in qualitative and semi-quantitative tests.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus , Infecções por HIV , Meningite Criptocócica , Meningite Fúngica , Animais , Antígenos de Fungos , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/veterinária , Infecções por HIV/veterinária , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Criptocócica/veterinária , Meningite Fúngica/veterinária , Polissacarídeos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Front Psychol ; 13: 871330, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432064

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has influenced the tourism industry in various ways, including tourists' travel motivations and intentions. Unlike previous studies that have focused on the dark side of the pandemic, this study adds the dimension of perceptions of positive information on COVID-19 to the Theory of Planned Behavior to explore their influence on travel motivation and intention. A total of 470 valid questionnaires were collected from a sample of Chinese university students. The results showed that the students' perceptions of positive COVID-19 information positively impacted their travel intentions through the variables of perceived behavioral control, travel attitudes, and travel motivations. Perceived behavioral control was the mediating variable that most explained the impact of perceptions of positive COVID-19 information on travel motivation and intention. This study contributes to the understanding of the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism and of university students' travel motivations and intentions. It also offers implications for the tourism industry to formulate relevant recovery strategies during and after the pandemic.

13.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 19(1): 31, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon dot has been widely used in biomedical field as a kind of nanomaterial with low toxicity and high biocompatibility. CDs has demonstrated its unique advantages in assisted drug delivery, target diagnosis and targeted therapy with its small size and spontaneous fluorescence. However, the potential biosafety of CDs cannot be evaluated. Therefore, we focused on the study of liver, the target organ involved in CDs metabolism, to evaluate the risk of CDs in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Liver macrophage KUP5 cells and normal liver cells AML12 cells were incubated in CDs at the same concentration for 24 h to compare the different effects under the same exposure conditions. The study found that both liver cell models showed ATP metabolism disorder, membrane damage, autophagosome formation and lysosome damage, but the difference was that, KUP5 cells exhibited more serious damage than AML12 cells, suggesting that immunogenic cell type is particularly sensitive to CDs. The underlying mechanism of CDs-induced death of the two hepatocyte types were also assessed. In KUP5 cells, death was caused by inhibition of autophagic flux caused by autophagosome accumulation, this process that was reversed when autophagosome accumulation was prevented by 3-MA. AML12 cells had no such response, suggesting that the accumulation of autophagosomes caused by CDs may be specific to macrophages. CONCLUSION: Activation of the TFEB-lysosome pathway is important in regulating autophagy and apoptosis. The dual regulation of ERK and mTOR phosphorylation upstream of TFEB influences the death outcome of AML12 cells. These findings provide a new understanding of how CDs impact different liver cells and contribute to a more complete toxicological safety evaluation of CDs.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Carbono/toxicidade , Morte Celular , Hepatócitos , Macrófagos do Fígado , Lisossomos , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade
14.
Front Genet ; 13: 837123, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432486

RESUMO

Objective: Amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and opioid dependencies are chronic inflammatory diseases with similar symptoms and common genomics. However, their coexpressive genes have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to identify and verify the coexpressive hub genes and pathway involved in the pathogenesis of ATS and opioid dependencies. Methods: The microarray of ATS- and opioid-treatment mouse models was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. GEO2R and Venn diagram were performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and coexpressive DEGs (CDEGs). Functional annotation and protein-protein interaction network detected the potential functions. The hub genes were screened using the CytoHubba and MCODE plugin with different algorithms, and further validated by receiver operating characteristic analysis in the GSE15774 database. We also validated the hub genes mRNA levels in BV2 cells using qPCR. Result: Forty-four CDEGs were identified between ATS and opioid databases, which were prominently enriched in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The top 10 hub genes were mainly enriched in apoptotic process (CD44, Dusp1, Sgk1, and Hspa1b), neuron differentiation, migration, and proliferation (Nr4a2 and Ddit4), response to external stimulation (Fos and Cdkn1a), and transcriptional regulation (Nr4a2 and Npas4). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis found that six hub genes (Fos, Dusp1, Sgk1, Ddit4, Cdkn1a, and Nr4a2) have an area under the curve (AUC) of more than 0.70 in GSE15774. The mRNA levels of Fos, Dusp1, Sgk1, Ddit4, Cdkn1a, PI3K, and Akt in BV2 cells and GSE15774 with METH and heroin treatments were higher than those of controls. However, the Nr4a2 mRNA levels increased in BV2 cells and decreased in the bioinformatic analysis. Conclusions: The identification of hub genes was associated with ATS and opioid dependencies, which were involved in apoptosis, neuron differentiation, migration, and proliferation. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of substance dependence.

15.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 15: 703-712, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463830

RESUMO

Purpose: Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) is closely associated with the pathogenesis of acne, and antibiotics targeting C. acnes have been widely used for decades. However, antibiotic resistance has been increasing rapidly. Membrane vesicles (MVs) have been found to play important roles in antibiotic resistance in some bacteria. We aimed to explore the mechanism of antibiotic resistance and the virulence components within C. acnes-derived MVs. Materials and Methods: We isolated clinical C. acnes strains from the lesions of acne patients who were sensitive or resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin. We analyzed the proteome of MVs from four sensitive C. acnes isolates and three resistant isolates by LC-MS/MS. Results: We identified 543 proteins within the MVs of clinical C. acnes strains. Several lipases, NlpC/P60, CAMP factor, and Hta domain protein were detected as virulence factors in the C. acnes-derived MVs. The levels of two lipases and FtsZ were significantly higher in resistant C. acnes-derived MVs compared with sensitive strains (p < 0.05). Conclusion: According to the implications of this study, improper antibiotic use might not only increase antibiotic resistance in C. acnes but could also further alter the cutaneous lipid composition and aggravate host inflammation, thus resulting in worse clinical manifestations in acne patients. This study re-emphasizes that the improper use of antibiotics should be treated more seriously in clinical practice. Furthermore, to combat multidrug resistance in C. acnes, this study suggests that FtsZ inhibitors could be useful.

16.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 28(2): 425-437, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400885

RESUMO

Drought is the main limiting factor of maize productivity, therefore improving drought tolerance in maize has potential practical importance. Cloning and functional verification of drought-tolerant genes is of great importance to understand molecular mechanisms under drought stress. Here, we employed a bioinformatic pipeline to identify 42 ZmHDZ drought responsive genes using previously reported maize transcriptomic datasets. The coding sequences, exon-intron structure and domain organization of all the 42 genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed evolutionary conservation of members of the ZmHDZ genes in maize. Several regulatory elements associated with drought tolerance were identified in the promoter regions of ZmHDZ genes, indicating the implication of these genes in plant response to drought stress. 42 ZmHDZ genes were distributed unevenly on 10 chromosomes, and 24 pairs of gene duplications were the segmental duplication. The expression of several ZmHDZ genes was upregulated under drought stress, and ZmHDZ9 overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited higher SOD and POD activities and higher accumulation of soluble proteins under drought stress which resulted in enhanced developed phenotype and improved resistance. The present study provides evidence for the evolutionary conservation of HD-ZIP transcription factors homologs in maize. The results further provide a comprehensive insight into the roles of ZmHDZ genes in regulating drought stress tolerance in maize.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416803

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Considering there is no definite conclusion on the efficacy and safety of switching from potent P2Y12 inhibitors to clopidogrel, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and compared the efficacy and safety of de-escalation or not of antiplatelet therapy. The relevant randomized controlled trials were included by searching several databases. Net adverse clinical events were identified as the composite endpoint, which was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, stroke, and bleeding at 12 months after acute coronary syndromes. The efficacy endpoints were cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, stroke, all-cause death, and stent thrombosis. Bleeding was designed as the safety endpoint. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of endpoint events were calculated by the fixed-effects model.Six randomized controlled trials with 7627 patients met inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in the risk of net adverse clinical events (RR 0.67, CI 0.58-0.78, P < 0.00001) and bleeding endpoint (0.61, 0.52-0.71, P < 0.00001) between the two groups. However, there were no significant differences in the risk of all efficacy endpoints. In general, the strategy of de-escalation from prasugrel or ticagrelor to clopidogrel can reduce the incidence of net adverse clinical events and bleeding events in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

18.
Chemosphere ; 300: 134627, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439484

RESUMO

Once released into water, the widely used graphene oxide (GO) is likely to adsorb classical environmental pollutants, exemplified by Microcystin-LR (MCLR) that is a representative double-bond rich liver-toxic endotoxin. While GO-mediated carrier effect is fairly predictable, the involvement of environmental factors like UV and pH may add additional level of sophistication as these factors may impact the adsorption capacity of GO to MCLR. Here, we firstly investigated the changes of GO structure under different UV-radiation durations and pH conditions with a view to establish the correlation in terms of MCLR adsorption onto GO. We demonstrated that GO reduction especially oxygen-containing groups reduction induced by UV- radiation caused the compromised adsorption MCLR capacity on GO. Besides, the higher pH decreased the non-biological MCLR adsorption to GO by reducing GO defect sites and increasing electrostatic repulsion. These abiotic discoveries were further investigated to compare the safety features of GO-MCLR complex. Under dark condition (pH = 7), we revealed the cytotoxicity of GO-MCLR to normal liver cells, which involved the ROS generation and cell ferroptosis caused by Fe2+ accumulation. Introduction of UV and pH alternation in environment impacted GO-mediated environmental toxicant adsorption and resulting safety characteristics, which reminded us environmental factors should not be ignored in the GO-mediated carrier effect.

19.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 19(1): 26, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanomaterials have been widely used in electrochemistry, sensors, medicine among others applications, causing its inevitable environmental exposure. A raising question is the "carrier" effect due to unique surface properties of nanomaterials, which may collectively impact the bioavailability, toxicokinetic, distribution and biological effects of classic toxicants. Noteworthy, this aspect of information remains largely unexplored. METHODS: Here, we deliberately selected two entities to mimic this scenario. One is graphene oxide (GO), which is made in ton quantity with huge surface-area that provides hydrophilicity and π-π interaction to certain chemicals of unique structures. The other is Microcystin-LR (MCLR), a representative double-bond rich liver-toxic endotoxin widely distributed in aquatic-system. Firstly, the adsorption of GO and MCLR after meeting under environmental conditions was explored, and then we focused on the toxicological effect and related mechanism of GO-MCLR complex on human skin cutin forming cells (HaCaT cells) and normal liver cells (L02 cells). RESULTS: Abiotically, our study demonstrated that GO could effectively adsorb MCLR through hydrogen bonding and π-π interaction, the oxidation degree of GO-MCLR decreased significantly and surface defect level raised. Compared to GO or MCLR, GO-MCLR was found to induce more remarkable apoptosis and ferroptosis in both HaCaT and L02 cells. The underlying mechanism was that GO-MCLR induced stronger intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mtROS generation, followed by Fe2+ accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cytoskeletal damage. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the GO-MCLR complex formed by GO adsorption of MCLR may exhibit more toxic effects than the single material, which demonstrates the necessity for assessing nano-toxicant complexity. Our discovery may serve as a new toxicological paradigm in which nanomaterial mediated surface adsorption effects could impact the degree of cytotoxicity and toxicological mechanisms of classic toxins.


Assuntos
Grafite , Microcistinas , Grafite/toxicidade , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Microcistinas/química , Microcistinas/toxicidade
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 1725-1737, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393796

RESUMO

Nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) are an important class of nitrogen-containing compounds in fine particles. The investigation of characteristics and seasonal variation of NACs in PM2.5 increases our knowledge about nitrogen-containing compounds and contributes to the scientific basis in formulating reduction policies of NOx in urban areas. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of PM2.5 samples collected from March 2018 to February 2019 in an urban location in Shanghai. A total of 2439-3695 organic molecular formulas were detected using UPLC-Orbitrap MS. Nine NACs were quantified using an internal standard method. In spring, ρ(NACs) ranged from 3.12 to 16.76 ng·m-3, and the average concentration was 9.31 ng·m-3. In summer, it ranged from 1.05 to 9.70 ng·m-3, and the average value was 4.16 ng·m-3. In autumn, it ranged from 2.87 to 36.27 ng·m-3, and its average was 9.84 ng·m-3. In winter, it ranged from 4.83 to 56.23 ng·m-3, and the average was 22.37 ng·m-3. 4-Nitrophenol accounted for more than 25% of the quantified NACs in different seasons. In summer, the concentration of 5-nitrosalicylic acid accounted for 36%, but it decreased to 19% in winter. NACs in summer mainly originated from secondary formation, as evidenced by their clear correlation with the oxidant level, whereas biomass burning became the main source of NACs in winter.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
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