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1.
BJOG ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance has motivated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI). OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the current state of evidence of acupuncture for uncomplicated rUTI in women. SEARCH STRATEGY: Nine databases (PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, AMED, CBM, CNKI, CQVIP, WANFANG) were searched from inception to February 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of acupuncture and related therapies for prophylaxis or treatment of uncomplicated rUTI in women were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Risk of bias was assessed, and the quality and strength of evidence evaluated using the GRADE framework. Results were reported as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: Five RCTs involving 341 participants were included. Methodological quality of studies and strength of the evidence were low to moderate. The chance of achieving composite cure with acupuncture therapies was greater than that with antibiotics (3 studies, 170 participants, RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.81, I2 =38%). The risk of UTI recurrence was lower with acupuncture compared with no treatment (2 studies, 135 participants, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.58, I2 =0%) and sham acupuncture (1 study, 53 participants, RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture appeared to be beneficial for treatment and prophylaxis of rUTIs, noting the limitations of the current evidence. Given the growing challenge of antibiotic resistance, there is a need for high-quality RCTs of non-pharmacological interventions such as acupuncture.

3.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 216: 106466, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414468

RESUMO

Prostaglandins (PG) have primary functions in the reproductive tract, however, the mechanism of regulation of PG secretion in the endometrium is unclear. Estrogen as a predominant regulator of uterine functions during the mammalian estrous cycle and effects of estrogen on synthesis of PG and function in uterine tissues of cattle are not fully understood. In this study, there was evaluation of the concentration- and time-effects of 17ß-estradiol on PG synthesis in endometrial explants of cattle, focusing on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) as well as relative abundance of mRNA transcript and protein for both the enzymes responsible for PGE2 and PGF2α synthesis, including prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 and 2 (PTGS1, PTGS2), PGE2 synthase (PGES), PGF2α synthase (PGFS), and carbonyl reductase (CBR1), and the receptors responsible for downstream PGE2 (PTGER2, PTGER4) and PGF2α (PTGFR) signaling. Results indicated that 17ß-estradiol increased PGE2 and PGF2α production at concentrations ranging from 10-11 to 10-8 M. Furthermore, abundances of PTGS1, PTGS2, PGES, PGFS, PTGER2, PTGER4, and PTGFR mRNA transcripts and protein were greater immediately after 17ß-estradiol treatment at almost all the concentrations, while these CBR1 abundances were less as a result of treatments with 17ß-estradiol. These data support the hypothesis that estradiol modulates the synthesis and function of PG in the endometrium of cattle.

4.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352124

RESUMO

Supramolecular self-assembly allows components to organize themselves into regular patterns by using non-covalent interactions to find the lowest-energy configuration. However, self-assembling organic and inorganic building blocks together into an ordered framework remains a challenge due to the difficulties in rationally interfacing two dissimilar materials. Herein, we report on the host-guest ensemble of polyoxometalates (POMs) using cyclodextrins (CDs) as the trapping agent to form POM@γ-CD entities. Two unprecedented super cubic isostructures, Co/Cu-PW12O40-γ-CD, were obtained. The self-assembly has been observed both in solution (MS, 1D NMR and 2D DOSY) and in the solid state. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that in a unit cell, the inner (POM@γ-CD)12 cube is encapsulated by the outer (POM@γ-CD)24 cube. Besides, due to the rather large spherical voids, two (POM@γ-CD)24 cubes are interspersed together. Preliminary investigations of the redox properties of the [PW12O40]3- encapsulated in the γ-cyclodextrins indicate that the redox properties of the trianion are largely retained, yet an additional electrochemical stabilization is observed. The adduct reported here opens the door to a new generation of hybrid materials with tuned structures and customized functionalities.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358746

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate the effects of Phragmites communis and Zizania aquatica on rhizosphere soil enzyme activity and bacterial community structure in a surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) for the treatment of domestic sewage from the Shanxi province of China. The basic physical and chemical properties of the soil, the contents of soil urease (UE), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (SMBC, SMBN), and bacterial community structure were measured in the Phragmites communis group (PG), Zizania aquatica group (ZG), and control group (CG), respectively. The results showed that (1) the contents of UE, ALP, SMBC, and SMBN in rhizosphere soil of PG were more than those of ZG; (2) the highest bacterial abundance and α-diversity appeared in PG, in which Gp6 was the most abundant bacterial genus in PG; (3) the main functions of the dominant bacteria Gp6 and Longilinea in PG were involved in metabolizing multiple carbohydrates and participating in the carbon cycle in the soil based on the clusters of orthologous groups pathway analysis data; (4) the bacterial community of PG was mainly affected by the positive correlation with arsenic, nickel, or SMBC via the redundancy analysis. Collectively, Phragmites communis is a recommended species for wastewater wetland treatment system in Shanxi province, and the special enzymes and dominant bacteria in plant rhizosphere soil had obvious functions of removing organic pollutants. Besides, the influences of environmental factors on rhizosphere bacteria and the combined effects of Phragmites communis and dominant bacteria in wetland wastewater treatment system should be taken seriously.

6.
Theriogenology ; 152: 129-138, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408026

RESUMO

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a lipid mediator, is released by several cell types including endometrial cells and plays a central role in bacterial infection of the endometrium during inflammation. PGE2 production accumulated in Escherichia coli (E. coli) -infected bovine endometrial tissue, which increased E. coli-infected endometrial tissue damage. However, the mechanisms of PGE2 accumulation in the E. coli-infected endometrium during inflammation-associated endometrial tissue damage remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 in increased PGE2 production in E. coli-infected endometrial tissue. E. coli and TLR2/4 agonists significantly induced cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression and PGE2 synthesis detected by RT-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA in the endometrial tissue. The expression and synthesis were dramatically decreased by TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor88 (MyD88), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors in E. coli-infected endometrial tissue. These inhibitors also significantly decreased proinflammatory factor (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) and damage-associated molecular pattern (high mobility group box-1 and hyaluronan-binding protein-1) release and tissue damage measured by double-label immunofluorescence in E. coli-infected endometrial explants. Our work provides in vitro evidence that TLR2/4-MyD88/p38 MAPK promotes PGE2 synthesis and E. coli-infected endometrial tissue damage, which may be useful for improving PGE2-based therapies for endometritis.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 727: 138701, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334229

RESUMO

It is still a great challenge to find an eco-friendly, easy-to-synthesize, and cheap adsorbent to rapidly remove Cr(VI) to ppb level in the Cr(VI)-polluted water. Herein, a new layered double hydroxide nanocage intercalated with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC-LDH) was fabricated via a facile calcination-rehydration method. The DDTC-LDH rapidly decreased Cr(VI) concentration from 5 to <0.05 mg/L within 35 min, and only a few seconds were required to completely remove it at an initial concentration of 0.5-1 mg/L, primarily attributed to the effective adsorption-reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by sulfur atoms in CS and CS groups. Attractively, the generated Cr(III) was also quickly removed to below 0.1 mg/L via an opportune Lewis hard-hard interaction with C-SOx groups produced through CS oxidation. Additionally, Cr(VI) could be removed by DDTC-LDH at a wide pH application range (3.17-10.78) and with weak effects by coexisting anions (Cl-, NO3-, CO32-, SO42-, and PO43-). We systematically analyzed and proposed the mechanisms for Cr(VI) removal by the DDTC-LDH, orderly containing electrostatic attraction, Cr(VI) complexation by sulfur atoms in CS and CS groups, reduction of the Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by the CS and CS groups, and Cr(III) complexation by sulfur atoms in C-SOx groups. Our results provide new insights into the Cr(VI) removal using organosulfur compounds, that is to say, the organosulfur group Lewis hardness increased (from C-S to C-SOx) as the Cr species Lewis hardness increased (from Cr(VI) to Cr(III)), so as to opportunely ensure fast and efficient capture of both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) via Lewis acid-base interactions.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 257: 112789, 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234597

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. (TwHF), a traditional Chinese herb medicine, has been widely used for clinical treatment of various rheumatic immune diseases. Tripterygium glycosides (TG) extracted from TwHF has been verified to process multiple bioactivities, including immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the clinical application of TG is limited due to its severe toxicity and narrow therapeutic window. For the clinical safety of TG usage, attenuation of toxicity is the key issue to be solved. PURPOSE: Tripterygium glycoside fraction n2 (TG-n2) is a detoxified mixture obtained from TG using a new preparation method. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that TG-n2 has a lower toxicity than TG. The aim of the present study was to screen the renal protective effect of TG-n2 in nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by adriamycin (ADR) in rats and its effect on apoptosis, as well as the effective difference between TG-n2 and TG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ADR-induced NS rat model was established. Rats were intravenously injected with ADR (6 mg/kg), then treated with either TG-n2 (10 mg/kg/day) or TG (10 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 4 weeks. Clinical indexes in each group were determined. HE staining and electron microscopic analysis were used to evaluate renal histopathological damage. Caspase-3 activity reagent and TUNEL staining were used to estimate renal apoptosis. Protein levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-12, Bax, Bcl-2, p53, TNF-R1, FLIP and podocin were measured by Western Blot. RESULTS: TG-n2 and TG intervention ameliorated renal function as assessed by the levels of 24-h proteinuria, Cr, BUN, TC, TG, ALB and LDL-c. TG-n2 and TG alleviated the decrease of podocin protein expression and morphological injury of podocyte as screened by Western Blot and electron microscopic analysis. Besides, renal tubular injury was reduced as inspected by light microscopic analysis. TG-n2 and TG could significantly inhibit the apoptosis and activity of caspase-3 in kidney tissues as examined by fluorescence microscopic analysis and reagent. After intervention of TG-n2 and TG, protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9, Bax, p53 and TNF-R1 in renal issues were significantly decreased compared with ADR group. In contrast, protein level of Bcl-2 was elevated remarkedly. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that attenuated TG-n2 may have a similar protective effect with TG in ADR-induced NS in rats by inhibiting activation of apoptosis.

10.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and management options are limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the management of urinary dysfunction by researching the special needs of PD patients. METHODS: PD patients with urinary dysfunction who underwent urodynamic testing were recruited from a single center from October 2013 to February 2019. The urinary symptoms, International Prostate Symptom Score and Hoehn-Yahr scale were evaluated. Management was made at the urologists' discretion with follow-up after three weeks. Urinary symptoms, urodynamics and the management of urinary dysfunction were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients with a median age of 66.2 and Hoehn-Yahr scale soccer of 2 were enrolled. Irritative symptoms were more common than obstructive symptoms, while obstructive symptoms were more common in male than female patients, except for incomplete voiding. There were 51% cases of detrusor overactivity, followed by 33% with bladder outlet obstruction, 13% had normal function, 12% had detrusor underactivity, 9% had stress incontinence, 7% had increased bladder sensation and 4% had an acontractile bladder. Tolterodine and tamsulosin were the most common therapeutic agents, respectively prescribed to 38.5% and 27.3% of the patients. Other treatments included catheterization, botulinum toxin A bladder wall injection, transurethral resection of the prostate and urethral dilatation. Urinary symptoms were improved significantly in 74.5% of the patients (p < 0.001), including 27 patients treated with tamsulosin only and 54 patients with tolterodine only. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary symptoms and urodynamics were highly variable in PD patients, indicating that most patients may benefit from personalized management.

11.
Clin Lab ; 66(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated decompensated cirrhosis (HBV-DeCi) has a high mortality rate if liver transplantation is not performed. The study aimed to evaluate the association between the mean platelet volume to platelet count ratio (MPR) and outcomes of HBV-DeCi patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 109 patients newly diagnosed with HBV-DeCi. Univariate and multivariate regression models were used to determine risk factors for 90-day mortality. RESULTS: The MPR was observed to be higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors. Multivariate analysis suggested that the model for end-stage liver disease score and MPR were independent predictors in HBV-DeCi patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the MPR can serve as a potential predictor of 3-month mortality in HBV-DeCi patients.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5173, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198471

RESUMO

Remote sensing has been used as an important means of estimating crop production, especially for the estimation of crop yield in the middle and late growth period. In order to further improve the accuracy of estimating winter wheat yield through remote sensing, this study analyzed the quantitative relationship between satellite remote sensing variables obtained from HJ-CCD images and the winter wheat yield, and used the partial least square (PLS) algorithm to construct and validate the multivariate remote sensing models of estimating the yield. The research showed a close relationship between yield and most remote sensing variables. Significant multiple correlations were also recorded between most remote sensing variables. The optimal principal components numbers of PLS models used to estimate yield were 4. Green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and plant senescence reflectance index (PSRI) were sensitive variables for yield remote sensing estimation. Through model development and model validation evaluation, the yield estimation model's coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.81 and 0.74 respectively. The root mean square error (RMSE) were 693.9 kg ha-1 and 786.5 kg ha-1. It showed that the PLS algorithm model estimates the yield better than the linear regression (LR) and principal components analysis (PCA) algorithms. The estimation accuracy was improved by more than 20% than the LR algorithm, and was 13% higher than the PCA algorithm. The results could provide an effective way to improve the estimation accuracy of winter wheat yield by remote sensing, and was conducive to large-area application and promotion.

13.
Cell Biol Int ; 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198816

RESUMO

During the pathogenesis of early pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary arterial adventitial fibroblast act as an initiator and mediator of inflammatory processes that predispose vessel walls to excessive vasoconstriction and pathogenic vascular remodeling. Emerging studies report that Yin Yang-1 (YY-1) plays important roles in inflammatory response and vascular injury. Our recent study finds that activation of CD40 ligand (CD40L)-CD40 signaling promotes pro-inflammatory phenotype of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts. However, whether YY-1 is involved in CD40L-CD40 signaling-triggered inflammatory response in pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts and its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here, we show that soluble CD40L (sCD40L) stimulation promotes YY-1 protein expression and suppresses anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression in pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, while YY-1 knockdown prevents sCD40L-mediated reduction of IL-10 expression via enhancing IL-10 gene transactivation. Further, we find that sCD40L stimulation significantly increases histone H3 tri-methylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) modification on IL-10 promoter in pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, and YY-1 knockdown prevents the effect of sCD40L on IL-10 promoter by reducing the interaction with enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase, binding to IL-10 promoter. Moreover, we find that sCD40L stimulation promotes YY-1 protein, but not messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, via decreasing N6-methyladenosine methylation on YY-1 mRNA to suppress YTHDF2-medicated mRNA decay. Overall, this in-depth study shows that the activation of CD40L-CD40 signaling upregulates YY-1 protein expression in pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, which results in increasing YY-1 and EZH2 binding to the IL-10 promoter region to enhance H3K27me3 modification, eventually leading to suppression of IL-10 transactivation. This study first uncovers the roles of YY-1 on CD40L-CD40 signaling-triggered inflammatory response in pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts.

14.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-4, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075473

RESUMO

Background: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disease which has been rarely described in association with hyperkinetic symptoms. Here, we report a case of PSP that was presented with hyperkinetic movement disorder, hemiplegic dystonia, and other clinical features that overlap with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS).Case presentation: A 63-year-old female presented to our hospital with a history of frontal lobe symptoms, impaired cognition, hyperkinetic movement disorders, dystonia, and frequent falls. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed atrophy of midbrain and right temporal lobe. [18F]FDG PET result revealed reduced 18F-FDG uptake with obvious laterality (right > left). [18F]THK5317 PET scan showed evident increased uptake in the brain stem and basal ganglia. Treatment with Tiapride significantly improved hyperkinetic symptoms, but other motor symptoms were not alleviated. Three years later, the patient could hardly walk even with assistance.Conclusion: PSP can present hyperkinetic movement disorders and asymmetry in image that widen the existing phenotypic spectrum.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 264: 130-137, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the association between narcolepsy and anxiety disorders. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective case-control study analyzed Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2013. We included narcoleptic patients aged at least 12 years, diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code 347. The cases and the propensity score-matched controls were selected in a 1:4 ratio. Each subject with anxiety disorders (ICD-9-CM code 300) was required to visit the outpatient clinic at least three times within a year. Multivariate logistic regression and interaction analyses were used to calculate the association between anxiety disorders and narcolepsy. RESULTS: This study enrolled 478 and 1912 subjects with and without narcolepsy, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, patients with anxiety disorders had an approximately 2.7 odds ratio of developing narcolepsy when compared to the control subjects (adjusted odds ratio [aOR)] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.699-4.344). Interaction analysis and subgroup analysis showed a higher incidence of previously diagnosed anxiety disorders in narcoleptic patients aged 12 to 17 years and female patients (aOR = 25.9; 95% CI = 15.194-42.896; aOR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.818-7.062, respectively). LIMITATIONS: The narcolepsy and anxiety disorders were not distinguished by validated structural diagnostic instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed higher comorbidity rates of anxiety disorders in narcoleptic patients. The incidence of previously diagnosed anxiety disorders was higher in narcoleptic patients aged 12 to 17 years and female patients.

16.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(2): 85, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015323

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease with a strong heritability, but recent evidence suggests that epigenetic dysregulation may also contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. Especially, increased methylation at the MECP2 promoter and decreased MECP2 expression were observed in the brains of ASD patients. However, the causative relationship of MECP2 promoter methylation and ASD has not been established. In this study, we achieved locus-specific methylation at the transcription start site (TSS) of Mecp2 in Neuro-2a cells and in mice, using nuclease-deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) fused with DNA methyltransferase catalytic domains, together with five locus-targeting sgRNAs. This locus-specific epigenetic modification led to a reduced Mecp2 expression and a series of behavioral alterations in mice, including reduced social interaction, increased grooming, enhanced anxiety/depression, and poor performance in memory tasks. We further found that specifically increasing the Mecp2 promoter methylation in the hippocampus was sufficient to induce most of the behavioral changes. Our finding therefore demonstrated for the first time the casual relationship between locus-specific DNA methylation and diseases symptoms in vivo, warranting potential therapeutic application of epigenetic editing.

17.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 17, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) is one kind of frequent digestive tumor. The inflammatory environment plays an important role in the tumorigenesis and development of ESCC. Cancer stem cells are a small group of tumor cells with stem cell characteristics, which can potentially hinder the tumor management and treatment. METHODS: ELISA was performed to detect the lipopolysaccharide concentration in cancer tissues. qPCR, Western blot, FACS, Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence and Dot blot were applied to detect target genes expression. CCK-8, Colony-formation, Transwell, Sphere and Xenograft were conducted to investigate the function of cells, influenced by risk factors. The survival curve was drawn with the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator. Nano-hmC-Seal-seq was utilized to detect the downstream target of TET3. ChIP-qPCR was adopted to demonstrate the transcriptional regulation of stem cell-associated genes by HOXB2. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide concentration was significantly up-regulated in ESCC. High concentration of lipopolysaccharide stimulation induced the stemness of ESCC cells. TET3 expression was elevated with lipopolysaccharide stimulation via p38/ERK-MAPK pathway in ESCC and negatively correlated with patients' survival. TET3 induced the stemness of ESCC cells. Nano-hmC-Seal-seq showed that TET3 overexpression led to a significant increase in 5hmC levels of HOXB2 gene region, which was thus identified as the downstream target of TET3. The binding of HOXB2 to NANOG and cMYC was verified by ChIP-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: Lipopolysaccharide served as a tumor promotor in ESCC by inducing cancer cell stemness through the activation of a LPS-TET3-HOXB2 signaling axis, which might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for ESCC. Video Abstract.

18.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(4): 511-520, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has noted that allergic diseases are a major health problem of the 21st century. Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a type I allergic disease characterized by nasal mucosa and immune system abnormalities. AR is mediated by various inflammatory cells and is mainly characterized by altered secretion of cytokines. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and the interleukin-33/stimulation-expressed gene 2 (IL-33/ST2) signaling pathway are cytokines that play pivotal roles in many inflammatory responses and allergic reactions. There have been reports of interactions between the 2 pathways in many diseases. Hypoxia is a common pathologic manifestation of AR. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship and expressions and biologic functions of TSLP and IL-33/ST2 in AR, and also to determine the effects of hypoxia on these cytokines. METHODS: The rat nasal mucosal epithelium was obtained from Wistar rats. Cells were cultured in groups under hypoxia and normoxia conditions. Identification of rat nasal epithelial cell (RNEpC) and protein expressions was done by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods. Cell proliferation and migration were examined using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and Transwell kit. Detection of apoptosis was tested using a fluorescence apoptosis kit. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis ELISA were used to measure cell secretion and protein expressions. For these experiments, TSLP was knocked down by lentivirus transfection and IL-33 blocked with its antagonist. RESULTS: TSLP, IL-33, and ST2 expressions were significantly higher in nasal mucosa epithelial cells from AR rats than in those from control rats. Hypoxia further promoted their expression. Increased TSLP and IL-33/ST2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and enhanced cell migration. In addition, the downregulation of TSLP expression effectively attenuated expression of the IL-33/ST2 axis and, through use of IL-33 antagonists, could also reduce TSLP expression, a synergistic effect more obvious under hypoxia. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that TSLP and IL-33/ST2 signaling pathways interact with each other in the pathogenesis and pathologic development of AR. TSLP inhibition is a key factor in AR treatment. Inhibiting hypoxia-induced pathologic processes could represent a therapeutic effect by inhibiting IL-33/ST2 expression via downregulating TSLP.

19.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 213: 106276, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987327

RESUMO

There is production of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and there is PGF2α receptor (PTGFR) mRNA transcript in endometrial epithelial cells of cattle. The aims of the present study were to (1) determine whether PGF2α-PTGFR signaling modulates the proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells and (2) increase knowledge of PGF2α-PTGFR signaling on the physiological and pharmacological processes in the endometrium of cattle. Amount of cellular proliferation was determined using real-time cell analysis and cell proliferation reagent WST-1 procedures. Abundance of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), cyclin-kinase inhibitors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PTGFR, epidermal growth factor (EGF) mRNA and protein abundances were evaluated using real-time RT-PCR and western blot analyses. The PGF2α-PTGFR signaling promoted the proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by inducing changes in abundance of mRNA transcript and protein that resulted in an increase in the abundance for the cyclins (A, B1, D1, D3), CDKs (1, 2, 4, 6), and PCNA; decrease in abundance for p21; and increase in abundance for EGF, COX-1, COX-2, and PTGFR. There was a direct molecular association between PGF2α-PTGFR signaling and cell cycle regulation in endometrial epithelial cells of cattle. In addition, findings improve the understanding of PGF2α-PTGFR signaling in the physiological and pharmacological processes of the endometrium of cattle.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 929, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969589

RESUMO

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is one of the most important vegetation indices in crop remote sensing. It features a simple, fast, and non-destructive method and has been widely used in remote monitoring of crop growing status. Beer-Lambert law is widely used in calculating crop leaf area index (LAI), however, it is time-consuming detection and low in output. Our objective was to improve the accuracy of monitoring LAI through remote sensing by integrating NDVI and Beer-Lambert law. In this study, the Beer-Lambert law was firstly modified to construct a monitoring model with NDVI as the independent variable. Secondly, experimental data of wheat from different years and various plant types (erectophile, planophile and middle types) was used to validate the modified model. The results showed that at 130 DAS (days after sowing), the differences in NDVI, leaf area index (LAI) and extinction coefficient (k) of the three plant types with significantly different leaf orientation values (LOVs) reached the maximum. The NDVI of the planophile-type wheat reached saturation earlier than that of the middle and erectophile types. The undetermined parameters of the model (LAI = -ln (a1 × NDVI + b1)/(a2 × NDVI + b2)) were related to the plant type of wheat. For the erectophile-type cultivars (LOV ≥ 60°), the parameters for the modified model were, a1 = 0.306, a2 = -0.534, b1 = -0.065, and b2 = 0.541. For the middle-type cultivars (30° < LOV < 60°), the parameters were, a1 = 0.392, a2 = -0.881, b1 = 0.028, and b2 = 0.845. And for the planophile-type cultivars (LOV ≤ 30°), those parameters were, a1 = 0.596, a2 = -1.306, b1 = 0.014, and b2 = 1.130. Verification proved that the modified model based on integrating NDVI and Beer-Lambert law was better than Beer-Lambert law model only or NDVI-LAI direct model only. It was feasible to quantitatively monitor the LAI of different plant-type wheat by integrating NDVI and Beer-Lambert law, especially for erectophile-type wheat (R2 = 0.905, RMSE = 0.36, RE = 0.10). The monitoring model proposed in this study can accurately reflect the dynamic changes of plant canopy structure parameters, and provides a novel method for determining plant LAI.

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