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1.
Ecol Lett ; 27(2): e14371, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361471

RESUMO

It is widely acknowledged that biodiversity change is affecting human well-being by altering the supply of Nature's Contributions to People (NCP). Nevertheless, the role of individual species in this relationship remains obscure. In this article, we present a framework that combines the cascade model from ecosystem services research with network theory from community ecology. This allows us to quantitatively link NCP demanded by people to the networks of interacting species that underpin them. We show that this "network cascade" framework can reveal the number, identity and importance of the individual species that drive NCP and of the environmental conditions that support them. This information is highly valuable in demonstrating the importance of biodiversity in supporting human well-being and can help inform the management of biodiversity in social-ecological systems.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Ecologia
2.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 7(2): 236-249, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376602

RESUMO

The impact of local biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning is well established, but the role of larger-scale biodiversity dynamics in the delivery of ecosystem services remains poorly understood. Here we address this gap using a comprehensive dataset describing the supply of 16 cultural, regulating and provisioning ecosystem services in 150 European agricultural grassland plots, and detailed multi-scale data on land use and plant diversity. After controlling for land-use and abiotic factors, we show that both plot-level and surrounding plant diversity play an important role in the supply of cultural and aboveground regulating ecosystem services. In contrast, provisioning and belowground regulating ecosystem services are more strongly driven by field-level management and abiotic factors. Structural equation models revealed that surrounding plant diversity promotes ecosystem services both directly, probably by fostering the spill-over of ecosystem service providers from surrounding areas, and indirectly, by maintaining plot-level diversity. By influencing the ecosystem services that local stakeholders prioritized, biodiversity at different scales was also shown to positively influence a wide range of stakeholder groups. These results provide a comprehensive picture of which ecosystem services rely most strongly on biodiversity, and the respective scales of biodiversity that drive these services. This key information is required for the upscaling of biodiversity-ecosystem service relationships, and the informed management of biodiversity within agricultural landscapes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Agricultura/métodos , Plantas
3.
Sociology ; 57(3): 700-705, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603248

RESUMO

How the COVID-19 pandemic, and the deaths that occurred during the acute phase of the pandemic (2020-2021), will be remembered is yet to be determined. Writing from a UK perspective, this short article reflects on the way in which memory, narratives and death are constructed, contested and (re)produced. Drawing on the authors' respective sociological sub-fields, it makes a case for an ongoing sociological appraisal of emergent COVID-19 narratives, that can encompass and intertwine understandings of temporality, accountability and loss.

4.
Science ; 377(6603): 259-260, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857602
5.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(12): 1582-1593, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545216

RESUMO

Many experiments have shown that biodiversity enhances ecosystem functioning. However, we have little understanding of how environmental heterogeneity shapes the effect of diversity on ecosystem functioning and to what extent this diversity effect is mediated by variation in species richness or species turnover. This knowledge is crucial to scaling up the results of experiments from local to regional scales. Here we quantify the diversity effect and its components-that is, the contributions of variation in species richness and species turnover-for 22 ecosystem functions of microorganisms, plants and animals across 13 major ecosystem types on Mt Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Environmental heterogeneity across ecosystem types on average increased the diversity effect from explaining 49% to 72% of the variation in ecosystem functions. In contrast to our expectation, the diversity effect was more strongly mediated by variation in species richness than by species turnover. Our findings reveal that environmental heterogeneity strengthens the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and that species richness is a stronger driver of ecosystem functioning than species turnover. Based on a broad range of taxa and ecosystem functions in a non-experimental system, these results are in line with predictions from biodiversity experiments and emphasize that conserving biodiversity is essential for maintaining ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Plantas , Tanzânia
6.
New Phytol ; 232(3): 1238-1249, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346089

RESUMO

Though it is well established that species composition affects ecosystem function, the way in which species combine to control overall ecosystem functioning is still debated. In experimental mesocosms, we planted three functionally distinct dry-heath species in varying proportions and measured multiple ecosystem properties related to nutrient cycling and carbon storage (hereafter functions). Overall ecosystem functioning was described as the main axes of variation in ecosystem functioning (functional space) and the proportion of ecosystem functions at high levels; for example, fast carbon and nutrient cycling (cluster-based multifunctionality). The first functional space axis, related to nitrogen availability, was driven by plant species abundance, particularly that of legumes, which strongly affected many individual functions. The second, related to total plant biomass and woodiness, was mostly driven by the abundance of dwarf shrubs. Similarly, cluster-based multifunctionality was related to the initial abundance of all species, but particularly the legume. Interactions between species also affected ecosystem multifunctionality, but these effects were smaller in magnitude. These results indicate that species interactions could play a secondary role to species abundance and identity in driving the overall ecosystem functioning of heathlands, but also that axes of variation in functional space are clearly linked to plant functional composition.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Biomassa , Carbono , Plantas , Solo
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4431, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290234

RESUMO

Experiments showed that biodiversity increases grassland productivity and nutrient exploitation, potentially reducing fertiliser needs. Enhancing biodiversity could improve P-use efficiency of grasslands, which is beneficial given that rock-derived P fertilisers are expected to become scarce in the future. Here, we show in a biodiversity experiment that more diverse plant communities were able to exploit P resources more completely than less diverse ones. In the agricultural grasslands that we studied, management effects either overruled or modified the driving role of plant diversity observed in the biodiversity experiment. Nevertheless, we show that greater above- (plants) and belowground (mycorrhizal fungi) biodiversity contributed to tightening the P cycle in agricultural grasslands, as reduced management intensity and the associated increased biodiversity fostered the exploitation of P resources. Our results demonstrate that promoting a high above- and belowground biodiversity has ecological (biodiversity protection) and economical (fertiliser savings) benefits. Such win-win situations for farmers and biodiversity are crucial to convince farmers of the benefits of biodiversity and thus counteract global biodiversity loss.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Pradaria , Fósforo/metabolismo , Agricultura/economia , Biomassa , Fertilizantes/economia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Micorrizas/classificação , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/economia , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(2): 219-230, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398104

RESUMO

Technology is transforming societies worldwide. A major innovation is the emergence of robotics and autonomous systems (RAS), which have the potential to revolutionize cities for both people and nature. Nonetheless, the opportunities and challenges associated with RAS for urban ecosystems have yet to be considered systematically. Here, we report the findings of an online horizon scan involving 170 expert participants from 35 countries. We conclude that RAS are likely to transform land use, transport systems and human-nature interactions. The prioritized opportunities were primarily centred on the deployment of RAS for the monitoring and management of biodiversity and ecosystems. Fewer challenges were prioritized. Those that were emphasized concerns surrounding waste from unrecovered RAS, and the quality and interpretation of RAS-collected data. Although the future impacts of RAS for urban ecosystems are difficult to predict, examining potentially important developments early is essential if we are to avoid detrimental consequences but fully realize the benefits.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Cidades , Previsões , Humanos
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 28140-28149, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093203

RESUMO

Land-use intensification can increase provisioning ecosystem services, such as food and timber production, but it also drives changes in ecosystem functioning and biodiversity loss, which may ultimately compromise human wellbeing. To understand how changes in land-use intensity affect the relationships between biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and services, we built networks from correlations between the species richness of 16 trophic groups, 10 ecosystem functions, and 15 ecosystem services. We evaluated how the properties of these networks varied across land-use intensity gradients for 150 forests and 150 grasslands. Land-use intensity significantly affected network structure in both habitats. Changes in connectance were larger in forests, while changes in modularity and evenness were more evident in grasslands. Our results show that increasing land-use intensity leads to more homogeneous networks with less integration within modules in both habitats, driven by the belowground compartment in grasslands, while forest responses to land management were more complex. Land-use intensity strongly altered hub identity and module composition in both habitats, showing that the positive correlations of provisioning services with biodiversity and ecosystem functions found at low land-use intensity levels, decline at higher intensity levels. Our approach provides a comprehensive view of the relationships between multiple components of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and ecosystem services and how they respond to land use. This can be used to identify overall changes in the ecosystem, to derive mechanistic hypotheses, and it can be readily applied to further global change drivers.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Florestas , Pradaria
10.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(11): 1485-1494, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839545

RESUMO

A large body of research shows that biodiversity loss can reduce ecosystem functioning. However, much of the evidence for this relationship is drawn from biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments in which biodiversity loss is simulated by randomly assembling communities of varying species diversity, and ecosystem functions are measured. This random assembly has led some ecologists to question the relevance of biodiversity experiments to real-world ecosystems, where community assembly or disassembly may be non-random and influenced by external drivers, such as climate, soil conditions or land use. Here, we compare data from real-world grassland plant communities with data from two of the largest and longest-running grassland biodiversity experiments (the Jena Experiment in Germany and BioDIV in the United States) in terms of their taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity and functional-trait composition. We found that plant communities of biodiversity experiments cover almost all of the multivariate variation of the real-world communities, while also containing community types that are not currently observed in the real world. Moreover, they have greater variance in their compositional features than their real-world counterparts. We then re-analysed a subset of experimental data that included only ecologically realistic communities (that is, those comparable to real-world communities). For 10 out of 12 biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, biodiversity effects did not differ significantly between the full dataset of biodiversity experiments and the ecologically realistic subset of experimental communities. Although we do not provide direct evidence for strong or consistent biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in real-world communities, our results demonstrate that the results of biodiversity experiments are largely insensitive to the exclusion of unrealistic communities and that the conclusions drawn from biodiversity experiments are generally robust.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Alemanha , Filogenia , Plantas
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140563, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619845

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak pandemic is now a global crisis. It has caused 9+ million confirmed cases and 400,000+ deaths at the time of writing and triggered unprecedented preventative measures that have confined a substantial portion of the global population and established 'social distancing' as a new global behavioral norm. The COVID-19 crisis has affected all aspects of everyday life and work, and heavily impacted the global economy. This crisis also offers unprecedented insights into how the global climate crisis may be managed, as there are many parallels between the COVID-19 crisis and what we expect from the imminent global climate emergency. Reflecting upon the challenges of today's crisis may help us better prepare for the future. Here we compile a list, by no means comprehensive, of the similarities and differences between the two crises, and the lessons we can learn from them: (i) High momentum trends, (ii) Irreversible changes, (iii) Social and spatial inequality, (iv) Weakening of international solidarity, and (v) Less costly to prevent than to cure.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Mudança Climática , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(3): 294-303, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066887

RESUMO

Synthesizing trait observations and knowledge across the Tree of Life remains a grand challenge for biodiversity science. Species traits are widely used in ecological and evolutionary science, and new data and methods have proliferated rapidly. Yet accessing and integrating disparate data sources remains a considerable challenge, slowing progress toward a global synthesis to integrate trait data across organisms. Trait science needs a vision for achieving global integration across all organisms. Here, we outline how the adoption of key Open Science principles-open data, open source and open methods-is transforming trait science, increasing transparency, democratizing access and accelerating global synthesis. To enhance widespread adoption of these principles, we introduce the Open Traits Network (OTN), a global, decentralized community welcoming all researchers and institutions pursuing the collaborative goal of standardizing and integrating trait data across organisms. We demonstrate how adherence to Open Science principles is key to the OTN community and outline five activities that can accelerate the synthesis of trait data across the Tree of Life, thereby facilitating rapid advances to address scientific inquiries and environmental issues. Lessons learned along the path to a global synthesis of trait data will provide a framework for addressing similarly complex data science and informatics challenges.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Evolução Biológica , Fenótipo , Pesquisa
14.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(11): 2317-2321, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005503

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vascular rings are often diagnosed after evaluation for swallowing and breathing difficulties. Data regarding symptoms following vascular ring repair is sparse. We sought to determine whether symptoms persist using chart review and a survey. METHODS: Sixty-three patients underwent open vascular ring repair from July 2007 to May 2018. Data regarding vascular anatomy, demographics, pre- and postoperative symptoms, and chromosomal abnormalities were collected. Freedom from reoperation, 30-day mortality, and complications were assessed. Patient families were contacted for a symptom focused survey. RESULTS: The median age of surgical intervention was 14.4 months (IQR 5.8-34.7 months) for single aortic arches with an aberrant subclavian artery (SAA), and 5.3 months (IQR 1.3-10.1 months) for double aortic arches (DAA) (Table). Prior to surgery, all but two SAA were symptomatic. There was no operative mortality. Three patients required re-exploration for chylothorax, and three required late aortopexy. At last follow-up, 45% (18/40) SAA and 65% (15/23) DAA had post-operative symptoms. Fourteen patient families completed the symptom survey (10 SAA, 4 DAA). Five SAA had breathing and swallowing symptoms, and 3 SAA and 3 DAA had breathing difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Open vascular ring repair remains a safe repair. However, further investigation of the persistent symptoms in these patients is merited. STUDY TYPE / LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Retrospective Comparative Study, Level III.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/cirurgia , Anel Vascular/cirurgia , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Respiração , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Artéria Subclávia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1573-1579, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907310

RESUMO

Land-use change is a major driver of biodiversity loss worldwide. Although biodiversity often shows a delayed response to land-use change, previous studies have typically focused on a narrow range of current landscape factors and have largely ignored the role of land-use history in shaping plant and animal communities and their functional characteristics. Here, we used a unique database of 220,000 land-use records to investigate how 20-y of land-use changes have affected functional diversity across multiple trophic groups (primary producers, mutualists, herbivores, invertebrate predators, and vertebrate predators) in 75 grassland fields with a broad range of land-use histories. The effects of land-use history on multitrophic trait diversity were as strong as other drivers known to impact biodiversity, e.g., grassland management and current landscape composition. The diversity of animal mobility and resource-acquisition traits was lower in landscapes where much of the land had been historically converted from grassland to crop. In contrast, functional biodiversity was higher in landscapes containing old permanent grasslands, most likely because they offer a stable and high-quality habitat refuge for species with low mobility and specialized feeding niches. Our study shows that grassland-to-crop conversion has long-lasting impacts on the functional biodiversity of agricultural ecosystems. Accordingly, land-use legacy effects must be considered in conservation programs aiming to protect agricultural biodiversity. In particular, the retention of permanent grassland sanctuaries within intensive landscapes may offset ecological debts.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Agricultura , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ecologia , Herbivoria/classificação , Invertebrados/classificação , Plantas/classificação , Densidade Demográfica
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135573, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771848

RESUMO

Management of urban brownfield land can contribute to significant removal of atmospheric CO2 through the development of soil carbonate minerals. However, the potential magnitude and stability of this carbon sink is poorly quantified as previous studies address a limited range of conditions and short durations. Furthermore, the suitability of carbonate-sequestering soils for construction has not been investigated. To address these issues we measured total inorganic carbon, permeability and ground strength in the top 20 cm of soil at 20 brownfield sites in northern England, between 2015 and 2017. Across all sites accumulation occurred at a rate of 1-16 t C ha-1 yr-1, as calcite (CaCO3), corresponding to removal of approximately 4-59 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1, with the highest rate in the first 15 years after demolition. C and O stable isotope analysis of calcite confirms the atmospheric origin of the measured inorganic carbon. Statistical modelling found that pH and the content of fine materials (combined silt and clay content) were the best predictors of the total inorganic carbon content of the samples. Measurement of permeability shows that sites with carbonated soils possess a similar risk of run-off or flooding to sandy soils. Soil strength, measured as in-situ bearing capacity, increased with carbonation. These results demonstrate that the management of urban brownfield land to retain fine material derived from concrete crushing on site following demolition will promote calcite precipitation in soils, and so offers an additional CO2 removal mechanism, with no detrimental effect on drainage and possible improvements in strength. Given the large area of brownfield land that is available for development, the contribution of this process to CO2 removal by urban soils needs to be recognised in CO2 mitigation policies.

17.
Science ; 366(6467): 801, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727817
19.
J Surg Res ; 243: 41-46, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies comparing percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with surgical ligation tend to exclude premature infants and have not assessed procedural charges. We compared our contemporary outcomes and charges of device closure to surgical ligation of PDA in preterm infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Preterm infants who underwent isolated PDA closure during their newborn hospitalization (January 2014 to September 2017) were grouped based on intention to treat (surgery versus device closure). Patient demographics, procedural details, and immediate postprocedural outcomes were compared. Procedural charges for device closure versus surgical ligation were compared. RESULTS: Compared with the device group (n = 33), patients undergoing surgical ligation (n = 39) were younger, smaller, and required more preoperative support (P < 0.05). The procedure time was shorter for surgical ligation (P < 0.01). Although there was no procedural mortality in either group, the complication rate was higher for device closure than for surgical ligation (15.2% versus 0%; P = 0.02). The proportion of patients returning to preprocedural respiratory support by 48 h after procedure was similar. There was a higher proportion of surgical patients who required increased inotropic support in the first 24 h after procedure (P = 0.19). The procedural charges for transcatheter device closure were twice as expensive as those for surgical ligation. CONCLUSIONS: In our early experience with percutaneous PDA closure, we found a percutaneous approach in preterm infants feasible and well tolerated. Both surgical ligation and device closure were associated with perioperative or postoperative complications. Procedural charges were higher for percutaneous closure, driven by device charge and catheterization room utilization. Further investigation is needed to establish guidelines for first-line therapy for PDA closure in preterm infants, including cost-benefit analysis.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/terapia , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Ligadura , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ecol Lett ; 22(1): 170-180, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463104

RESUMO

While forest management strongly influences biodiversity, it remains unclear how the structural and compositional changes caused by management affect different community dimensions (e.g. richness, specialisation, abundance or completeness) and how this differs between taxa. We assessed the effects of nine forest features (representing stand structure, heterogeneity and tree composition) on thirteen above- and belowground trophic groups of plants, animals, fungi and bacteria in 150 temperate forest plots differing in their management type. Canopy cover decreased light resources, which increased community specialisation but reduced overall diversity and abundance. Features increasing resource types and diversifying microhabitats (admixing of oaks and conifers) were important and mostly affected richness. Belowground groups responded differently to those aboveground and had weaker responses to most forest features. Our results show that we need to consider forest features rather than broad management types and highlight the importance of considering several groups and community dimensions to better inform conservation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Árvores , Animais , Fungos
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