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1.
PRiMER ; 8: 13, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38406237

RESUMO

Medical educators are expected to disseminate peer-reviewed scholarly work for academic promotion and tenure. However, developing submissions for presentations at national meetings can be confusing and sometimes overwhelming. Awareness and use of some best practices can demystify the process and maximize opportunities for acceptance for a variety of potential submission categories. This article outlines logistical steps and best practices for each stage of the conference submission process that faculty should consider when preparing submissions. These include topic choice, team composition, consideration of different submission types, and strategies for effectively engaging participants.

2.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 36(6): 1058-1061, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurse practitioners (NP), physician assistants (PA), and other advanced practice providers (APP) are one solution to meet health care workforce shortage. Our study examined clinical workforce decisions and perceptions of APPs and family physicians (FPs) from the perspective of a national survey chairs of Departments of Family Medicine. METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to family medicine department chairs as identified by the Association of Departments of Family Medicine (ADFM). In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked if their department directly employs APPs, major factors influencing departments of family medicine to hire APPs, services to patients currently being provided by APPs, and services preferentially provided by APPs. Descriptive statistics were reviewed. Bivariate analyses and Chi-square were computed comparing perceptions of APPs and FPs by how these types of health care providers are currently used in the respondent's clinical operation. RESULTS: The overall response rate for the survey was 48.4% (109/225). Most departments of family medicine (62.4%) use APPs. Access to care and filing gaps in team-based care are the primary factors for APP employment. Although most departments have APPs provide services that include complex chronic conditions complicated by coexisting conditions or not yet controlled, most department chairs do not prefer APPs provide these services. DISCUSSION: The role APPs in terms of specific patient care activities and services in the health care team of departments of family medicine is often in conflict with preferred roles as delineated by the chair.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Assistentes Médicos , Humanos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoal de Saúde , Médicos de Família , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
3.
Clin Transl Sci ; 17(1): e13692, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38013396

RESUMO

Previous findings suggest that medically underserved patients are prescribed medications with pharmacogenetic (PGx) guidelines at a high frequency. Thus, underserved patients may especially benefit from PGx testing, but little evidence exists regarding the effect of testing in this population. This pilot study aimed to generate key feasibility data and explore clinical outcomes of PGx implementation in underserved populations. Black and Latino patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic and underwent PGx testing. Feasibility measures included enrollment metrics and actionable genotype frequencies. The primary clinical outcome was patient medication treatment satisfaction 6 months after testing. Implementation outcomes included the number of healthcare provider encounters and medication changes within the 6-month follow-up. Effectiveness outcomes included medication adherence, patient-perceived test value, and time spent discussing medications with providers. Ninety-nine patients completed the study. Proton-pump inhibitors were the most frequent PGx drug class prescribed at baseline (61%) followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (36%). Patients with an actionable genotype constituted 96% of the population, whereas 28% had an actionable genotype related to their PGx drug. Patient treatment satisfaction significantly increased over the 6 months after PGx testing. In addition, medication adherence and the number of provider encounters significantly increased over the study period. In a pilot study, preemptive PGx testing was feasible in primary care clinics, improved patient treatment satisfaction and adherence, and increased the number of provider encounters in medically underserved patients. Future clinical trials are warranted to assess the long-term effects of PGx testing in a larger diverse patient population.


Assuntos
Testes Farmacogenômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Satisfação do Paciente , Farmacogenética
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(11)2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914165

RESUMO

A woman in her 70s presented to primary care clinic complaining of acute onset dizziness for 1 day that was initially diagnosed as vestibular neuritis and treated with steroids. The next day, she presented to the emergency department with worsening symptoms. Imaging revealed no intracranial process; however, non-contrast CT imaging revealed a soft-tissue mass in the posterior ethmoid sinus. The vertigo completely resolved before an otolaryngologist surgically removed the nasal mass, which actually originated from the right cribriform plate and extended to the anterior middle turbinate head. The final pathology was consistent with seromucinous hamartoma.


Assuntos
Hamartoma , Neuronite Vestibular , Feminino , Humanos , Cavidade Nasal/patologia , Conchas Nasais/patologia , Osso Etmoide/patologia , Vertigem , Hamartoma/patologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37298489

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths due to its high incidence, late diagnosis, and limited success in clinical treatment. Prevention therefore is critical to help improve lung cancer management. Although tobacco control and tobacco cessation are effective strategies for lung cancer prevention, the numbers of current and former smokers in the USA and globally are not expected to decrease significantly in the near future. Chemoprevention and interception are needed to help high-risk individuals reduce their lung cancer risk or delay lung cancer development. This article will review the epidemiological data, pre-clinical animal data, and limited clinical data that support the potential of kava in reducing human lung cancer risk via its holistic polypharmacological effects. To facilitate its future clinical translation, advanced knowledge is needed with respect to its mechanisms of action and the development of mechanism-based non-invasive biomarkers in addition to safety and efficacy in more clinically relevant animal models.


Assuntos
Kava , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Humanos , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia
6.
Trials ; 24(1): 36, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the leading cause of many preventable diseases, resulting in premature death or disease. Given that the majority of adult who smoke want to stop, this health burden could be significantly reduced if the success rate of tobacco cessation can be improved. In addition, most adults planning to quit were interested in trying complementary approaches to facilitating tobacco cessation, which is currently lacking. Therefore, there is an unmet and urgent need for novel interventions to improve the success of tobacco cessation. If such an intervention can reduce tobacco-associated lung carcinogenesis, that will be more desirable. The goal of this project is to develop a safe and effective kava-based intervention to enable tobacco cessation and reduce lung cancer risk, which will improve the health of smokers. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial will enroll 80 adults who currently smoke at least 10 cigarettes daily and randomize 1:1 into the placebo and AB-free kava arms, being exposed for 4 weeks, with a total of six visits (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12) to evaluate the compliance and potential issues of AB-free kava use among the participants, explore the potential effect of the AB-free kava intervention on tobacco dependence, tobacco use, and lung carcinogenesis biomarkers. Participants will be enrolled during their primary care clinic visit. DISCUSSION: Primary care settings play a critical role in tobacco-related disease screening, counseling, and early intervention, as the majority of adults who smoke visit their physicians annually. Building upon our promising pilot human trial results in conjunction with ample compelling lab animal results, and consistent with evidence of kava's benefits from epidemiological data, this trial will evaluate the compliance of AB-free kava among adults who currently smoke with no intention to quit. The other exploratory aims include (1) whether AB-free kava intervention can reduce tobacco use and tobacco dependence; (2) whether AB-free kava use suppresses tobacco-induced carcinogenesis; and (3) the potential of the mechanism-based noninvasive biomarkers in precision AB-free kava intervention. The positive results from this study are expected to provide a great opportunity to effectively reduce smoking rates and tobacco-related diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier: NCT05081882. Registered on October 18, 2021.


Assuntos
Kava , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Adulto , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/psicologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Pulmão , Biomarcadores , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 108(5): 1192-1201, 2023 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378995

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Although type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the specific contribution of insulin resistance (IR) relative to other factors is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Assess the impact on liver fibrosis in NAFLD of adipose tissue (adipose tissue insulin resistance index [adipo-IR]) and liver (Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR]) IR in people with T2D and NAFLD. DESIGN: Participants were screened by elastography in the outpatient clinics for hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, including routine metabolites, cytokeratin-18 (a marker of hepatocyte apoptosis/steatohepatitis), and HOMA-IR/adipo-IR. SETTING: University ambulatory care practice. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 483 participants with T2D. INTERVENTION: Screening for steatosis and fibrosis with elastography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Liver steatosis (controlled attenuation parameter), fibrosis (liver stiffness measurement), and measurements of IR (adipo-IR, HOMA-IR) and fibrosis (cytokeratin-18). RESULTS: Clinically significant liver fibrosis (stage F ≥ 2 = liver stiffness measurement ≥8.0 kPa) was found in 11%, having more features of the metabolic syndrome, lower adiponectin, and higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, liver fat, and cytokeratin-18 (P < 0.05-0.01). In multivariable analysis including just clinical variables (model 1), obesity (body mass index [BMI]) had the strongest association with fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.56; CI, 1.87-3.50; P < 0.01). When metabolic measurements and cytokeratin-18 were included (model 2), only BMI, AST, and liver fat remained significant. When fibrosis stage was adjusted for BMI, AST, and steatosis (model 3), only Adipo-IR remained strongly associated with fibrosis (OR, 1.51; CI, 1.05-2.16; P = 0.03), but not BMI, hepatic IR, or steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings pinpoint to the central role of dysfunctional, insulin-resistant adipose tissue to advanced fibrosis in T2D, beyond simply BMI or steatosis. The clinical implication is that targeting adipose tissue should be the priority of treatment in NAFLD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Queratina-18/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Fibrose
8.
Prev Med Rep ; 26: 101745, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251914

RESUMO

Decision aids can promote shared decision making and behavior change and may be effective in helping patients quit smoking. Patients are increasingly using e-cigarettes for smoking cessation; however, little is known about the impact of including e-cigarette information in smoking cessation decision aids. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a smoking cessation decision aid including e-cigarette information. This study was conducted at one family medicine clinic in the United States. We used a pre-post design. In Phase I, the decision aid presented information about approved cessation methods. In Phase II, current e-cigarette users and patients with no intention of quitting received additional information on switching to e-cigarettes. We assessed the impact of the decision aids on quit attempts and abstinence, confidence and readiness to quit, confidence and readiness to switch to e-cigarettes, and patient satisfaction. We enrolled 60 patients in each phase (N = 120). Patients reported higher confidence and readiness to quit after viewing the decision aids and consulting with their physician (p < 0.01). Patients reported the decision aid helped prepare them to make a decision about quitting smoking and expressed satisfaction with the decision aid and clinician consultation. We did not observe an impact of including e-cigarette information. Smoking cessation decision aids are acceptable to patients and may promote behavior change. Future studies should explore the impact of providing patients e-cigarette information using larger sample sizes and rigorous designs. Further research is needed to identify strategies to promote shared decision-making regarding e-cigarettes.

9.
Fam Med ; 53(10): 886-889, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most literature about flexible nasolaryngoscopy comes from specialty clinics, making it unclear if these indications can be effectively managed without referral. This study evaluated effectiveness of diagnosis and management of upper airway complaints, utilizing flexible nasal endoscopic procedures, in a family medicine center. METHODS: We performed retrospective chart review for all patients who had nasal endoscopy, nasopharyngoscopy, and nasolaryngoscopy performed at the University of Florida Family Medicine Center over 3 years (n=89) with 5 additional years of follow up. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate indications, diagnoses, effectiveness of management by family medicine, and referral rate. RESULTS: The most common primary indications were hoarseness (n=33, 37%), chronic cough (n=20, 22%), nasal obstruction (n=9, 10%), and unilateral ear dysfunction (n=6, 7%). The most common primary diagnoses found were allergic rhinitis/postnasal drip (n=41, 46%), laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR)/gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; n=24, 27%), masses concerning for malignancy (n=4, 4.5%), true vocal cord (TVC) polyp (n=3, 3%), TVC nodules (n=3, 3%), and epistaxis (n=3, 3%). Of the four concerning masses, two were confirmed cancers (2%). In addition, there was one case (1%) of erythroleukoplakia with dysplasia of the TVC. Most patients had documented improvement with family medicine management (n=57, 64%) and another six (7%) had follow up without documentation of status and no need for referral. Thus, a total of 71% (n=64) did not require referral and 20% (n=18) needed specialist referral. CONCLUSIONS: Flexible nasal endoscopic procedures are effective in the care of patients in a family medicine residency center and can be safely performed and taught to residents.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo , Endoscopia , Rouquidão , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am Fam Physician ; 104(5): 471-475, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783512

RESUMO

Vocal cord dysfunction (i.e., vocal cords closing when they should be opening, particularly during inspiration) should be suspected in patients presenting with inspiratory stridor or wheezing; sudden, severe dyspnea (without hypoxia, tachypnea, or increased work of breathing); throat or chest tightness; and anxiety, particularly in females. Common triggers include exercise, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, postnasal drip, upper or lower respiratory tract infection, and irritants. Nasolaryngoscopy and pulmonary function testing, with provocative exercise and methacholine, can help diagnose vocal cord dysfunction and are helpful to evaluate for other etiologies. Conditions that can trigger vocal cord dysfunction should be optimally treated, particularly asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and postnasal drip, while avoiding potential irritants. Therapeutic breathing maneuvers and vocal cord relaxation techniques are first-line therapy for dyspnea that occurs with vocal cord dysfunction. A subset of vocal cord dysfunction leads to dysphonia, as opposed to dyspnea, secondary to abnormal laryngeal muscle spasms (vocal cord closure is less severe). OnabotulinumtoxinA injections may be helpful for spasmodic dysphonia and for treating dyspnea in certain cases, although evidence is limited.


Assuntos
Laringoscopia/métodos , Disfunção da Prega Vocal , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Humanos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Fonoterapia/métodos , Disfunção da Prega Vocal/diagnóstico , Disfunção da Prega Vocal/etiologia , Disfunção da Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Disfunção da Prega Vocal/terapia , Prega Vocal/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962929

RESUMO

A 70-year-old man with a history of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma treated with excision and chemoradiation presented to the emergency department with right-sided neck pain and submandibular lymphadenopathy. CT imaging of the head and neck was unrevealing. The patient eventually developed cranial nerves X and XI dysfunction, manifesting as severe vocal cord paralysis (dysphonia), dysphagia, asymmetric palate elevation/deviation and trapezius muscle atrophy, in addition to scalene muscle atrophy. After an extensive workup, the patient's symptoms were determined to be due to sequelae of varicella zoster infection, which was confirmed with antibody titers. The patient's dysphagia and dysphonia eventually improved with vocal cord medialisation injection and Botox injection. However, despite delayed treatment with acyclovir and valacyclovir, the patient continued to have neuropathic pain and exhibit signs of CN X and CN XI paresis, in addition to scalene muscle atrophy.


Assuntos
Nervo Acessório , Herpes Zoster , Aciclovir , Idoso , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Herpes Zoster/diagnóstico , Herpes Zoster/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Vago , Valaciclovir
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853817

RESUMO

A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of major depressive disorder. She was started on venlafaxine XR 75 mg orally daily and a few days later developed severe dysosmia to foods she used to enjoy. She never had previous problems with smell or taste. At her 1-month follow-up, her depressive symptoms had improved, but she reported persistent dysosmia and was found to have associated weight loss due to decreased oral intake. She was advised to switch medications, but due to financial constraints she continued taking the same dose. At follow-up 48 days later, she reported complete resolution of her dysosmia and was eating normally again, but she had persistence of some depressive symptoms so her dose was gradually increased to venlafaxine XR 225 mg orally daily until her depressive symptoms and postmenopausal hot flashes were well controlled. There were no changes with continued use over the following 8 years.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos do Olfato , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/efeitos adversos
13.
Diabetes Care ; 44(2): 399-406, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and of liver fibrosis associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in unselected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 561 patients with T2DM (age: 60 ± 11 years; BMI: 33.4 ± 6.2 kg/m2; and HbA1c: 7.5 ± 1.8%) attending primary care or endocrinology outpatient clinics and unaware of having NAFLD were recruited. At the visit, volunteers were invited to be screened by elastography for steatosis and fibrosis by controlled attenuation parameter (≥274 dB/m) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM; ≥7.0 kPa), respectively. Secondary causes of liver disease were ruled out. Diagnostic panels for prediction of advanced fibrosis, such as AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, were also measured. A liver biopsy was performed if results were suggestive of fibrosis. RESULTS: The prevalence of steatosis was 70% and of fibrosis 21% (LSM ≥7.0 kPa). Moderate fibrosis (F2: LSM ≥8.2 kPa) was present in 6% and severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3-4: LSM ≥9.7 kPa) in 9%, similar to that estimated by FIB-4 and APRI panels. Noninvasive testing was consistent with liver biopsy results. Elevated AST or ALT ≥40 units/L was present in a minority of patients with steatosis (8% and 13%, respectively) or with liver fibrosis (18% and 28%, respectively). This suggests that AST/ALT alone are insufficient as initial screening. However, performance may be enhanced by imaging (e.g., transient elastography) and plasma diagnostic panels (e.g., FIB-4 and APRI). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-to-advanced fibrosis (F2 or higher), an established risk factor for cirrhosis and overall mortality, affects at least one out of six (15%) patients with T2DM. These results support the American Diabetes Association guidelines to screen for clinically significant fibrosis in patients with T2DM with steatosis or elevated ALT.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
14.
Fam Med ; 52(6): 432-434, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Residents need to learn about practice management, including how to improve the quality of their patient care utilizing practice data. However, little is known about the effectiveness of providing practice data to residents. This study examined the effectiveness of utilizing resident practice management reports. METHODS: We provided residents quarterly practice management reports with individual resident data on coding compliance (determined by manual chart review by a certified coder), clinical productivity (number of clinic sessions, visits per session, relative value units [RVUs] per visit, and RVUs per session), and patient quality outcomes (rates of diabetes mellitus control, diabetic nephropathy screening/management, hypertension control, influenza immunization, pneumococcal immunization, and colorectal cancer screening). We compared all data to national metrics. Quality outcome data was also provided by clinical team and with comparison to nonresidency departmental clinics. We surveyed residents before and after receiving these practice management reports to determine how they felt it prepared them for future practice (on a 9-point Likert scale). RESULTS: There was significant improvement in the ability to implement clinic-based processes to improve patient care (6.5 vs 5.6; P=.04) and learning about clinical productivity/financial aspects of practicing family medicine (6.3 vs 5.4; P=.03). Other areas had trends of improvement, although not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Providing residents with their clinic practice data, with reference to team practice data and national benchmarks further helps them learn and apply practice management, when superimposed on an existing infrastructure to teach practice management.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Internato e Residência , Gerenciamento da Prática Profissional , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Humanos
15.
Acad Psychiatry ; 43(6): 581-584, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several aspects of medical training may contribute to the ultimate goal of producing excellent physicians whose patients will have the best possible outcomes. However, the relative importance of education, evaluation and feedback, duty hours, practice structure, and program culture in achieving this goal is unclear. This study assessed associations among in-training exam performance, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Resident Survey responses, and American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) national board exam performance. METHODS: Residency training programs at a university teaching hospital were classified as having 5-year first-time ABMS pass rates above (n=12) or below (n=3) the national average for their specialty. These groups were compared by ACGME Resident Survey data and in-training exam performance. RESULTS: Surveys were collected from 484/543 eligible residents (89%), including 177 surveys from programs with below-average board pass rates and 307 surveys from programs with aboveaverage board pass rates. In-training exam performance was similar between groups. Aboveaverage programs had stronger agreement with statements that their culture reinforced patient safety (4.72 vs. 4.30, p=0.006) and that information was not lost during transitions of care (4.14 vs. 3.63, p=0.001). Although the occurrence of interprofessional teamwork was similar between groups, above-average programs had stronger agreement with the statement that interprofessional teamwork was effective (4.60 vs. 4.17, p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Residency programs emphasizing patient safety and effective interprofessional teamwork had above-average first-time national board pass rates.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Internato e Residência , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Acreditação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Avaliação Educacional , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
16.
South Med J ; 112(4): 244-250, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Factors contributing to hospital readmission have rarely been sought from the patient perspective. Furthermore, it is unclear how patients and physicians compare in identifying factors contributing to readmission. The objective of the study was to identify and compare factors contributing to hospital readmission identified by patients and physicians by surveying participants upon hospital readmission to a teaching medicine service. METHODS: Patients 18 years and older who were discharged and readmitted to the same service within 30 days and the physicians caring for these patients were surveyed to identify factors contributing to readmission. Secondary outcomes included comparing responses between groups and determining level of agreement. Patients could be surveyed multiple times on subsequent readmissions; physicians could be surveyed for multiple patients. RESULTS: A total of 131 patients and 37 physicians were consented. The mean patient age was 60.1 years (standard deviation 16.8 years) and 55.6% were female; 56.4% were white, and 42.1% were black/African American. In total, 179 patient surveys identified "multiple medical problems" (48.6%), "trouble completing daily activities" (45.8%), and "discharged too soon" (43.6%) most frequently as contributing factors; 231 physician surveys identified "multiple medical problems" (45.0%) and "medical condition too difficult to care for at home" (35.6%) most frequently as contributing factors. Paired survey results were available for 135 readmissions and showed fair agreement for only 1 factor but no agreement for 5 factors. CONCLUSIONS: Patients identified previously unknown factors contributing to readmission. Little agreement existed between patients and physicians. Additional research is needed to determine how best to address patient-identified factors contributing to readmission.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente , Médicos , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Am Fam Physician ; 98(8): 525-529, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277727

RESUMO

Cerumen production is a normal and protective process for the ear canal. However, cerumen should be removed when it causes symptoms (e.g., hearing loss, itching, pain, tinnitus) or prevents assessment of the external auditory canal, the tympanic membrane, or audiovestibular system. Cerumen should also be removed when it limits examination in patients who cannot communicate their symptoms, such as those with dementia or developmental delay, nonverbal patients with behavioral changes, and young children with fever, speech delay, or parental concerns. Patients with coagulopathies, hepatic failure, thrombocytopenia, or hemophilia, and those taking antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications, should be counseled about the increased risk of bleeding in the external auditory canal when cerumen is removed. Effective treatment options include cerumenolytic agents, irrigation with or without cerumenolytic pretreatment, and manual removal. Home irrigation with a bulb syringe may be appropriate for selected adults. Cotton-tipped swabs, ear candling, and olive oil drops or sprays should be avoided. If multiple attempts to remove the impacted cerumen-including a combination of treatments-are ineffective, clinicians should refer the patient to an otolaryngologist. Persistent symptoms despite resolution of the impaction should also prompt further evaluation for an alternative diagnosis.


Assuntos
Cerume , Ceruminolíticos/normas , Ceruminolíticos/uso terapêutico , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Irrigação Terapêutica/normas , Zumbido/diagnóstico , Zumbido/terapia , Currículo , Educação Médica Continuada , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
18.
Am Fam Physician ; 96(9): 575-580, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094873

RESUMO

Although chronic cough in adults (cough lasting longer than eight weeks) can be caused by many etiologies, four conditions account for most cases: upper airway cough syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease/laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Patients should be evaluated clinically (with spirometry, if indicated), and empiric treatment should be initiated. Other potential causes include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, environmental triggers, tobacco use, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Chest radiography can rule out concerning infectious, inflammatory, and malignant thoracic conditions. Patients with refractory chronic cough may warrant referral to a pulmonologist or otolaryngologist in addition to a trial of gabapentin, pregabalin, and/or speech therapy. In children, cough is considered chronic if present for more than four weeks. In children six to 14 years of age, it is most commonly caused by asthma, protracted bacterial bronchitis, and upper airway cough syndrome. Evaluation should focus initially on these etiologies, with targeted treatment and monitoring for resolution.


Assuntos
Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/terapia , Bronquite Crônica/complicações , Doença Crônica , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Anamnese , Exame Físico , Fibrose Pulmonar/complicações , Radiografia Torácica , Testes de Função Respiratória
19.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 60(1): 231-237, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056149

RESUMO

Purpose: The objective of this study was to use cross-sectional, nationally representative data to examine the relationship between self-reported hearing impairment and undetected diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and chronic kidney disease. Method: We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007-2012 for individuals 40 years of age and older without previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease. Analyses were conducted examining hearing impairment and undiagnosed disease. Results: The unweighted sample size was 9,786, representing 123,444,066 Americans. Hearing impairment was reported in 10.2% of the individuals. In unadjusted analyses, there was no significant difference between adults with hearing impairment and adults with typical hearing for undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension, or hypercholesterolemia. A higher proportion of adults with hearing impairment than adults with typical hearing had undiagnosed chronic kidney disease (20.1% vs. 10.7%; p = .0001). In models adjusting for demographics and health care utilization, hearing impairment was associated with a higher likelihood of having undiagnosed chronic kidney disease (odds ratio = 1.53, 95% CI [1.23, 1.91]). Conclusions: Individuals with hearing impairment are more likely to have undiagnosed chronic kidney disease. Hearing impairment may affect disclosure of important signs and symptoms as well as the comprehension of medical conversations for chronic disease management. General practitioners can play a critical role in improving medical communication by responding with sensitivity to the signs of hearing impairment in their patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Fam Med ; 48(8): 638-41, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27655198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevention of hospital readmissions has become an area for improvement for most health care organizations. Systematic reviews have been unable to identify a single intervention or bundle of interventions that reliably reduced risk of readmission in a generalizable manner. The aim of this quality improvement project was to examine the readmission rate to a family medicine residency program inpatient service following the implementation of a once per week session that reviewed patients who were readmitted during the prior week. METHODS: The inpatient admissions and readmission to the family medicine inpatient service associated with a large academic health center were used for analysis. The impact of a regularly scheduled multidisciplinary team meeting that reviewed a list of patients was examined. Readmitted patients who were at high risk for readmission were specifically identified. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize and summarize the integral data obtained. The weekly readmission rate was presented using a control chart. RESULTS: The readmission rate for the patients hospitalized after the intervention was 18.4%, compared to the readmission rate prior to the intervention (23.0%). While not a statistically different rate, a significant signal was noted. Demographic differences were noted in the group of patients considered to be high risk for readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Regular rounds of an inpatient team that focuses on readmissions during the previous week reduced hospital readmissions. The impact of these sessions appears to be multifactorial.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Internato e Residência , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Risco
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