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1.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 388(1): 23-26, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169448
2.
Br Dent J ; 236(1): 12, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225293
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(4): e2317773121, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227668

RESUMO

The retina and primary visual cortex (V1) both exhibit diverse neural populations sensitive to diverse visual features. Yet it remains unclear how neural populations in each area partition stimulus space to span these features. One possibility is that neural populations are organized into discrete groups of neurons, with each group signaling a particular constellation of features. Alternatively, neurons could be continuously distributed across feature-encoding space. To distinguish these possibilities, we presented a battery of visual stimuli to the mouse retina and V1 while measuring neural responses with multi-electrode arrays. Using machine learning approaches, we developed a manifold embedding technique that captures how neural populations partition feature space and how visual responses correlate with physiological and anatomical properties of individual neurons. We show that retinal populations discretely encode features, while V1 populations provide a more continuous representation. Applying the same analysis approach to convolutional neural networks that model visual processing, we demonstrate that they partition features much more similarly to the retina, indicating they are more like big retinas than little brains.


Assuntos
Córtex Visual , Animais , Camundongos , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469242

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.

6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(2012): 20232291, 2023 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052444

RESUMO

Niche partitioning among closely related, sympatric species is a fundamental concept in ecology, and its mechanisms are of broad interest for understanding ecosystem functioning and predicting the impacts of human-driven environmental change. However, identifying mechanisms by which top marine predators partition available resources has been especially challenging given the difficulty of quantifying resource use of large pelagic animals. In the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP), three large, highly mobile and ecologically similar pelagic predators (blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), black marlin (Istiompax indica) and sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus)) coexist in a vertically compressed habitat. To evaluate each species' ecological niche, we leveraged a decade of recreational fisheries data, multi-year satellite tracking with high-resolution dive data, and stable isotope analysis. Fishery interaction and telemetry-based three-dimensional seasonal utilization distributions suggested high spatial and temporal overlap among species; however, seasonal and diel variability in diving behaviour produced spatial partitioning, leading to low trophic overlap among species. Expanding oxygen minimum zones will reduce the available vertical habitat within predator guilds, likely leading to increases in interspecific competition. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of habitat partitioning among predators in the vertically compressed ETP can provide insight into how predators in other ocean regions may respond to vertically limited habitats.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Perciformes , Animais , Humanos , Ecologia , Estado Nutricional
7.
Front Oral Health ; 4: 1285139, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37954869

RESUMO

Introduction: Human papillomavirus virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-OPSCC) comprises a significant portion of head and neck cancers. Several glucocorticoid-inducible proteins play important roles in pathogenesis of some cancers but their status and roles in HPV-OPSCC remain elusive; these include the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), Annexin-A1 and serum glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 (SGK-1). Methods: We determined expression profiles of these proteins, using immunohistochemistry, in archived biopsy samples of patients diagnosed with HPV-OPSCC; samples of non-cancer oral lesions (e.g., hyperkeratosis) were used as controls. Results: GILZ staining was primarily confined to nuclei of all tissues but, in HPV-OPSCC specimens, neoplastic cells exhibiting mitosis displayed prominent cytoplasmic GILZ expression. On the other hand, nuclear, cytoplasmic and membranous Annexin-A1 staining was observed in suprabasal cell layers of control specimens. A noted feature of the HPV-OPSCC specimens was few clusters of matured and differentiated nonbasaloid cells that showed prominent nuclear and cytoplasmic Annexin-A1 staining while the remainder of the tumor mass was devoid of staining. Cytoplasmic and nuclear staining for SGK-1 was prominent for control than PV-OPSCC specimens while staining for phosphorylated SGK-1 (pSGK-1; active) was prominent for cell membrane and cytoplasm of control specimens but HPV-OPSCC specimens showed mild and patchy nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. Semi-quantitative analysis of GILZ immunostaining indicated increased staining area but similar normalized staining for HPV-OPSCC compared to control specimens. By contrast, staining area and normalized staining were reduced for other proteins in HPV-OPSCC than control specimens. Discussion: Our collective observations suggest differential cellular localization and expression of glucocorticoid-inducible proteins in HPV-OPSCC suggestive of different functional roles in pathogenesis of this condition.

8.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 387(3): 277-287, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37770199

RESUMO

The family of serum-glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK) consists of three paralogs, SGK-1, SGK-2, and SGK-3, with SGK-1 being the better studied. Indeed, recognition of the role of SGK-1 in regulation of cell survival and proliferation has led to introduction of a number of small-molecule inhibitors for some types of cancer. In addition, SGK-1 regulates major physiologic effects, such as renal solute transport, and contributes to the pathogenesis of non-neoplastic conditions involving major organs including the heart and the kidney. These observations raise the prospect for therapeutic modulation of SGK-1 to reduce the burden of such diseases as myocardial infarction and acute kidney injury. Following a brief description of the structure and function of SGK family of proteins, the present review is primarily focused on our current understanding of the role of SGK-1 in pathologies related to ischemia-reperfusion injury involving several organs (e.g., heart, kidney). The essential role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in cell death coupled with the pro-survival function of SGK-1 raise the prospect that its therapeutic modulation could beneficially impact conditions associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Since the discovery of serum glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)-1, extensive research has unraveled its role in cancer biology and, thus, its therapeutic targeting. Increasingly, it is also becoming clear that SGK-1 is a major determinant of the outcome of ischemia-reperfusion injury to various organs. Thus, evaluation of existing information should help identify gaps in our current knowledge and also determine whether and how its therapeutic modulation could impact the outcome of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

9.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37425920

RESUMO

The retina and primary visual cortex (V1) both exhibit diverse neural populations sensitive to diverse visual features. Yet it remains unclear how neural populations in each area partition stimulus space to span these features. One possibility is that neural populations are organized into discrete groups of neurons, with each group signaling a particular constellation of features. Alternatively, neurons could be continuously distributed across feature-encoding space. To distinguish these possibilities, we presented a battery of visual stimuli to mouse retina and V1 while measuring neural responses with multi-electrode arrays. Using machine learning approaches, we developed a manifold embedding technique that captures how neural populations partition feature space and how visual responses correlate with physiological and anatomical properties of individual neurons. We show that retinal populations discretely encode features, while V1 populations provide a more continuous representation. Applying the same analysis approach to convolutional neural networks that model visual processing, we demonstrate that they partition features much more similarly to the retina, indicating they are more like big retinas than little brains.

11.
J Anim Ecol ; 92(8): 1658-1671, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37283143

RESUMO

Pelagic predators must contend with low prey densities that are irregularly distributed and dynamic in space and time. Based on satellite imagery and telemetry data, many pelagic predators will concentrate horizontal movements on ephemeral surface fronts-gradients between water masses-because of enhanced local productivity and increased forage fish densities. Vertical fronts (e.g. thermoclines, oxyclines) can be spatially and temporally persistent, and aggregate lower trophic level and diel vertically migrating organisms due to sharp changes in temperature, water density or available oxygen. Thus, vertical fronts represent a stable and potentially energy rich habitat feature for diving pelagic predators but remain little explored in their capacity to enhance foraging opportunities. Here, we use a novel suite of high-resolution biologging data, including in situ derived oxygen saturation and video, to document how two top predators in the pelagic ecosystem exploit the vertical fronts created by the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical Pacific. Prey search behaviour was dependent on dive shape, and significantly increased near the thermocline and hypoxic boundary for blue marlin Makaira nigricans and sailfish Istiophorus platypterus, respectively. Further, we identify a behaviour not yet reported for pelagic predators, whereby the predator repeatedly dives below the thermocline and hypoxic boundary (and by extension, below the prey). We hypothesize this behaviour is used to ambush prey concentrated at the boundaries from below. We describe how habitat fronts created by low oxygen environments can influence pelagic ecosystems, which will become increasingly important to understand in the context of global change and expanding oxygen minimum zones. We anticipate that our findings are shared among many pelagic predators where strong vertical fronts occur, and additional high-resolution tagging is warranted to confirm this.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Oxigênio , Animais , Peixes , Comportamento Alimentar , Água , Comportamento Predatório
12.
Molecules ; 28(9)2023 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37175341

RESUMO

The increasing bacterial resistance and negative impacts of the present antibacterial agents have led to the search for novel antibacterial agents. This study focuses on the influence of synthetic methods on the aggregation stability and antibacterial activity of gold nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by using sodium citrate as a reducing and capping agent against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Gold NPs were synthesized using a simple and rapid sonochemical method and compared to gold NPs synthesized using a reduction method. The physicochemical features of gold NPs were characterized using UV-vis, XRD, TEM, and zeta potential, and the TEM results showed that the sonochemical method produced monodispersed spherical gold NPs with an average diameter of 18.5 nm, while the reduction method produced NPs with an average diameter of around 20 nm. The sonochemical method produced gold NPs with excellent stability (-48 mV) compared to the reduction method (-21 mV). The gold NPs with high stability also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus present in water, indicating their potential use in water purification processes to limit bacterial growth. The outcomes of this research are expected to significantly contribute to the creation of new drugs by paving the way for the development of novel strategies to combat pathogens using highly stable gold nanoparticles. These gold NPs, produced via the sonochemical method, have the potential to be employed as beneficial nanocompounds in the medical industry.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Ouro/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
13.
Cell Biol Int ; 47(6): 1118-1125, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36855962

RESUMO

Facial contour deformities associated with pigmentary changes are of major concern for plastic surgeons being difficult to treat. No definite ideal treatment option is available to address simultaneously both the contour defects as well as related hyperpigmentation. The aim of the current study is to compare long-term effects of conventional adipose tissue grafting and ex-vivo expanded ASC-enriched adipose tissue grafting for the treatment of contour deformities related pigmentary changes on the face. In this study, 80 patients of contour deformities of face with hyperpigmentation were recruited after informed consent. Two techniques, that is, conventional fat grafting (C-FG) and fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells (FG-ASCs) were used to address the pigmentation. Both techniques were explained to patients and enrolled patients were divided into two groups, that is, C-FG and FG-ASCs as per patients' choice and satisfaction. Patients of the FG-ASCs group were treated with FG-ASCs while patients of C-FGs group were treated with C-FG (without expanded ASCs). Patients were followed for 12 months and improvement in face pigmentation was assessed clinically as well as measured objectively. Patients' satisfaction was also documented as highly satisfied, satisfied, and unsatisfied. This clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov with ID: NTC03564808. Mean age of patients was 24.42 (±4.49), 66 patients were females. Forehead was involved in 61.20% cases, cheek in 21.20% cases, chin in 11.20% cases, and nose in 6.20% cases. In GF-ASCs group, the integrated color density was decreased (1.08 × 106 ± 4.64 × 105 ) as compared with C-FG group (2.80 × 105 ± 1.69 × 105 ). Patients treated with fat grafts enriched with expanded ASCs were significantly more satisfied as compared with patients treated with C-FG only. In conclusion, ASC-enriched autologous fat grafting is preferred option for improving the contour deformities related increased pigmentation of face skin.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Hiperpigmentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tecido Adiposo , Pele , Células-Tronco
14.
Oecologia ; 201(3): 673-688, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36930348

RESUMO

The coexistence of ecologically and morphologically similar species is often facilitated by the partitioning of ecological niches. While subordinate species can reduce competition with dominant competitors through spatial and/or trophic segregation, empirical support from wild settings, particularly those involving large-bodied taxa in marine ecosystems, are rare. Shark nursery areas provide an opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of coexistence. We used experimental and field studies of sympatric juvenile sharks (blacktip reef shark, Carcharhinus melanopterus; sicklefin lemon shark, Negaprion acutidens) to investigate how competitive ability influenced realized niches at St. Joseph Atoll, Seychelles. Captive trials revealed that sicklefin lemon sharks were dominant over blacktip reef sharks, consistently taking food rewards. In the field, blacktip reef sharks were captured over a broader area than sicklefin lemon sharks, but daily space use of actively tracked sharks showed a high degree of overlap across microhabitats. While stomach contents analysis revealed that blacktip reef shark diets included a broader range of prey items, stable isotope analysis demonstrated significantly higher mean δ13C values for sicklefin lemon sharks, suggesting diverging dietary preferences. Overall, our results matched theoretical predictions of subordinate competitors using a greater range of habitats and displaying broader feeding niches than competitively dominant species. While separating the realized and fundamental niche of marine predators is complicated, we provide evidence that resource partitioning is at least partially driven by interspecific competition.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Tubarões , Animais , Estado Nutricional
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1867(4): 130318, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36740000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are regarded as potential agents that enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells for theranostic applications. To elucidate the biological mechanisms of radiation dose enhancement effects of Au NPs as well as DNA damage attributable to the inclusion of Au NPs, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have been deployed in a number of studies. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review paper concisely collates and reviews the information reported in the simulation research in terms of MC simulation of radiosensitization and dose enhancement effects caused by the inclusion of Au NPs in tumor cells, simulation mechanisms, benefits and limitations. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we first explore the recent advances in MC simulation on Au NPs radiosensitization. The MC methods, physical dose enhancement and enhanced chemical and biological effects is discussed, followed by some results regarding the prediction of dose enhancement. We then review Multi-scale MC simulations of Au NP-induced DNA damages for X-ray irradiation. Moreover, we explain and look at Multi-scale MC simulations of Au NP-induced DNA damages for X-ray irradiation. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Using advanced chemical module-implemented MC simulations, there is a need to assess the radiation-induced chemical radicals that contribute to the dose-enhancing and biological effects of multiple Au NPs.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Raios X , Método de Monte Carlo , Simulação por Computador
16.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 42: 103312, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36731732

RESUMO

AuNPs-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) is gaining popularity in both laboratory research and medical applications. It has proven clear advantages in breast cancer therapy over conventional thermal ablation because of its easily-tuned features of irradiation light with inside hyperthermia ability. Notwithstanding this significant progress, the therapeutic potential of AuNPs-mediated PTT in cancer treatments is still impeded by several challenges, including inherent non-specificity, low photothermal conversion effectiveness, and the limitation of excitation light tissue penetration. Given the rapid progress of AuNPs-mediated PTT, we present a comprehensive overview of significant breakthroughs in the recent advancements of AuNPs for PTT, focusing on breast cancer cells. With the improvement of chemical synthesis technology, AuNPs of various sizes and shapes with desired properties can be synthesized, allowing breast cancer targeting and treatment. In this study, we summarized the different sizes and features of four major types of AuNPs in this review: Au nanospheres, Au nanocages, Au nanoshells, and Au nanorods, and explored their benefits and drawbacks in PTT. We also discussed the diagnostic, bioconjugation, targeting, and cellular uptake of AuNPs, which could improve the performance of AuNP-based PTT. Besides that, potential challenges and future developments of AuNP-mediated PTT for clinical applications are discussed. AuNP-mediated PTT is expected to become a highly promising avenue in cancer treatment in the near future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Ouro/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Terapia Fototérmica , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fototerapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1484, 2023 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707627

RESUMO

Foraging behavior and interaction with prey is an integral component of the ecological niche of predators but is inherently difficult to observe for highly mobile animals in the marine environment. Billfishes have been described as energy speculators, expending a large amount of energy foraging, expecting to offset high costs with periodic high energetic gain. Surface-based group feeding of sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, is commonly observed, yet sailfish are believed to be largely solitary roaming predators with high metabolic requirements, suggesting that individual foraging also represents a major component of predator-prey interactions. Here, we use biologging data and video to examine daily activity levels and foraging behavior, estimate metabolic costs, and document a solitary predation event for a 40 kg sailfish. We estimate a median active metabolic rate of 218.9 ± 70.5 mgO2 kg-1 h-1 which increased to 518.8 ± 586.3 mgO2 kg-1 h-1 during prey pursuit. Assuming a successful predation, we estimate a daily net energy gain of 2.4 MJ (5.1 MJ acquired, 2.7 MJ expended), supporting the energy speculator model. While group hunting may be a common activity used by sailfish to acquire energy, our calculations indicate that opportunistic individual foraging events offer a net energy return that contributes to the fitness of these highly mobile predators.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Ecossistema , Óxido de Magnésio
18.
iScience ; 26(1): 105815, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632067

RESUMO

Despite increasing threats of extinction to Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays), whole genome-based conservation insights are lacking. Here, we present chromosome-level genome assemblies for the Critically Endangered great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) and the Endangered shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) sharks, with genetic diversity and historical demographic comparisons to other shark species. The great hammerhead exhibited low genetic variation, with 8.7% of the 2.77 Gbp genome in runs of homozygosity (ROH) > 1 Mbp and 74.4% in ROH >100 kbp. The 4.98 Gbp shortfin mako genome had considerably greater diversity and <1% in ROH > 1 Mbp. Both these sharks experienced precipitous declines in effective population size (Ne) over the last 250 thousand years. While shortfin mako exhibited a large historical Ne that may have enabled the retention of higher genetic variation, the genomic data suggest a possibly more concerning picture for the great hammerhead, and a need for evaluation with additional individuals.

19.
Mymensingh Med J ; 32(1): 168-176, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594317

RESUMO

Uterine fibroids are benign tumor of the uterus that often appear during child bearing ages. Medical treatments are considered the first-line treatment to preserve fertility, avoid or delaying surgery. This randomized control study was carried out in OPD of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh from May 2018 to March 2019 to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ulipristal acetate (5mg) once daily in reproductive women with three months treatment courses. Total 52 samples with symptomatic uterine fibroids for treatment course-1, among them 36 were needed for treatment course-2 which was slow or non-responding in treatment course-1. Main outcome measures were amenorrhea, controlled bleeding, fibroid volume, anaemia, quality of life. Sixty one percent (61.0%) of patients were achieved amenorrheic during both treatment courses. Ninety percent (90.0%) patients were control of bleeding during both treatment courses. In treatment course-1, reductions from baseline in fibroid volume were 62.70%, whereas in course-2, reductions in fibroid volume were 75.33%. Five percent (5.0%) of patients were discontinuing Ulipristal acetate due to adverse effects. Renal and liver function tests were performed before and after each course of treatment. The level of creatinine, SGPT in the blood for both treatment courses had no statistically significant effects. Ulipristal acetate may be an alternative to surgical treatment, the safety profiles and prolong effects with improvement of symptoms, quality of life after cessation of drugs. Repeated use of drugs reduces the size and also improves the patient's condition.


Assuntos
Leiomioma , Neoplasias Uterinas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Bangladesh , Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 184: 20-27, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513183

RESUMO

There is growing evidence of beneficial effects of mindfulness developed through engaging in mindfulness training/practices on sensory and cognitive processing, emotion regulation and mental health. Mindfulness has also been conceptualised as a dispositional 'trait', i.e. the naturally-occurring ability of meditation-naïve individuals to display, in varying degree, a non-judgmental non-reactive present-moment awareness in everyday life. In this study we examined possible associations between dispositional mindfulness, alexithymia and sensory processing. Eye-blink startle responses to acoustic stimuli of varying intensity [90-dB or 100-dB over 70-dB (A) background] were assessed in 26 meditation-naïve adults (50 % men) using electromyographic recordings of the orbicularis muscle. All participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. A negative association was found between dispositional mindfulness and alexithymia (r = -0.513). There was stronger startle habituation to 100-dB, compared to 90-dB probes. Stronger startle habituation (larger negative habitation slope values) to 100-dB probes was significantly associated with higher dispositional mindfulness (r = -0.528) and with lower alexithymia at trend level (r = 0.333). As indicated by commonality analysis, 10.6 % of explained variance in habituation (100-dB probes) was common to both alexithymia and mindfulness, 17.3 % was unique to mindfulness, but alexithymia made negligible unique contribution (0.5 %). These findings indicate similar startle habituation pattern in people with a high level of dispositional mindfulness to that reported previously by Antonova et al. (2015) in people with moderate mindfulness meditation practice intensity. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms, such as interoceptive awareness, that might underly these relationships.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Sintomas Afetivos , Habituação Psicofisiológica , Percepção
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