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3.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 36(6): 1058-1061, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurse practitioners (NP), physician assistants (PA), and other advanced practice providers (APP) are one solution to meet health care workforce shortage. Our study examined clinical workforce decisions and perceptions of APPs and family physicians (FPs) from the perspective of a national survey chairs of Departments of Family Medicine. METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to family medicine department chairs as identified by the Association of Departments of Family Medicine (ADFM). In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked if their department directly employs APPs, major factors influencing departments of family medicine to hire APPs, services to patients currently being provided by APPs, and services preferentially provided by APPs. Descriptive statistics were reviewed. Bivariate analyses and Chi-square were computed comparing perceptions of APPs and FPs by how these types of health care providers are currently used in the respondent's clinical operation. RESULTS: The overall response rate for the survey was 48.4% (109/225). Most departments of family medicine (62.4%) use APPs. Access to care and filing gaps in team-based care are the primary factors for APP employment. Although most departments have APPs provide services that include complex chronic conditions complicated by coexisting conditions or not yet controlled, most department chairs do not prefer APPs provide these services. DISCUSSION: The role APPs in terms of specific patient care activities and services in the health care team of departments of family medicine is often in conflict with preferred roles as delineated by the chair.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Assistentes Médicos , Humanos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoal de Saúde , Médicos de Família , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
4.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 36(6): 883-891, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37857443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postacute sequelae of coronavirus (PASC) disease of 2019 (COVID-19) include morbidity and mortality, but little is known of the impact on medical expenditures. This study measures patients' health care costs after COVID hospitalization before vaccinations. METHODS: The Merative MarketScan database is used to track trends in medical expenditures for commercially insured patients hospitalized for COVID-19 (case subjects) compared with COVID-19 patients not hospitalized (control subjects) using a propensity score matching model. Medical expenditures were estimated from 30-, 60-, and 120-day clean periods after an initial COVID-19 encounter through the end of 2020. RESULTS: Average total medical expenditures were 96% higher for individuals hospitalized for COVID-19 starting 30 days after initial COVID-19 encounter and almost 70% higher 120 days after based on the propensity score matching. The average spending differential was $11,242 30 days after and $4959 120 days after. This effect is highest for inpatient admissions and services 60 days after at $56,862 and lowest among pharmaceuticals 120 days after at $329. The magnitude of the difference is greater for those with hypertension or diabetes where total expenditures is $14,958 30 days after, and $5962 120 days after compared with those without these chronic conditions. DISCUSSION: The results suggest both health and economic implications for COVID-19 hospitalization and supports the use of vaccinations to help mitigate these implications. PASC includes increased health care costs for hospitalized patients, particularly for those with chronic conditions. Preventing COVID-19 hospitalization has economic value in terms of reduced medical spending in addition to health benefits associated with reduced morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização , Gastos em Saúde , Doença Crônica , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Fam Med ; 55(10): 677-679, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37540535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Implementing a structured activity to encourage exercise in children may be a strategy with benefits. We evaluated pulmonary function in elementary school children participating in a school-based exercise program called The Daily Mile. METHODS: During the fall semester, we implemented The Daily Mile program in one elementary school and compared pulmonary function in children in the intervention school pre- and postintervention to children in a control school in the same community. The primary outcomes were forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1% (the FEV1/FVC ratio). RESULTS: The children in the control school showed no significant change in FEV1% during the semester (P=.06). On the other hand, children in the intervention school showed a significant improvement in FEV1% during the same semester (P=.001). This effect was consistent even when stratifying by asthma and sports participation. CONCLUSIONS: The Daily Mile has benefits for pulmonary function in children. Although family physicians should continue to encourage their patients to have a healthy lifestyle, a more effective approach may be to encourage schools to adopt a program that teachers oversee and administer in a structured way.


Assuntos
Asma , Criança , Humanos , Exercício Físico , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Capacidade Vital , Terapia por Exercício
9.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 36(2): 325-332, 2023 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36868866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An ongoing patient-physician relationship may increase the likelihood of acknowledging obesity and providing a treatment plan. The purpose of the study was to investigate if continuity of care was associated with recording of obesity and receipt of a weight-loss treatment plan. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2016 and 2018 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Only adult patients with measured body mass index of ≥ 30 were included. Our primary measures were acknowledgment of obesity, treatment of obesity, continuity of care, and obesity-associated comorbid conditions. RESULTS: Among patients who were objectively obese, only 30.6% had an acknowledgment of the patient's body composition in the visit. In adjusted analyses, continuity of care was not significantly related to recording of obesity but did significantly increase the likelihood of treatment for obesity. Continuity of care was only significantly related to obesity treatment when defined as a visit with the patient's established primary care physician. The effect was not seen with continuity with the practice. DISCUSSION: There are many missed opportunities for prevention of obesity-related disease. Continuity of care with a primary care physician was associated with benefits in treatment likelihood, but greater emphasis on managing obesity in a primary care visit seems warranted.


Assuntos
Médicos de Atenção Primária , Adulto , Humanos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/terapia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Visita a Consultório Médico , Documentação
10.
Fam Med ; 55(2): 70-71, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36787515
11.
Fam Med ; 55(2): 95-102, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36787517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Demand for geriatric care is increasing due to aging population. Trends in maintaining certification in geriatrics are unreported. Our objective was to describe the historic trend of family physicians who certified in geriatric medicine (FPs-GM) since 1988 and to assess differences in practice patterns between FPs-GM and family physicians (FPs). METHODS: We performed a retrospective descriptive study using administrative data collected by the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM). The study population was family physicians registering to continue their ABFM certification from 2017 to 2019. Medicare public use billing data was linked to ABFM administrative data on certification history. We used univariate analysis for descriptive analysis and logistic regression to identify contributors of recertification in geriatrics. RESULTS: We identified a total of 3,207 FPs-GM between 1988 and 2019. More than half maintained GM certification since 2009 (57%), with male gender, White race, and urban practice associated with maintaining GM certification; 61% of their patients were older adults. FPs-GM were more likely to be in an academic practice setting with nearly half (53%) also practicing in hospitals or nursing homes. In the adjusted regression model, younger FPs or FPs who treat more older patients were significantly more likely to be recertified in geriatrics whereas other demographics and practice characteristics were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Most FPs who recently earned GM certification tended to retain certification since the required accredited fellowship started in 1995.


Assuntos
Medicare , Médicos de Família , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Certificação , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Padrões de Prática Médica
12.
Ann Fam Med ; 21(1): 54-56, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690478

RESUMO

The Circle of Trust is a new conceptual model that can help investigators and the American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) community work together to promote inclusion of AI/AN populations in clinical trials to improve health outcomes. Racial/ethnic minority groups remain underrepresented in clinical trials and this creates the need and opportunity for novel approaches. Indigenous populations are particularly underrepresented in clinical trials. Studies show that AI/AN have the lowest representation of race/ethnic groups in the United States. American Indian/Alaska Natives suffer from significant health disparities with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and lower rates for preventative measures and access to health services. A variety of barriers to recruitment of minority patients exist at several levels including the system/institutional, interpersonal, and the individual. The authors, experts in AI/AN health and recruitment of minorities into research, collaborated to modify the currently existing and published "trust triangle" model that focuses on minority recruitment to include participants, researcher, and trusted entity. We advocate for expanding the trust triangle into a circle of trust inclusive of community. The "circle of trust" is a new conceptual model that can help investigators and the AI/AN community work together to promote inclusion of AI/AN populations in clinical trials to improve health outcomes.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Índios Norte-Americanos , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Confiança , Projetos Piloto
13.
Vaccine ; 41(4): 875-878, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567142

RESUMO

The clinical guideline states that COVID-19 vaccination can be administered concurrently with Influenza (flu) vaccination (dual vaccination). Using data from the 2021 National Health Interview Survey, we conducted descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regressions to examine the association between dual vaccination status and self-reported COVID-19 infection and severity. Among 21,387 (weighted 185,251,310) U.S. adults, about 22% did not receive either the flu or COVID-19 vaccine, 6.0% received the flu vaccine only, 29.1% received the COVID-19 vaccine only, and 42.5% received both vaccines. In the multivariate analysis, individuals with dual vaccination (OR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.56-0.75) and COVID-19 vaccine only (OR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.61-0.82) were significantly less likely to report COVID-19 infection when compared with those unvaccinated. There was no significant difference in self-reported COVID-19 symptom severity by vaccination status. The results suggest that dual vaccination may be an effective strategy to reduce the contagious respiratory disease burden.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estações do Ano , Vacinação , Gravidade do Paciente
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1327205, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38274464

RESUMO

Context: Systemic inflammation is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Since inflammation is not screened in the population, the prevalence, particularly among individuals with undiagnosed cardiometabolic disease, is unclear. Objective: To assess the prevalence of elevated inflammation using high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (>0.30 mg/dL) in adults with no cardiometabolic disease, undiagnosed disease and diagnosed disease. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2015-2020 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey which allows for population estimates of the US population. Adults > = 20 years old were included. HsCRP levels >0.30 mg/dL represented inflammation. Individuals were classified into disease defined as having one or more of the following: diagnosed disease--diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or obesity by diagnosis; undiagnosed disease (self-report of no doctor diagnosis but positive biomarker); no disease. Results: 12,946 unweighted individuals representing 315,354,183 adults in the US population were assessed. The proportion of adults with systemic inflammation is 34.63%. The proportion of individuals aged 20 years and older with no disease, undiagnosed disease and diagnosed disease and inflammation was 15.1, 29.1 and 41.8%, respectively. When stratifying by race/ethnicity among individuals with elevated inflammation Non-Hispanic Black people have the highest prevalence (50.35%) in individuals with diagnosed disease followed by Hispanics (46.13%) and Non-Hispanic White people (40.15%) (p < 0.01). In logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic variables, individuals with undiagnosed cardiometabolic disease have an increased risk of elevated inflammation as measured by CRP (OR 2.38; 95%CI = 1.90-2.99). Conclusion: In conclusion, a substantial proportion of the adult population, particularly minority and low socioeconomic populations, have elevated inflammation. Systemic inflammation may be a potential focus for disease prevention and disease progression in primary care.

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1261083, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38293298

RESUMO

Background: Chronic systemic inflammation and poverty are both linked to an increased mortality risk. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a synergistic effect of the presence of inflammation and poverty on the 15-year risk of all-cause, heart disease and cancer mortality among US adults. Methods: We analyzed the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2002 with linked records to the National Death Index through the date December 31, 2019. Among adults aged 40 and older, 15-year mortality risk associated with inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and poverty was assessed in Cox regressions. All-cause, heart disease and cancer mortality were the outcomes. Results: Individuals with elevated CRP at 1.0 mg/dL and poverty were at greater risk of 15-year adjusted, all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45; 95% CI 1.64, 3.67) than individuals with low CRP and were above poverty. For individuals with just one at risk characteristic, low inflammation/poverty (HR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.30, 1.93), inflammation/above poverty (HR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.31, 1.93) the mortality risk was essentially the same and substantially lower than the risk for adults with both. Individuals with both elevated inflammation and living in poverty experience a 15-year heart disease mortality risk elevated by 127% and 15-year cancer mortality elevated by 196%. Discussion: This study extends the past research showing an increased mortality risk for poverty and systemic inflammation to indicate that there is a potential synergistic effect for increased mortality risk when an adult has both increased inflammation and is living in poverty.

17.
Fam Med ; 54(10): 769-775, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated virtual residency interview adoption. The impact of virtual interviews on program directors' (PD) National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) Match satisfaction, their future interview plans, and their perceptions about virtual interviews' influence on bias are unknown. We report the results of a survey of family medicine (FM) PDs about these topics after mandatory virtual interviews in 2020-2021. METHODS: A national survey of all FM PDs was conducted in April 2021 (n=619). The response rate was 46.37% (n=287). Questions asked whether PDs conducted virtual interviews, as well as PDs' general perceptions of virtual interviews' impact on administrative burden, diversity and bias; PD's ability to communicate program culture and assess applicants' alignment with program values; PD's satisfaction with Match results; and plans for interview structure postpandemic. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-four (93.1%) respondents performed only virtual interviews; 83.9% (n=220) conducting virtual interviews were satisfied with Match results, with no difference between programs with all virtual interviews vs others (OR 1.2, P=.994). PDs who communicated program values and involved residents in virtual interviews experienced higher Match satisfaction (OR 7.6, P<.001; OR 4.21, P=.001). PDs concerned about virtual interviews increasing bias against minorities before 2020 were still concerned after (OR 8.81, P<.001) and had lower Match satisfaction (OR 0.24, P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: Most FM PDs conducted entirely virtual interviews in 2020 and were satisfied with the Match. Interview processes including residents and conveying residency culture increased Match satisfaction. PDs are concerned about bias in virtual interviews, but more investigation about bias is needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Humanos , Viés Implícito , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Ann Fam Med ; 20(6): 548-550, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443081

RESUMO

Our objective was to externally validate 2 simple risk scores for mortality among a mostly inpatient population with COVID-19 in Canada (588 patients for COVID-NoLab and 479 patients for COVID-SimpleLab). The mortality rates in the low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups for COVID-NoLab were 1.1%, 9.6%, and 21.2%, respectively. The mortality rates for COVID-SimpleLab were 0.0%, 9.8%, and 20.0%, respectively. These values were similar to those in the original derivation cohort. The 2 simple risk scores, now successfully externally validated, offer clinicians a reliable way to quickly identify low-risk inpatients who could potentially be managed as outpatients in the event of a bed shortage. Both are available online (https://ebell-projects.shinyapps.io/covid_nolab/ and https://ebell-projects.shinyapps.io/COVID-SimpleLab/).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Prognóstico , Canadá/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
20.
J Grad Med Educ ; 14(3): 251-253, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754633
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