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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(4)2024 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674359

RESUMO

Rare sarcomas present significant treatment challenges compared to more prevalent soft tissue sarcomas due to limited treatment options and a poor understanding of their biology. This study investigates a unique case of penile sarcoma, providing a comprehensive morphological and molecular analysis. Through the creation of experimental patient-derived models-including patient-derived xenograft (PDX), 3D, and monolayer primary cultures-we successfully replicated crucial molecular traits observed in the patient's tumor, such as smooth muscle actin and CD99 expression, along with specific mutations in genes like TSC2 and FGFR4. These models are helpful in assessing the potential for an in-depth exploration of this tumor's biology. This comprehensive approach holds promise in identifying potential therapeutic avenues for managing this exceedingly rare soft tissue sarcoma.


Assuntos
Sarcoma , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Neoplasias Penianas/genética , Neoplasias Penianas/patologia , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/patologia , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(5)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HOXA1 is a prognostic marker and a potential predictive biomarker for radioresistance in head and neck tumors. Its overexpression has been associated with promoter methylation and a worse prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. However, opposite outcomes are also described. The effect of the methylation of this gene on different gene regions, other than the promoter, remains uncertain. We investigated the methylation profile at different genomic regions of HOXA1 in OSCC and correlated differentially methylated CpG sites with clinicopathological data. METHODS: The HOXA1 DNA methylation status was evaluated by analyzing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and three Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. Significant differentially methylated CpG sites were considered with a |∆ß| ≥ 0.10 and a Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.01. Differentially methylated CpGs were validated by pyrosequencing using two independent cohorts of 15 and 47 OSCC patients, respectively. RESULTS: Compared to normal tissues, we found significantly higher DNA methylation levels in the 3'UTR region of HOXA1 in OSCC. Higher methylation levels in tumor samples were positively correlated with smoking habits and patients' overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HOXA1 gene body methylation is a promising prognostic biomarker for OSCC with potential clinical applications in patient monitoring.

3.
Arch Oral Biol ; 162: 105943, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are the most prevalent salivary gland tumors. Their pathogenesis has been recently associated with complex molecular cascades, including the TGFß signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of genes associated with the TGFß signaling pathway (TGFB1, ITGB6, SMAD2, SMAD4, FBN1, LTBP1, and c-MYC) to map possible downstream alterations in the TGFß cascade. DESIGN: Thirteen PA, 17 MEC, 13 ACC, and 10 non-neoplastic salivary gland samples were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: Cases of PA presented increased TGFB1, LTPB1, c-MYC, and FBN1 expressions, whereas SMAD2 expression was decreased when compared to non-neoplastic tissue. MEC patients displayed increased expressions of TGFB1, ITGB6, FBN1, and c-MYC and decreased expressions of SMAD2 and SMAD4. ACC cases exhibited elevated expressions of the investigated genes except TGFB1. The present results suggest that decreased expression of SMAD2 and SMAD4 does not impede the transcriptional regulation of c-MYC, especially in PA and MEC. Increased expressions of ITGB6, TGFB1, LTBP1, and FBN1 appear to be related to the regulation of the TGFß signaling pathway in these tumors. Additionally, we observed a higher expression of SMAD4 in ACC and a raised expression of ITGB6 and lowered expression of SMAD2 in MEC. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated the differential expression of TGFß cascade members in salivary gland tumors such as SMAD2/SMAD4 and c-MYC as well as the participation of ITGB6, TGFB1, LTBP1, and FBN1, contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in tumor progression.


Assuntos
Adenoma Pleomorfo , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico , Carcinoma Mucoepidermoide , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Humanos , Adenoma Pleomorfo/genética , Adenoma Pleomorfo/metabolismo , Adenoma Pleomorfo/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/genética , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/metabolismo , Carcinoma Mucoepidermoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 167: 115559, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37742611

RESUMO

Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a complex and dynamic disease characterized by clinicopathological and molecular heterogeneity. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cell subpopulations has been associated with cancer progression and implicated in the prognosis and therapy response. Emerging evidence indicates that aberrant epigenetic profiles in OSCC may foster an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by modulating the expression of immune-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). DNA methylation analysis was performed in 46 matched OSCC and normal adjacent tissue samples using a genome-wide platform (Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip). Reference-based computational deconvolution (MethylCIBERSORT) was applied to infer the immune cell composition of the bulk samples. The expression levels of genes encoding immune markers and differentially methylated lncRNAs were investigated using The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. OSCC specimens presented distinct immune cell composition, including the enrichment of monocyte lineage cells, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, regulatory T-lymphocytes, and neutrophils. In contrast, B-lymphocytes, effector T-lymphocytes, and fibroblasts were diminished in tumor samples. The hypomethylation of three immune-associated lncRNAs (MEG3, MIR155HG, and WFDC21P) at individual CpG sites was confirmed by bisulfite-pyrosequencing. Also, the upregulation of a set of immune markers (FOXP3, GZMB, IL10, IL2RA, TGFB, IFNG, TDO2, IDO1, and HIF1A) was detected. The immune cell composition, immune markers alteration, and dysregulation of immune-associated lncRNAs reinforce the impact of the immune microenvironment in OSCC. These concurrent factors contribute to tumor heterogeneity, suggesting that epi-immunotherapy could be an efficient alternative to treat OSCC.

5.
Cells ; 12(9)2023 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37174723

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has recently been linked to a subset of cancers affecting the oral cavity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying HPV-driven oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) onset and progression are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed MS-based proteomics profiling based on HPV status in OSCC in young patients, following biological characterization and cell assays to explore the proteome functional landscape. RESULTS: Thirty-nine proteins are differentially abundant between HPV (+) and HPV (-) OSCC. Among them, COPS3, DYHC1, and S100A8 are unfavorable for tumor recurrence and survival, in contrast to A2M and Serpine1, low levels of which show an association with better DFS. Remarkably, S100A8 is considered an independent prognostic factor for lower survival rates, and at high levels, it alters tumor-associated immune profiling, showing a lower proportion of M1 macrophages and dendritic cells. HPV (+) OSCC also displayed the pathogen-associated patterns receptor that, when activated, triggered the S100A8 and NFκB inflammatory responses. CONCLUSION: HPV (+) OSCC has a peculiar microenvironment pattern distinctive from HPV (-), involving the expression of pathogen-associated pattern receptors, S100A8 overexpression, and NFκB activation and responses, which has important consequences in prognosis and may guide therapeutic decisions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Papillomavirus Humano , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Proteômica , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
Front Oncol ; 12: 935093, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928876

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammation have been reported in penile carcinomas (PeCa). However, the cell types and cellular crosstalk involved in PeCa are unexplored. We aimed to characterize the complexity of cells and pathways involved in the tumor microenvironment (TME) in PeCa and propose target molecules associated with the TME. We first investigated the prognostic impact of cell types with a secretory profile to identify drug targets that modulate TME-enriched cells. The secretome analysis using the PeCa transcriptome revealed the enrichment of inflammation and extracellular matrix pathways. Twenty-three secreted factors were upregulated, mainly collagens and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The deregulation of collagens and MMPs was confirmed by Quantitative reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Further, the deconvolution method (digital cytometry) of the bulk samples revealed a high proportion of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. Increased DCs and B cells were associated with better survival. A high proportion of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) was observed in low-survival patients. Patients with increased CAFs had decreased immune cell proportions. The treatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 in CAF cells derived from PeCa resulted in altered cell viability. We reported a crosstalk between immune cells and CAFs, and the proportion of these cell populations was associated with prognosis. We demonstrate that a drug targeting MMPs modulates CAFs, expanding the therapeutic options of PeCa.

7.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458422

RESUMO

Pathogenicity and pathology of rabies virus (RABV) varies according to the variant, but the mechanisms are not completely known. In this study, gene expression profile in brains of mice experimentally infected with RABV isolated from a human case of dog rabies (V2) or vampire bat-acquired rabies (V3) were analyzed. In total, 138 array probes associated with 120 genes were expressed differentially between mice inoculated with V2 and sham-inoculated control mice at day 10 post-inoculation. A single probe corresponding to an unannotated gene was identified in V3 versus control mice. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that all of the genes upregulated in mice inoculated with V2 RABV were involved in the biological process of immune defense against pathogens. Although both variants are considered pathogenic, inoculation by the same conditions generated different gene expression results, which is likely due to differences in pathogenesis between the dog and bat RABV variants. This study demonstrated the global gene expression in experimental infection due to V3 wild-type RABV, from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, an important source of infection for humans, domestic animals and wildlife in Latin America.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Cães , Camundongos , Análise em Microsséries , Transcriptoma , Virulência
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406435

RESUMO

Genetic and epigenetic changes contribute to intratumor heterogeneity and chemotherapy resistance in several tumor types. LncRNAs have been implicated, directly or indirectly, in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We investigated lncRNAs that potentially mediate carboplatin-resistance of cell subpopulations, influencing the progression of ovarian cancer (OC). Four carboplatin-sensitive OC cell lines (IGROV1, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, and OVCAR5), their derivative resistant cells, and two inherently carboplatin-resistant cell lines (OVCAR8 and Ovc316) were subjected to RNA sequencing and global DNA methylation analysis. Integrative and cross-validation analyses were performed using external (The Cancer Genome Atlas, TCGA dataset, n = 111 OC samples) and internal datasets (n = 39 OC samples) to identify lncRNA candidates. A total of 4255 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 14529 differentially methylated CpG positions (DMPs) were identified comparing sensitive and resistant OC cell lines. The comparison of DEGs between OC cell lines and TCGA-OC dataset revealed 570 genes, including 50 lncRNAs, associated with carboplatin resistance. Eleven lncRNAs showed DMPs, including the SNHG12. Knockdown of SNHG12 in Ovc316 and OVCAR8 cells increased their sensitivity to carboplatin. The results suggest that the lncRNA SNHG12 contributes to carboplatin resistance in OC and is a potential therapeutic target. We demonstrated that SNHG12 is functionally related to epigenetic mechanisms.

9.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 34(4): e1628, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is the fourth most common cancer-associated cause of death in the Western world. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be considered a potential prognostic factor, as these cells represent tumor progression, allowing monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. The objectives of this study were to explore the morphological, molecular, and phenotypic characteristics of CTCs from the blood of patients with pancreatic carcinoma and to correlate the findings with response to treatment, progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). METHODS: Peripheral blood (10 mL) was analyzed before the beginning of treatment after 60 and 120 days. CTCs were detected by using ISET® and characterized by immunocytochemistry. For microRNAs (miRNAs) analysis, peripheral leukocytes from the same patients and healthy individuals (controls) were collected in parallel at baseline. The expression of miRNAs was evaluated (in pool) using TaqMan® Array Human MicroRNA Cards v2.0. RESULTS: Only nine patients were included. The proteins, namely, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and TGFß-RI, were highly expressed (77.7%) in CTCs at baseline; at the first follow-up, MMP2 was predominant (80%) and, at the second follow-up, MMP2 and vimentin were predominant (50%). Circulating tumor microemboli (CTMs) were found in two patients and both presented DVT. The miR-203a-3p was highly expressed in CTCs. The miR-203a-3p is involved in the stimulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is related to worse OS in pancreatic cancer (TCGA data). CONCLUSION: Due to the low number of patients and short follow-up, we did not observe a correlation between CTCs and response to treatment. However, there was a correlation between CTM and DVT and also miR-203a-3p was highly expressed in CTCs, corroborating the findings of EMT proteins. This study opens the perspectives concerning the dynamic change in the pattern of proteins expressed along with treatment and the use of miRNAs as new targets in pancreatic carcinoma.


OBJETIVOS: O adenocarcinoma ductal do pâncreas é a quarta causa de morte associada ao câncer mais comum no mundo ocidental. A presença de células tumorais circulantes (CTCs) pode ser considerada um potencial fator prognóstico, visto que essas células representam a progressão tumoral, permitindo o monitoramento da eficácia terapêutica. explorar as características morfológicas, moleculares e fenotípicas das células tumorais circulantes (CTCs) do sangue de pacientes com carcinoma pancreático e correlacionar os achados com a resposta ao tratamento, sobrevida livre de progressão, sobrevida global (SG) e trombose venosa profunda (TVP). MÉTODOS: o sangue periférico (10mL) foi analisado antes do início do tratamento e após 60 e 120 dias. As CTCs foram detectadas pelo ISET® e caracterizadas por imunocitoquímica. Para análise de miRNAs, leucócitos periféricos dos mesmos pacientes e indivíduos saudáveis foram coletados em paralelo no início do estudo. A expressão de miRNAs foi avaliada usando TaqMan T Array Human MicroRNA Cards v2.0. RESULTADOS: foram incluídos 9 pacientes. As proteínas MMP2 e TGFß-RI foram altamente expressas (77,7%) nas CTCs no início do estudo. No primeiro acompanhamento, MMP2 era predominante (80%) e no segundo acompanhamento, MMP2 e vimentina eram predominantes (50%). Microêmbolos tumorais circulantes (MTC) foram encontrados em dois pacientes e ambos apresentavam TVP. O miR-203a-3p foi altamente expresso em CTCs. miR-203a-3p está envolvido na estimulação da transição epitelio-mesenquima (TEM) e relacionado a pior SG no câncer pancreático (dados TCGA). CONCLUSÃO: Devido ao baixo número de pacientes e curto seguimento, não observamos correlação entre CTCs e resposta ao tratamento. No entanto, houve uma correlação entre MTC e TVP. Além disso, miR-203a-3p foi altamente expresso em CTCs, corroborando os achados de proteínas EMT. Este estudo abre perspectivas sobre a mudança dinâmica no padrão de proteínas expressas ao longo do tratamento e a utilização de miRNAs como novos alvos no carcinoma pancreático.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , MicroRNAs , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(3): 2157-2167, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition promotes cell adhesion loss, enabling invasion and metastasis. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-codifying RNAs that regulate gene expression. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of microRNAs that could regulate the expression of EMT factors in salivary gland tumors (SGTs). METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of microRNAs miR-9, miR-34a, miR-101, miR-138, miR-155, and miR-200c-described in the literature to target EMT factors-was evaluated by Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) in pleomorphic adenoma (PA), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) samples. Bioinformatics tools were applied to identify miR targets and immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of the proteins E-cadherin, Twist, ZEB-1, ß-Catenin, and c-Kit. Comparing miR expression among SGT types, we observed increased expression of miR-9, and miR-138 in PAs, and increased miR-155 expression in MECs. Low-grade MECs exhibited increased miR-155 expression (p = 0.032). MECs that generated lymph node metastases had increased miR-200c levels (p = 0.018). MECs tended to have decreased expression of EMT-related proteins when compared to the other SGT types (c-Kit p < 0.001, Twist p = 0.014, and ZEB p = 0.012). Notably, increased c-Kit expression was associated with the presence of perineural infiltration in ACC (p = 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of alterations in the expression of EMT-factors regulating miRs, especially of miR-9, miR-138, miR-155, and miR-200c. No significant relationships were found between the expression of these miRs and proteins associated with EMT in SGTs.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/genética
11.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105545, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598035

RESUMO

The genetic predisposition to head and neck carcinomas (HNSCC) and how the known risk factors (papillomavirus infection, alcohol, and tobacco consumption) contribute to the early-onset disease are barely explored. Although HNSCC at early onset is rare, its frequency is increasing in recent years. Germline and somatic variants were assessed to build a comprehensive genetic influence pattern in HNSCC predisposition and patient outcome. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 45 oral and oropharynx carcinomas paired with normal samples of young adults (≤49 years). We found FANCG, CDKN2A, and TPP germline variants previously associated with HNSCC risk. At least one germline variant in DNA repair pathway genes was detected in 67% of cases. Germline and somatic variants (including copy number variations) in FAT1 gene were identified in 9 patients (20%) and 12 tumors (30%), respectively. Somatic variants were found in HNSCC associated genes, such as TP53, CDKN2A, and PIK3CA. To date, 55 of 521 cases from the large cohort of TCGA presented < 49 years old. A comparison between the somatic alterations of TCGA-HNSCC at early onset and our dataset revealed strong similarities. Protein-protein interaction analysis between somatic and germline altered genes revealed a central role of TP53. Altogether, germline alterations in DNA repair genes potentially contribute to an increased risk of developing HNSCC at early-onset, while FAT1 could impact the prognosis.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Reparo do DNA , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Adulto , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética
12.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917394

RESUMO

Penile cancer (PeCa) is a common disease in poor and developing countries, showing high morbidity rates. Despite the recent progress in understanding the molecular events involved in PeCa, the lack of well-characterized in vitro models precludes new advances in anticancer drug development. Here we describe the establishment of five human primary penile cancer-derived cell cultures, including two epithelial and three cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cells. Using high-throughput genomic approaches, we found that the epithelial PeCa derived- cells recapitulate the molecular alterations of their primary tumors and present the same deregulated signaling pathways. The differentially expressed genes and proteins identified are components of key oncogenic pathways, including EGFR and PI3K/AKT/mTOR. We showed that epithelial PeCa derived cells presented a good response to cisplatin, a common therapeutic approach used in PeCa patients. The growth of a PeCa-derived cell overexpressing EGFR was inhibited by EGFR inhibitors (cetuximab, gefitinib, and erlotinib). We also identified CAF signature markers in three PeCa-derived cells with fibroblast-like morphology, indicating that those cells are suitable models for PeCa microenvironment studies. We thus demonstrate the utility of PeCa cell models to dissect mechanisms that promote penile carcinogenesis, which are useful models to evaluate therapeutic approaches for the disease.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Penianas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Forma Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Penianas/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
Genet Mol Biol ; 44(1): e20190410, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656060

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare malignancy that accounts for about 1.8% of all breast cancer cases. In contrast to the high number of the "omics" studies in breast cancer in women, only recently molecular approaches have been performed in MBC research. High-throughput proteomics based methodologies are promisor strategies to characterize the MBC proteomic signatures and their association with clinico-pathological parameters. In this study, the label-free quantification-mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches were applied to analyze the proteomic profiling of a MBC case using the primary breast tumor and the corresponding axillary metastatic lymph nodes and adjacent non-tumor breast tissues. The differentially expressed proteins were identified in the signaling pathways of granzyme B, sirtuins, eIF2, actin cytoskeleton, eNOS, acute phase response and calcium and were connected to the upstream regulators MYC, PI3K SMARCA4 and cancer-related chemical drugs. An additional proteomic comparative analysis was performed with a primary breast tumor of a female patient and revealed an interesting set of proteins, which were mainly involved in cancer biology. Together, our data provide a relevant data source for the MBC research that can help the therapeutic strategies for its management.

14.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(7): 4591-4598, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the expression of miR-181b, miR-21, miR-31, and miR-345 in actinic cheilitis with and without epithelial dysplasia and lower lip squamous cell carcinomas, and to verify if the deregulated expression of these miRNAs would be indicative of malignant transformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample was selected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 19 actinic cheilitis without epithelial dysplasia, 32 actinic cheilitis with epithelial dysplasia, 42 lower lip squamous cell carcinomas, and 10 nonaltered oral mucosa of the lip. The microRNA (miR, miRNA) expression was quantified by real-time RT-PCR and the expression of the selected miRNAs among the groups of actinic cheilitis and lower lip cancer was compared by chi-square. RESULTS: A higher expression of miR-181b, miR-31, and miR-345 was found in actinic cheilitis without epithelial dysplasia in comparison to that in actinic cheilitis with epithelial dysplasia and with lower lip cancer. There were no differences in miR-21 expression between actinic cheilitis and lower lip cancer. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed a tendency for a downregulation of miR-181b, miR-21, miR-31, and miR-345 in most patients with lower lip cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of miR-181b, miR-31, and miR-345 expression in actinic cheilitis without epithelial dysplasia and the decrease in the expression of these miRNAs in actinic cheilitis with epithelial dysplasia and in lower lip cancer are potential biomarkers of malignant progression. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This miRNA signature can help to identify actinic cheilitis with potential to progress to lip cancer.


Assuntos
Queilite , Neoplasias Labiais , MicroRNAs , Biomarcadores , Queilite/genética , Humanos , Lábio , Neoplasias Labiais/genética , MicroRNAs/genética
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466385

RESUMO

Invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often ulcerated and heavily infiltrated by pro-inflammatory cells. We conducted a genome-wide profiling of tissues from OSCC patients (early versus advanced stages) with 10 years follow-up. Co-amplification and co-overexpression of TWIST1, a transcriptional activator of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), and colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF1), a major chemotactic agent for tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), were observed in metastatic OSCC cases. The overexpression of these markers strongly predicted poor patient survival (log-rank test, p = 0.0035 and p = 0.0219). Protein analysis confirmed the enhanced expression of TWIST1 and CSF1 in metastatic tissues. In preclinical models using OSCC cell lines, macrophages, and an in vivo matrigel plug assay, we demonstrated that TWIST1 gene overexpression induces the activation of CSF1 while TWIST1 gene silencing down-regulates CSF1 preventing OSCC invasion. Furthermore, excessive macrophage activation and polarization was observed in co-culture system involving OSCC cells overexpressing TWIST1. In summary, this study provides insight into the cooperation between TWIST1 transcription factor and CSF1 to promote OSCC invasiveness and opens up the potential therapeutic utility of currently developed antibodies and small molecules targeting cancer-associated macrophages.

16.
Front Oncol ; 11: 786150, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35223452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To integrate mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) and normal salivary gland (NSGs) tissue samples and identify potential drivers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gene and miRNA expression arrays were performed in 35 MECs and six NSGs. RESULTS: We found 46 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and 3,162 DE mRNAs. Supervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the DE transcripts revealed two clusters in both miRNA and mRNA profiles, which distinguished MEC from NSG samples. The integrative miRNA-mRNA analysis revealed a network comprising 696 negatively correlated interactions (44 miRNAs and 444 mRNAs) involving cell signaling, cell cycle, and cancer-related pathways. Increased expression levels of miR-205-5p and miR-224-5p and decreased expression levels of miR-139-3p, miR-145-3p, miR-148a-3p, miR-186-5p, miR-338-3p, miR-363-3p, and miR-4324 were significantly related to worse overall survival in MEC patients. Two overexpressed miRNAs in MEC (miR-22 and miR-205) were selected for inhibition by the CRISPR-Cas9 method. Cell viability, migration, and invasion assays were performed using an intermediate grade MEC cell line. Knockout of miR-205 reduced cell viability and enhanced ZEB2 expression, while miR-22 knockout reduced cell migration and invasion and enhanced ESR1 expression. Our results indicate a distinct transcriptomic profile of MEC compared to NSG, and the integrative analysis highlighted miRNA-mRNA interactions involving cancer-related pathways, including PTEN and PI3K/AKT. CONCLUSION: The in vitro functional studies revealed that miR-22 and miR-205 deficiencies reduced the viability, migration, and invasion of the MEC cells suggesting they are potential oncogenic drivers in MEC.

17.
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 34(4): e1628, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360014

RESUMO

RESUMO -RACIONAL: O adenocarcinoma ductal do pâncreas é a quarta causa de morte associada ao câncer mais comum no mundo ocidental. A presença de células tumorais circulantes (CTCs) pode ser considerada um potencial fator prognóstico, visto que essas células representam a progressão tumoral, permitindo o monitoramento da eficácia terapêutica. OBJETIVOS: explorar as características morfológicas, moleculares e fenotípicas das células tumorais circulantes (CTCs) do sangue de pacientes com carcinoma pancreático e correlacionar os achados com a resposta ao tratamento, sobrevida livre de progressão, sobrevida global (SG) e trombose venosa profunda (TVP). MÉTODOS: o sangue periférico (10mL) foi analisado antes do início do tratamento e após 60 e 120 dias. As CTCs foram detectadas pelo ISET® e caracterizadas por imunocitoquímica. Para análise de miRNAs, leucócitos periféricos dos mesmos pacientes e indivíduos saudáveis foram coletados em paralelo no início do estudo. A expressão de miRNAs foi avaliada usando TaqMan T Array Human MicroRNA Cards v2.0. RESULTADOS: foram incluídos 9 pacientes. As proteínas MMP2 e TGFß-RI foram altamente expressas (77,7%) nas CTCs no início do estudo. No primeiro acompanhamento, MMP2 era predominante (80%) e no segundo acompanhamento, MMP2 e vimentina eram predominantes (50%). Microêmbolos tumorais circulantes (MTC) foram encontrados em dois pacientes e ambos apresentavam TVP. O miR-203a-3p foi altamente expresso em CTCs. miR-203a-3p está envolvido na estimulação da transição epitelio-mesenquima (TEM) e relacionado a pior SG no câncer pancreático (dados TCGA). CONCLUSÃO: Devido ao baixo número de pacientes e curto seguimento, não observamos correlação entre CTCs e resposta ao tratamento. No entanto, houve uma correlação entre MTC e TVP. Além disso, miR-203a-3p foi altamente expresso em CTCs, corroborando os achados de proteínas EMT. Este estudo abre perspectivas sobre a mudança dinâmica no padrão de proteínas expressas ao longo do tratamento e a utilização de miRNAs como novos alvos no carcinoma pancreático.


ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is the fourth most common cancer-associated cause of death in the Western world. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be considered a potential prognostic factor, as these cells represent tumor progression, allowing monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to explore the morphological, molecular, and phenotypic characteristics of CTCs from the blood of patients with pancreatic carcinoma and to correlate the findings with response to treatment, progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). METHODS: Peripheral blood (10 mL) was analyzed before the beginning of treatment after 60 and 120 days. CTCs were detected by using ISET® and characterized by immunocytochemistry. For microRNAs (miRNAs) analysis, peripheral leukocytes from the same patients and healthy individuals (controls) were collected in parallel at baseline. The expression of miRNAs was evaluated (in pool) using TaqMan® Array Human MicroRNA Cards v2.0. RESULTS: Only nine patients were included. The proteins, namely, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and TGFβ-RI, were highly expressed (77.7%) in CTCs at baseline; at the first follow-up, MMP2 was predominant (80%) and, at the second follow-up, MMP2 and vimentin were predominant (50%). Circulating tumor microemboli (CTMs) were found in two patients and both presented DVT. The miR-203a-3p was highly expressed in CTCs. The miR-203a-3p is involved in the stimulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is related to worse OS in pancreatic cancer (TCGA data). CONCLUSION: Due to the low number of patients and short follow-up, we did not observe a correlation between CTCs and response to treatment. However, there was a correlation between CTM and DVT and also miR-203a-3p was highly expressed in CTCs, corroborating the findings of EMT proteins. This study opens the perspectives concerning the dynamic change in the pattern of proteins expressed along with treatment and the use of miRNAs as new targets in pancreatic carcinoma.


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105711

RESUMO

The treatment for locally advanced rectal carcinomas (LARC) is based on neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and surgery, which results in pathological complete response (pCR) in up to 30% of patients. Since epigenetic changes may influence response to therapy, we aimed to identify DNA methylation markers predictive of pCR in LARC patients treated with nCRT. We used high-throughput DNA methylation analysis of 32 treatment-naïve LARC biopsies and five normal rectal tissues to explore the predictive value of differentially methylated (DM) CpGs. External validation was carried out with The Cancer Genome Atlas-Rectal Adenocarcinoma (TCGA-READ 99 cases). A classifier based on three-CpGs DM (linked to OBSL1, GPR1, and INSIG1 genes) was able to discriminate pCR from incomplete responders with high sensitivity and specificity. The methylation levels of the selected CpGs confirmed the predictive value of our classifier in 77 LARCs evaluated by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Evaluation of external datasets (TCGA-READ, GSE81006, GSE75546, and GSE39958) reproduced our results. As the three CpGs were mapped near to regulatory elements, we performed an integrative analysis in regions associated with predicted cis-regulatory elements. A positive and inverse correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression was found in two CpGs. We propose a novel predictive tool based on three CpGs potentially useful for pretreatment screening of LARC patients and guide the selection of treatment modality.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(5)2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443704

RESUMO

Multiple primary thyroid cancer (TC) and breast cancer (BC) are commonly diagnosed, and the lifetime risk for these cancers is increased in patients with a positive family history of both TC and BC. Although this phenotype is partially explained by TP53 or PTEN mutations, a significant number of patients are negative for these alterations. We judiciously recruited patients diagnosed with BC and/or TC having a family history of these tumors and assessed their whole-exome sequencing. After variant prioritization, we selected MUS81 c.1292G>A (p.R431H) for further investigation. This variant was genotyped in a healthy population and sporadic BC/TC tissues and investigated at the protein level and cellular models. MUS81 c.1292G>A was the most frequent variant (25%) and the strongest candidate due to its function of double-strand break repair. This variant was confirmed in four relatives from two families. MUS81 p.R431H protein exhibited lower expression levels in tumors from patients positive for the germline variant, compared with wild-type BC, and normal breast and thyroid tissues. Using cell line models, we showed that c.1292G>A induced protein instability and affected DNA damage response. We suggest that MUS81 is a novel candidate involved in familial BC/TC based on its low frequency in healthy individuals and proven effect in protein stability.

20.
Oral Oncol ; 103: 104592, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The tumor secretome deconvolution is a promising strategy to identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Here, transcriptomic-based secretome analysis was performed aiming to discover laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC) biomarkers from potentially secreted proteins (PSPs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The tumor expression profile (35 LSCC biopsies compared with surrounding normal tissues - SN) revealed 589 overexpressed genes. This gene list was used for secretome analysis based on laryngeal tumors and related secretome databases. RESULTS: Forty-nine (Laryngeal tumor secretome database) and 50 (Human Protein Atlas and Cancer Secretome Database) PSPs presented an association with worse overall survival. Specifically, DSG2 overexpression was strongly correlated with poor survival and distant metastasis. DSG2 increased expression was confirmed in the LSCC dataset (LSCC = 111; SN = 12) from TCGA. A significant association between shorter survival and DSG2 overexpression was also detected. In an independent cohort of cases, we analyzed and confirmed high protein levels of DSG2 in plasma from LSCC patients. CONCLUSION: A set of PSPs including the circulating DSG2, were associated with shorter overall survival in LSCC. DSG2 overexpression was also correlated with distant metastasis. The high plasmatic protein levels of DSG2 suggest its potential to be tested in liquid biopsies and applied as prognostic biomarker of LSCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Desmogleína 2/efeitos adversos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico , Desmogleína 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/sangue , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
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