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1.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of cultural scripts has proven to be very useful for describing depression-like psychological complaints in different cultural regions of the world. The article presents the galaxy model and its implementation in the model of cultural scripts theoretically for the first time and connects these with cultural psychological value research. A new, extensive series of research projects aims to investigate post-trauma -related psychological complaints in various regions of the world. METHODS: The work in two countries/regions began with focus groups in which elements of cultural scripts were collected by traumatized clients and/or by (therapeutic) experts. For this purpose, a theory-based framework of possible post-traumatic script elements was provided. In Switzerland, focus groups were conducted with patients and experts. Focus groups were conducted with genocide survivors and other trauma victims in Rwanda and three East African countries. The evaluation was semi-quantitative. RESULTS: In Switzerland, around 50 symptoms and changes were mentioned as script elements (e. g. still having to function). Approximately 100 symptoms and changes were mentioned as script elements in East Africa (e. g. loss of dignity). The first temporal connections (i. e. strong scripts) were found for the Swiss scripts (e. g. self-devaluation - urge to function). In the East African study, cultural value orientations underlying the script groupings were also assessed (e. g. community reputation). DISCUSSION: The illustrative results presented here demonstrate the galaxy model and the suitability of the cultural script concept for recording the effects of trauma. There are differences and similarities in the two world regions examined so far. Further steps at the two study sites will be the temporal connections and the relationships to value orientations. The studies will be started at the other study sites in the following years.

2.
J Trauma Stress ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580621

RESUMO

When confronted with a traumatic event, people may suffer from adverse posttraumatic outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or complex PTSD (CPTSD). Positive psychology research has shown that meaning in life and vitality are potentially correlated protective factors against negative developments following trauma exposure that can lead to PTSD or CPTSD. This systematic review aimed to synthesize global empirical research findings, emphasizing the impact of meaning in life and vitality on both PTSD and CPTSD. A search of empirical studies was performed within the Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science core collection databases, as well as PsycInfo, using the PRISMA checklist. A total of 29 studies were included after a systematic exclusion process. The collective findings from 22 studies examining meaning in life and five studies focusing on vitality revealed a consistent negative association with symptoms of PTSD. No study that explored the associations among meaning in life, vitality, and CPTSD was found. In contrast to vitality, meaning in life has been extensively studied in relation to traumatic stress worldwide, and few discrepancies in results were found. This systematic review identified the need to intensify scientific efforts in capitalizing on meaning in life as a possible target for psychological interventions, especially for trauma survivors globally, and to consider vitality as a protective factor that needs more empirical attention in relation to posttraumatic stress. Furthermore, there is a need for studies that encompass diverse target samples and employ longitudinal study design to examine the associations between protective factors and CPTSD.

3.
Internet Interv ; 35: 100720, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328277

RESUMO

Background: Loneliness is a widespread phenomenon associated with a number of negative health outcomes. Older individuals may constitute one important target group with a need for effective interventions. However, despite evidence showing that addressing maladaptive social cognition (e.g., via cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT]) is the most effective intervention strategy for reducing loneliness, most existing programs aimed at older individuals do not use that method. Further, in terms of mental health service use, older individuals have been found to be an extremely undertreated population. When developing interventions, active involvement of end users in the development process is essential to increase later uptake. Objective: The aim of the present study was to develop an internet-based CBT intervention for loneliness in older individuals (i.e., aged ≥65 years) applying a user-centered design. The present report provides an in-depth description of the development process. Methods: Two phases of qualitative data collection were conducted in parallel with intervention development using a sample of N = 12 participants including both potential end users (i.e., older adults) as well as experts (i.e., psychotherapists). Measures included semi-structured interviews and usability testing. Results: In Phase 1 interviews, participants indicated that they were predominantly positive about the idea of an internet-based program for loneliness targeting older individuals. Individualization and interactivity were named as crucial features. In Phase 2, usability testing of a prototype program provided important insights into technical barriers to intervention use. Further, participants reported that they were missing content on philosophy/theology and the role of descendants/relatives. Valuable insights from Phase 1 and Phase 2 were incorporated into the intervention program resulting in a 7-module internet-based self-help CBT intervention. Discussion: Findings of this study highlight the significance of including relevant stakeholders in the development process of an intervention. Additionally, results emphasize the high acceptance of internet-based interventions in this population, but also underline the need for considering age-specific aspects when developing treatments.

4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2299618, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258813

RESUMO

Objective: There is a lack of research on complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in older individuals, with little known about the temporal course of CPTSD. Therefore, this study assessed and compared the demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), and well-being of Swiss older adults with and without probable CPTSD. The (in-)stability of probable CPTSD was also examined in relation to the predictive value of various emotion-related factors.Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted in Switzerland with N = 213 participants (Mage = 69.98 years, SD = 10.61; 45.5% female). Data was collected via face-to-face assessments at baseline and follow-up, 21 months apart. The German version of the International Trauma Questionnaire was used to screen for (C)PTSD. Standardized instruments were used to assess ACE as well as the predictors anger, embitterment, emotion regulation, and meaning in life.Results: From the total sample, n = 16 participants (7.5%) were identified as having probable CPTSD, with only five of these (31.25%) having probable CPTSD at both baseline and follow-up. Individuals with and without probable CPTSD differed significantly regarding age and employment status. Significant predictors of probable CPTSD were anger (ß = 0.16), embitterment (ß = 0.06), cognitive reappraisal (ß = -0.41), and the presence of meaning in life (ß = -0.10).Conclusions: Probable CPTSD appears to be relatively unstable over the course of a 21-month period in older individuals. The links between CPTSD and emotion-related predictors highlight potential targets for intervention.


KEY FINDINGS: Older adults with and without probable CPTSD differ in terms of age, employment status, adverse childhood experiences, psychiatric comorbidities, well-being, and life satisfaction.Temporal (in-)stability: In older adults, probable CPTSD appears to be unstable over a 21-month period with around one-third of the participants showing a stable course.Treatment targets: The identified significant predictors anger, embitterment, cognitive reappraisal, and the presence of meaning in life beliefs are potential treatment targets.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Emoções
5.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 22(4): 736-748, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37888890

RESUMO

We conducted a scientometric analysis to outline clinical research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our primary objective was to perform a broad-ranging scientometric analysis to evaluate key themes and trends over the past decades. Our secondary objective was to measure research network performance. We conducted a systematic search in the Web of Science Core Collection up to 15 August 2022 for publications on PTSD. We identified 42,170 publications published between 1945 and 2022. We used CiteSpace to retrieve the co-cited reference network (1978-2022) that presented significant modularity and mean silhouette scores, indicating highly credible clusters (Q = 0.915, S = 0.795). Four major trends of research were identified: 'war veterans and refugees', 'treatment of PTSD/neuroimaging', 'evidence syntheses', and 'somatic symptoms of PTSD'. The largest cluster of research concerned evidence synthesis for genetic predisposition and environmental exposures leading to PTSD occurrence. Research on war-related trauma has shifted from battlefield-related in-person exposure trauma to drone operator trauma and is being out published by civilian-related trauma research, such as the 'COVID-19' pandemic impact, 'postpartum', and 'grief disorder'. The focus on the most recent trends in the research revealed a burst in the 'treatment of PTSD' with the development of Mhealth, virtual reality, and psychedelic drugs. The collaboration networks reveal a central place for the USA research network, and although relatively isolated, a recent surge of publications from China was found. Compared to other psychiatric disorders, we found a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials for pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. These results can inform funding agencies and future research.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Predisposição Genética para Doença
6.
J Affect Disord ; 346: 110-114, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD), the most frequently suggested new category for inclusion by mental health professionals, has been included in the Eleventh Revision of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Research has yet to explore whether clinicians' recognition of the distinct complex PTSD symptoms predicts giving the correct diagnosis. The present study sought to determine if international mental health professionals were able to accurately diagnose complex PTSD and identify the shared PTSD features and three essential diagnostic features, specific to complex PTSD. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to view two vignettes and tasked with providing a diagnosis (or indicating that no diagnosis was warranted). Participants then answered a series of questions regarding the presence or absence of each of the essential diagnostic features specific to the diagnosis they provided. RESULTS: Clinicians who recognized the presence or absence of complex PTSD specific features were more likely to arrive at the correct diagnostic conclusion. Complex PTSD specific features were significant predictors while the shared PTSD features were not, indicating that attending to each of the specific symptoms was necessary for diagnostic accuracy of complex PTSD. LIMITATIONS: The use of written case vignettes including only adult patients and a non-representative sample of mental health professionals may limit the generalizability of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support mental health professionals' ability to accurately identify specific features of complex PTSD. Future work should assess whether mental health providers can effectively identify symptoms of complex PTSD in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Pessoal de Saúde
7.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 73(12): 516-528, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38048814

RESUMO

A particular feature of the demographic change is the growing proportion of elderly and very elderly people. In Western countries, this is largely due to improved medical care for age-associated diseases. There is still comparatively little knowledge about mental health disorders in old age, their age-typical clinical presentation and specific psychotherapeutic treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Idoso , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pacientes , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico
8.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1206503, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37928575

RESUMO

Background: As a new, unifying approach to mapping the cultural expressions of trauma sequelae, cultural scripts of trauma sequelae are empirically investigated here for the first time in a primarily qualitative study. Elements of Cultural Scripts of Trauma (CST) include the typical symptoms and appraisals of changes of those who have experienced traumatic events. These elements refer to the value orientations in the given culture. Aims: To identify post-traumatic cultural scripts' elements and their groupings, as expressed by trauma survivors from the East African population, and to explore the cultural values that serve as a reference to such scripts' elements. Methods: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted in nine focus groups of trauma survivors and trauma experts. Grounded theory was the basis for the content analysis, and MAXQDA was used for coding and grouping. Semi-quantitative analyses of the frequency of groupings followed. Results: The study extracted 270 elements of the cultural scripts of trauma. Three stages of cultural scripts' elements were identified including unspeakable, heart wounds and painful scars and growth. The reported elements are only those in the three last stages and they are grouped into six categories, such as cognitive appraisals, worldview, interpersonal relationships, body-related, positive changes and changes in family interest and management, while the elements of the first stages are not codable as the survivors do not yet get the words of their expressions. The cultural values that served as a reference consisted of holding the sadness, Christianity, community reputation, solidarity, social connectedness, social cynicism, and reproductiveness, among others. Discussion: This comprehensive study with participants from several countries in East Africa collected a large number of elements of cultural scripts of trauma for this regional area. Notably, these elements were based mostly on man-made traumas, such as the genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda. Further steps in the CST investigation are subject to future studies, such as a more systematic investigation of the relationship with cultural values and the temporal relationships within the scripts.

9.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1228785, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37692311

RESUMO

Traumatic stress studies have recently addressed the issue of 'historical trauma' that well explain the impact of collective or totalitarian trauma. The example of former communist Eastern Europe shows that there are many individual and socio-psychological consequences that still have effects today. This paper summarizes concepts and findings on 'historical traumas' that describe such long-lasting effects. The focus is on the side of the victims and their family descendants and thus also on the moral heirs of the dissidents, e.g., the Russian NGO Memorial. Analogous to developments in psychotraumatology, increasing knowledge in this area can explain psychosocial pathologies but also help develop effective remedies. This includes the development of a culture of remembrance, socio-therapeutic interventions and increased sensitivity towards those patients and clients who have such a personal legacy.

10.
Psychol Med ; 53(13): 5992-6001, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37743836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is crucial in the treatment of cardiac disease. There is a high prevalence of stress-response and affective disorders among cardiac patients, which might be negatively associated with their PA. This study aimed at investigating daily differential associations of International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 adjustment disorder, depression and anxiety symptoms with PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) during and right after inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: The sample included N = 129 inpatients in cardiac rehabilitation, Mage = 62.2, s.d.age = 11.3, 84.5% male, n = 2845 days. Adjustment disorder, depression and anxiety symptoms were measured daily during the last 7 days of rehabilitation and for 3 weeks after discharge. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), light PA (LPA) and SB were measured with an accelerometer. Bayesian lagged multilevel regressions including all three symptoms to obtain their unique effects were conducted. RESULTS: On days with higher adjustment disorder symptoms than usual, patients engaged in less MVPA, and more SB. Patients with overall higher depression symptoms engaged in less MVPA, less LPA and more SB. On days with higher depression symptoms than usual, there was less MVPA and LPA, and more SB. Patients with higher anxiety symptoms engaged in more LPA and less SB. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the necessity to screen for and treat adjustment disorder and depression symptoms during cardiac rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação , Depressão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Transtornos de Adaptação/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados , Exercício Físico
11.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 14(2): 2254584, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37767693

RESUMO

Background: Grief is a multi-faceted experience including emotional, social, and physical reactions. Research in ICD-11 prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in different cultural contexts has revealed different or potentially missing grief symptoms that may be relevant.Objective: This study thus aimed to explore the prevalence of somatic symptom distress and its associations with grief and negative affect in a culturally diverse sample of bereaved individuals with symptoms of PGD.Methods: Based on cross-sectional survey data from the Measurement and Assessment of Grief (MAGIC) project, this study included 1337 participants (mean age 23.79 yrs, 76.1% female) from three regions (USA: 62.3%, Turkey/Iran: 24.2%, Cyprus/Greece: 13.5%), who experienced a loss of a significant other. Associations between somatic symptom distress (Somatic Symptom Scale, SSS-8), symptoms of PGD (International Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale, IPGDS-33), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, GAD-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) as well as demographic and loss related characteristics were investigated. Three hundred and thirteen participants (23.4%) scored above the proposed cut-off for clinically severe PGD.Results: 'High' or 'very high' levels of somatic symptom distress were more frequent in a possible PGD group (58.2%), than in a non-PGD group (22.4%), p < .001, as divided per cut-off in the IPGDS. In a multiple regression analysis, PGD symptoms were significantly but weakly associated with somatic symptom distress (ß = 0.08, p < .001) beyond demographics, loss-related variables, and negative affect. Negative affect (anxiety and depression) mediated the relationship of PGD symptoms with somatic symptom distress and the indirect effect explained 58% of the variance.Conclusions: High levels of somatic symptom distress can be observed in a substantial proportion of bereaved across cultures. Our findings suggest that PGD is related to somatic symptom distress partly and indirectly through facets of negative affect.


30.8% of bereaved adults showed 'high' or 'very high' levels of somatic symptom distress.Anxiety and depression partially mediate relationship of PGD symptoms with somatic symptom distress.Findings encourage practitioners to consider somatic symptom distress in psychotherapeutic treatment of PGD.


Assuntos
Luto , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Estudos Transversais , Pesar
12.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1601, 2023 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37608365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research on the prevalence of traumatic events and PTSD has shown that there are significant differences between countries, due to their different history and socialization processes. In the case of Germany, this is particularly relevant. Germany was divided into two states from 1949 to 1990. This study examines the prevalence of traumatic events and PTSD in the formerly divided East and West Germany. METHODS: For the prevalence of traumatic events, we used data from four representative surveys (years 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2016) with a total of N = 9,200 respondents. For the analyses of PTSD prevalence, we used data from three representative surveys (years 2005, 2007, 2008) with a total of N = 6676 respondents. We compared different birth cohorts, persons living in the former West vs. East Germany, and the application of different diagnostic criteria using a chi-square test. RESULTS: The overall one-month prevalence rate for PTSD was 3.4% (3.0% for men and 3.8% for women). We found significant differences in the occurrence of traumatic events between genders, different age cohorts as well as between people who live in East and West Germany. Significant differences in the prevalence of PTSD can only be observed for different age cohorts. Most of the age effects are due to traumatic events related to World War II (WWII). Prevalence rates for PTSD were higher when the diagnostic criterions of the DSM-V were applied compared to the criterions of the DSM-IV. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that socio-political factors may need to be considered when accounting for differences in occurrence rates of traumatic events, but not for prevalence rates of PTSD, between East and West Germany. People who have experienced WW II have a higher risk of suffering from PTSD. Future epidemiological trauma research should take historical and regional peculiarities of countries into account.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Alemanha Ocidental/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Ansiedade
13.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1213927, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37637914

RESUMO

Introduction: Being faced with multimorbidity (i.e., being diagnosed with at least two chronic conditions), is not only demanding in terms of following complicated medical regimes and changing health behaviors. The changes and threats involved also provoke emotional responses in the patients but also in their romantic partners. This study aims at exploring the ways of emotional co-regulation that couples facing multimorbidity express when interviewed together. Method: N = 15 opposite sex couples with one multimorbid patient after an acute health crisis that led to hospitalization were asked in a semi-structured interview about how they found ways to deal with the health situation, what they would recommend to other couples in a similar situation, and how they regulated their emotional responses. Interviews were analyzed qualitatively following open, axial, and selective coding, as in the grounded theory framework. Results: Emerging categories from the romantic partners' and the patients' utterances revealed three main categories: First, overlapping cognitive appraisals about the situation (from fighting spirit to fatalism) and we-ness (construing the couple self as a unit) emerged as higher order factor from the utterances. Second, relationship-related strategies including strategies aimed at maintaining high relationship quality in spite of the asymmetric situation like strengthening the common ground and balancing autonomy and equity in the couple were often mentioned. Third, some couples mentioned how they benefit from individual strategies that involve fostering individual resources of the partners outside the couple relationship (such as cultivating relationships with grandchildren or going outdoors to nature). Discussion: Results underline the importance of a dyadic perspective not only on coping with disease but also on regulating the emotional responses to this shared challenging situation. The utterances of the couples were in line with earlier conceptualizations of interpersonal emotion regulation and dyadic perspectives on we-disease. They broaden the view by integrating the interplay between individual and interpersonal regulation strategies and underline the importance of balancing individual and relational resources when supporting couples faced with chronic diseases.

14.
Psychol Trauma ; 2023 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37561433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed to test the symptoms network of International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11) complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) symptoms, using data collected from Ukrainian civilians during the 2022 Russia-Ukraine war. Findings can inform our understanding of the stress response in individuals exposed to continuous trauma and give insight into the nature of CPTSD during the war. METHOD: A network analysis was conducted on CPTSD symptoms as assessed by the International Trauma Questionnaire using data from a nationally representative sample of 2,000 Ukrainians. RESULTS: While PTSD and disturbances in self-organization clusters did not enmesh, several communities within these clusters were merged. Results highlight that in terms of strength centrality, emotional dysregulation (emotional numbing) and a heightened sense of threat (SoT) were most prominent. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the ICD-11 structure of CPTSD but suggest that continuous traumatic stress manifests in more condensed associations between CPTSD symptoms and that emotional regulation may play a vital role in activating the CPTSD network. War-exposed populations could be provided with scalable, brief self-help materials focused on fostering emotion regulation and an SoT. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

16.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 14(2): 2220633, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37377086

RESUMO

Background: Social acknowledgment is a protective factor for survivors of trauma. However, the role of social acknowledgment in association with prolonged grief symptoms has not yet been established.Objectives: The current study aims to explore the relationship between social acknowledgment and prolonged grief via two beliefs foundational to how people think about grief-related emotions (1) goodness (i.e. whether emotions are desirable, useful, or unwanted and harmful), and (2) controllability (i.e. whether emotions are regulated according to our will or involuntary, arising of their own accord). These effects were explored in two different cultural samples of bereaved people.Methods: One hundred and fifty-four German-speaking and two hundred and sixty-two Chinese bereaved people who lost their loved ones completed questionnaires assessing social acknowledgment, beliefs about the goodness and controllability of grief-related emotions, and prolonged grief symptoms.Results: Correlation analyses showed that social acknowledgment was positively linked with stronger beliefs about the goodness and controllability of grief-related emotions and negatively related to prolonged grief symptoms. Beliefs about the goodness and controllability of grief-related emotions correlated negatively with prolonged grief symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses suggested that beliefs about the controllability and goodness of grief-related emotions mediated the link between social acknowledgment and prolonged grief symptoms. Cultural groups did not moderate the above model.Conclusion: Social acknowledgment may be related to bereavement adjustment consequences via the roles of beliefs about the goodness and controllability of grief-related emotions. These effects seem to be consistent cross-culturally.


Social acknowledgment correlated positively with stronger beliefs about the goodness and controllability of grief-related emotions and negatively with prolonged grief symptoms.Beliefs about the goodness and controllability of grief-related emotions were negatively linked with prolonged grief symptoms.Beliefs about the controllability and goodness of grief-related emotions mediated the relationship between social acknowledgment and prolonged grief symptoms. The model presented cross-cultural consistency.


Assuntos
Luto , Cultura , Pesar , Humanos , Povo Asiático , Fatores de Proteção , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Cogn Emot ; 37(5): 1023-1039, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37357869

RESUMO

Cultural norms may dictate how grief is displayed. The present study explores the display behaviours and rules in the bereavement context from a cross-cultural perspective. 86 German-speaking Swiss and 99 Chinese bereaved people who lost their first-degree relative completed the adapted bereavement version of the Display Rules Assessment Inventory. Results indicated that the German-speaking Swiss bereaved displayed more emotions than the Chinese bereaved. The Chinese bereaved, but not the German-speaking Swiss bereaved, thought that bereaved people should display more emotions than they actually did when they were with their close others (but not when they were alone). Bereaved people endorsed more emotional expression "when alone" than "when with close others", demonstrating a social disconnection tendency, which was more evident in the Chinese sample. Bereaved people endorsed more expression of positive emotions (e.g. affection/love) and less expression of powerful negative emotions (e.g. blame/guilt, anger) across cultures. Compared to their Chinese counterparts, the German-speaking Swiss sample indicated more actual expressions for most emotion types (i.e. joy/happiness, affection/love, sadness, anger, and denial) but thought bereaved people should express more joy/happiness and less blame/guilt. The results suggest that bereaved people's display behaviours and rules are influenced by culture, situation, and type of emotion.


Assuntos
Luto , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Pesar , Culpa , Felicidade
18.
J Trauma Stress ; 36(3): 628-641, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37155933

RESUMO

Despite the therapeutic needs of aging Holocaust survivors, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) of psychotherapy exists for this population, with very few on older adults in general. This RCT aimed to compare the efficacy of Life Review Therapy for Holocaust survivors (LRT-HS) relative to a supportive control group. Holocaust survivors with a probable diagnosis of full or subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depressive disorder were included. Exclusion criteria were probable dementia, acute psychotic disorder, and acute suicidality. The predefined primary endpoint was the course of PTSD symptom scores. In total, 49 of 79 consecutive individuals assessed for eligibility were randomized and included in the intent-to-treat analyses (LRT-HS: n = 24, control: n = 25; Mage = 81.5 years, SD = 4.81, 77.6% female). Linear mixed models revealed no statistically significant superiority of LRT-HS for PTSD symptoms at posttreatment, with moderate effect sizes, Time x Condition interaction: t(75) = 1.46, p = .148, dwithin = 0.70, dbetween = 0.41, but analyses were significant at follow-up, with large effect sizes, t(79) = 2.89, p = .005, dwithin = 1.20, dbetween = 1.00. LRT-HS superiority for depression was observed at posttreatment, t(73) = 2.58, p = .012, but not follow-up, t(76) = 1.08, p = .282, with moderate effect sizes, dwithin = 0.46-0.60, dbetween = 0.53-0.70. The findings show that even in older age, PTSD and depression following exposure to multiple traumatic childhood events can be treated efficaciously using an age-appropriate treatment that includes structured life review and narrative exposure.


Assuntos
Holocausto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Criança , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Psicoterapia , Sobreviventes
19.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 30(5): 1047-1057, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37092756

RESUMO

The ICD-11 features a new group of disorders specifically associated with stress, which are interlinked by various symptoms, such as intrusive memory symptoms. Although research interest in these new ICD-11 diagnoses is growing rapidly, so far, no studies have systematically investigated the transdiagnostic distribution of stress-associated symptoms in these disorders. In the present study, 447 individuals completed a series of online questionnaires, which measured various stress-associated symptoms, e.g., flashbacks, preoccupation or yearning. Findings showed that the majority of correlations between the measured psychopathological constructs was between 0.30 and 0.60. Furthermore, with regard to specific diagnostic groups, a complex variation of stress-associated symptoms was observed, with preoccupation as a predominant symptom in all disorders. Results demonstrate that stress-associated symptoms are inherently interconnected yet possess an individual variation in different disorders. Furthermore, findings illustrate that preoccupation represents a major feature in all stress-associated disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Classificação Internacional de Doenças
20.
Clin Psychol Eur ; 5(1): e8109, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37064999

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people globally both physically and psychologically. The increased demands for mental health interventions provided by clinical psychologists, psychotherapists and mental health care professionals, as well as the rapid change in work setting (e.g., from face-to-face to video therapy) has proven challenging. The current study investigates European clinical psychologists and psychotherapists' views on the changes and impact on mental health care that occurred due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It further aims to explore individual and organizational processes that assist clinical psychologists' and psychotherapists' in their new working conditions, and understand their needs and priorities. Method: Members of the European Association of Clinical Psychology and Psychological Treatment (EACLIPT) were invited (N = 698) to participate in a survey with closed and open questions covering their experiences during the first wave of the pandemic from June to September 2020. Participants (n = 92) from 19 European countries, mostly employed in universities or hospitals, completed the online survey. Results: Results of qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that clinical psychologists and psychotherapists throughout the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic managed to continue to provide treatments for patients who were experiencing emotional distress. The challenges (e.g., maintaining a working relationship through video treatment) and opportunities (e.g., more flexible working hours) of working through this time were identified. Conclusions: Recommendations for mental health policies and professional organizations are identified, such as clear guidelines regarding data security and workshops on conducting video therapy.

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