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1.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 42(2): 2-19, Jul 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207138

RESUMO

Objetivo: La finalidad del estudio fue diseñar y validar una lista de intercambio de alimentos peruanos (LIA) para la confección de dietas y planificación de menús. Material y métodos: Se tomó como base la metodología para diseñar listas de intercambio descrita en trabajos previos, desarrollándose en seis fases realizadas en múltiples intervenciones en laboratorio, en donde se evaluaron 273 alimentos, que fueron estudiados a través de un análisis descriptivo cualitativo. Se realizó una validación con 12 nutricionistas que elaboraron un plan nutricional y luego se comparó la composición nutricional obtenida usando la tabla peruana de composición de alimentos 2017 (TPCA) con la composición nutricional aplicando LIA. Para la comparación de métodos se aplicó la prueba de Wilcoxon. Resultados: Se elaboró una lista de intercambio de alimentos peruanos (LIA) que incluyó 273 alimentos categorizados en siete grupos de intercambio. Se estimó la media del aporte de energía y macronutrientes por cada grupo de intercambio y se compiló un álbum fotográfico con las porciones de intercambio. Respecto a la validación de la LIA, en la comparación de la cantidad de energía, carbohidratos, proteínas y grasas de los planes alimentarios usando TPCA versus LIA no se encontraron diferencias significativas. Conclusión: Se obtuvo una LIA válida que permite la confección y planificación de dietas de forma eficiente, dentro de un margen de error adecuado, se recomiendan nuevos estudios que incorporen otras poblaciones más específicas y nuevos alimentos.(AU)


Objective: The purpose of the study was to design andvalidate a Peruvian food portions exchange list (LIA) for thepreparation of diets and menu planning. Methodology: The methodology for designing exchangelists described in previous studies was used as a basis, devel-oped in six phases carried out in multiple laboratory interven-tions, where 273 foods were evaluated and studied through aqualitative descriptive analysis. A validation was performedwith 12 nutritionists who elaborated a nutritional plan andthen the nutritional composition obtained using the Peruviantable of food composition 2017 (TPCA) was compared withthe nutritional composition applying LIA. For the comparisonof methods, the Wilcoxon test was applied. Results: A Peruvian food exchange list (LIA) was devel-oped that included 273 foods categorized into seven ex-change groups. The mean energy and macronutrient intakefor each exchange group was estimated and a photographicalbum was compiled with the exchange portions. Regardingthe validation of the LIA, in the comparison of the amount ofenergy, carbohydrates, proteins and fats of the meal plans us-ing TPCA versus LIA no significant differences were found. Conclusion: A valid LIA was obtained that allows thepreparation and planning of diets in an efficient way, withinan adequate margin of error, new studies incorporating othermore specific populations and new foods are recommended.(AU)


Assuntos
Dieta , Planejamento de Cardápio , Alimentos , Nutrientes , Tamanho da Porção , Composição de Alimentos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Epidemiologia Descritiva , 52503 , Dietética , Peru
2.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836109

RESUMO

A varied and well-planned diet can meet the nutritional needs of an athlete; however, in certain cases, it could be advisable to increase the intake of some vitamins, minerals or other components through the controlled intake of fortified foods or dietary supplements. In the European Union, a high number of sport foods and supplements are marketed; athletes could at times consume them indiscriminately or even choose products that have not been evaluated and approved by scientific evidence. In this sense, it is necessary to know and interpret the specific regulations for these products in order to make adequate use of them. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the current status of the European regulatory framework, focusing on: (1) regulation of the marketing and labelling of both fortified foods and supplements; (2) regulation of the use of substances used as ingredients in fortified foods; and (3) regulation of nutritional claims and/or health properties associated with nutrients, ingredients and other related substances. This review can facilitate knowledgeable decision making by sports nutrition professionals in order to counsel or manage adequate food choices as well as help consumers make better-informed food decisions. Other experts, such as producers who ensure food safety, might also be interested in this review.


Assuntos
Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos Fortificados , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades Nutricionais
4.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796764

RESUMO

Food exchange lists have been widely used in dietary practice in health and disease situations, but there are still no exchange lists for sports foods. The aim of this study was to apply a previous published methodology to design food exchange lists to the development of a sports food exchange list, with sport products available in Spain. A cross-sectional study of the nutritional composition of sports foods, regarding macronutrients and energy, was carried out. A total of 322 sports foods from 18 companies were selected, taking into account their interest in sports practice and with nutritional data provided by companies. Sports foods were divided into seven groups: sports drinks; sports gels; sports bars; sports confectionery; protein powders; protein bars; and liquid meals. A sports food composition database based on portion size usually consumed by athletes and/or recommended in commercial packaging was created. Within each sports foods group, different subgroups were defined due to differences in the main and/or secondary macronutrient. The definition of each exchange list with the amounts-in grams-of each sports food within each group and subgroup, was done using statistical criteria such as mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and Z value. Final exchange values for energy and macronutrient have been established for each group and subgroup using a methodology to design food exchange lists previously published by the authors. In addition, those products with high Z values that can provide greater variability in dietary planning were included. The usefulness of sport foods lists as well as the use of an exchange system in the dietary practice of sports nutrition is discussed, and examples of how to use them with athletes are presented. This first sport foods exchange list showed in this study, with commercial sports products available in Spain, can be a novel tool for dietetic practice and also can allow sport nutrition professionals to develop another sport food list using the methodology described in this paper. Its management would allow dietitians to adapt dietary plans more precisely to the training and/or competition of the athlete.


Assuntos
Dietética/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Planejamento de Cardápio/métodos , Nutrientes/análise , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Espanha , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
5.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2018 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585248

RESUMO

Vegan diets in children need to be adequately planned so they can safely meet children's requirements for growth and development. Adequate and realistic meal planning guidelines should not be difficult to achieve, thanks to the increasing number and availability of natural and fortified vegan foods, which can help children to meet all their nutrients requirements. In order to ensure an adequate supply of key nutrients, families and health professionals need accurate, reliable, and easy-to-use meal planning tools. The aim of this article is to provide a practical approach system to meal planning, based on the same food exchange methodology that has been already published in adults. Daily portions of each food exchange group have been calculated so the resulting menu provides at least 90% of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of protein, iron, zinc, calcium, and n-3 fatty acids for each age group, sex, and physical activity level. These diets do not provide enough vitamin B-12 and vitamin D. Although fortified plant drinks, breakfast cereals or plant protein-rich products could provide variable amounts of these two vitamins, B12 supplementation is always recommended and vitamin D supplementation should be considered whenever sun exposure is limited. This tool can be used to plan healthful and balanced vegan diets for children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegana , Alimentos/classificação , Refeições , Adolescente , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Gorduras na Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Veganos
8.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597906

RESUMO

Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) offer recommendations that help population to meet nutrient requirements. Most European FBDGs include quantitative information regarding daily and weekly consumed foods, but for occasionally consumed foods, they only recommend limiting their intake, without giving specific advice on portions. As these foods are consumed by the general population as a part of the cultural and culinary tradition of each country, it is important to establish the maximum frequency and the portions that would be acceptable to be included in a healthy eating pattern. This study outlines the methodology to include these foods in a national (Spanish) FBDG. Firstly, commonly consumed foods were selected and grouped, and portions were defined according to their nutritional value, so different foods within a group could be exchanged. Then, macronutrient profiles of occasionally consumed foods were compared to the frequently consumed food groups to determine to what extent they had a similar nutritional content. Finally, some combinations of foods, with or without the inclusion of occasionally consumed groups, were calculated. A maximum number of servings per group was defined according to their energy and nutrient content. Occasionally consumed foods can be included in a healthy diet as long as they are consumed in the small quantities as shown in this study and as long as they replace equivalent portions of other foods of frequent consumption. This new tool shows how to include occasionally consumed foods in a diet while maintaining its overall nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos/classificação , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Espanha
10.
Nutr Hosp ; 33(2): 121, 2016 Mar 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27238802

RESUMO

Introducción: una dieta vegetariana puede satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales si está bien planificada. En este sentido, los vegetarianos deben ser aconsejados para elegir alimentos alternativos a los productos de origen animal seleccionando el tamaño de porción adecuada de cada uno de ellos. El valor nutricional de las porciones de los alimentos vegetales tradicionales es bien conocido, sin embargo, el mercado vegetariano ofrece otros productos cuya composición química es menos conocida, ya que no son alimentos ampliamente consumidos por la población. Es necesario conocer tanto el contenido de nutrientes de las porciones de estos alimentos como la biodisponibilidad de estos nutrientes en la dieta vegetariana. Objetivos: este trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la información disponible sobre el aporte nutricional a la dieta de un adulto sano de las porciones de alimentos utilizados por la población vegetariana. Además, se discuten algunos puntos sobre la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más relevantes, y se proponen alternativas para mejorar su utilización. Métodos: los datos de composición de los alimentos veganos, por 100 g, se buscaron en bases de datos de composición de alimentos, y a partir de ellos se calculó la composición química de las porciones. Después, estos datos nutricionales se compararon con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia europeas para la población adulta, y se discutió la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más importantes.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Valor Nutritivo , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Vegana , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Humanos , Valores de Referência , Verduras/química
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 33(2): 386-394, mar.-abr. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-153317

RESUMO

Introduction: A vegan diet can meet nutritional requirements if it is well planned. In this sense, vegans should be advised to choose alternatives to animal products and to select the appropriate respective serving size of them. The nutritional value of traditional plant foods portions is well known, however, the vegetarian market offers other products whose chemical composition is less known, as they are not widely consumed by the population. It is necessary to know both, the nutrient content of portions of these foods, and bioavailability of these nutrients in plant food diets. Objectives: This work aims to refine the available information about the nutritional contribution to the diet of a healthy adult of the main common vegan foods portions. In addition, some points about bioavailability of the most relevant nutrients are discussed, and alternatives proposed to improve nutrient utilization. Methods: Composition data of common vegan foods per 100 g were searched from food composition database, and serving size nutrient composition was calculated. Nutritional data were compared to European dietary reference values for nutrient intakes for adult population, and bioavailability of the most important nutrients was discussed (AU)


Introducción: una dieta vegetariana puede satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales si está bien planificada. En este sentido, los vegetarianos deben ser aconsejados para elegir alimentos alternativos a los productos de origen animal seleccionando el tamaño de porción adecuada de cada uno de ellos. El valor nutricional de las porciones de los alimentos vegetales tradicionales es bien conocido, sin embargo, el mercado vegetariano ofrece otros productos cuya composición química es menos conocida, ya que no son alimentos ampliamente consumidos por la población. Es necesario conocer tanto el contenido de nutrientes de las porciones de estos alimentos como la biodisponibilidad de estos nutrientes en la dieta vegetariana. Objetivos: este trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la información disponible sobre el aporte nutricional a la dieta de un adulto sano de las porciones de alimentos utilizados por la población vegetariana. Además, se discuten algunos puntos sobre la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más relevantes, y se proponen alternativas para mejorar su utilización. Métodos: los datos de composición de los alimentos veganos, por 100 g, se buscaron en bases de datos de composición de alimentos, y a partir de ellos se calculó la composición química de las porciones. Después, estos datos nutricionales se compararon con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia europeas para la población adulta, y se discutió la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más importantes (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dieta Vegetariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Análise de Alimentos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Necessidades Nutricionais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Sementes , Óleos de Plantas/análise
12.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 24(1): 21-29, ene.-feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-96053

RESUMO

Introducción Recientemente se ha demostrado que la ingesta habitual de dosis moderadas de fitoesteroles presentes de forma natural en los alimentos afecta al metabolismo global del colesterol dando lugar a menores niveles séricos. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar el patrón dietético de una población aragonesa con un consumo moderado de fitoesteroles con el fin de identificar los principales grupos de alimentos implicados e investigar la relación entre la ingesta de fitoesteroles y distintos factores dietéticos relacionados con la salud cardiovascular. Métodos Se estudiaron los hábitos dietéticos (usando un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos validado) de 85 voluntarios sanos. Estos se clasificaron en terciles de ingesta de fitoesteroles y se establecieron las diferencias en cuanto a consumo de alimentos, nutrientes y otros componentes de la dieta que afectan a la salud cardiovascular y al grado de adherencia al patrón de dieta mediterránea. Resultados El aumento en la ingesta total de fitoesteroles se asoció con un mayor consumo de frutas frescas y frutos secos, hortalizas y aceites vegetales, y menor de carnes y platos precocinados. A su vez, se asoció con un mayor grado de insaturación de la grasa, ingesta de fibra total, capacidad antioxidante de la dieta y ratio fitoesteroles/colesterol y menor ingesta de colesterol e índice colesterol-grasa saturada. Finalmente, la ingesta de fitoesteroles se correlacionó positivamente con el grado de adherencia al patrón de dieta mediterránea. Conclusión La ingesta habitual de dosis moderadas de fitoesteroles presentes de forma natural en los alimentos, además de tener beneficios hipocolesterolemiantes per se, se asocia con otros factores dietéticos relacionados con la prevención de enfermedad cardiovascular. La recomendación de aumentar el consumo habitual de alimentos fuentes de fitoesteroles está plenamente justificada (AU)


Background Recently it has been shown that the regular intake of moderate amounts of naturally-occurring phytosterols affects whole-body cholesterol metabolism giving rise to lower serum levels. The aim of the study was to describe the dietary pattern of a population from the region of Aragon (Spain) with a moderate consumption of phytosterols, to identify the major food groups involved, and to investigate the relationship between phytosterol intake and several dietary factors related to cardiovascular health. Methods A total of 85 healthy volunteers were studied as regards their dietary habits (using a validated food frequency questionnaire). Subjects were classified into tertiles of phytosterol intake and differences regarding foods, nutrients and other dietary components affecting cardiovascular health consumption as well as the adherence degree to the Mediterranean diet pattern were assessed. Results A higher phytosterols intake was associated with a higher consumption of fresh fruits and nuts, vegetables and vegetable oils, and lower in meat and pre-cooked meals. Furthermore, it was associated with higher level of unsaturated fat, total fibre intake, antioxidant capacity of the diet and phytosterols/cholesterol ratio, as well as a lower of cholesterol intake and cholesterol-saturated fat index. Finally, phytosterols intake correlated positively with the degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Conclusion The regular intake of moderate amounts of naturally-occurring phytosterols, besides having cholesterol lowering benefits per se, is associated with other dietetic factors related to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The recommendation of increasing the regular intake of phytosterols source foods is completely justified (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos Integrais , Dieta Mediterrânea
13.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 57(3-4): 242-50, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21150196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the influence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARγ2 gene and the dietary lipid intake on energy metabolism and nutritional outcomes in obese women after an acute fat load or following a low-calorie diet for 10 weeks. METHODS: Sixty obese women (aged 30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to 2 groups depending on the genotype: Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala carriers. At baseline and after 2 nutritional (short- or long-term) interventions, measurement of anthropometrical and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) variables, dietary assessments, energy metabolism (indirect calorimetry) measurements as well as biochemical and molecular (PPARγ2 genotype) analyses were performed. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial metabolism (short term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). RESULTS: The frequencies of the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala genotypes were 83.33 and 16.67%, respectively, and reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Interestingly, the postprandial energy expenditure after the fat load was higher in subjects carrying the Ala allele. At baseline, the habitual monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake inversely correlated with fat oxidation and body mass index in the obese Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala carriers, while a lower PUFA intake (%) in the long-term trial was associated with an increase in the respiratory quotient only in Ala carriers but not in the Pro12Pro genotyped group. CONCLUSIONS: The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene influenced energy metabolism in the assayed short- and long-term situations since the response to both nutritional interventions differed according to the genotype. The results suggest that fat oxidation and energy expenditure may be lower in Pro12Pro carriers compared to Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala genotypes, while in obese women with Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala polymorphisms in the PPARγ2 gene fat oxidation was negatively correlated with the MUFA and PUFA (%) intake.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Obesidade/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Composição Corporal/genética , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial
14.
J. physiol. biochem ; 66(3): 229-236, sept. 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-122828

RESUMO

No disponible


Iron deposits are associated with lipid phenotype in familial hypertriglyceridemias, mainly familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) and familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG). In turn, diet plays an important role in hypertriglyceridemias although it is not known if dietary patterns are associated with iron concentration in these disorders. The objective was to determine the relationship between diet and iron deposits, measured through serum ferritin concentration, in patients with FCH and FHTG. The study was composed of 140 patients, 107 with FCH and 33 with FHTG. Subjects completed a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Dividing subjects by ferritin tertiles adjusted by sex, there were no significant differences in dietary patterns except in dairy products consumption which was lower in the highest ferritin tertile. Subjects were also divided by triglycerides tertiles adjusted by sex. Those subjects in the highest tertile had lower HDL cholesterol and higher ferritin concentrations. Regarding to dietary parameters, there were significant differences in marine omega three fatty acids and vegetables presenting higher and lower consumption, respectively, those patients in the highest tertile of triglycerides. Moreover, there was not a significant correlation between dietary iron intake and any parameter, both biochemical and dietary, including ferritin concentrations. In conclusion, in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia, triglycerides are associated with ferritin concentrations but dietary patterns are not related to iron deposits. Our results highly support the concept that the genetic mechanisms driven tohypertriglyceridemia also favor iron overload (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sobrecarga de Ferro/fisiopatologia , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/fisiopatologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo IV/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Ferro da Dieta/análise
15.
J Physiol Biochem ; 66(3): 229-36, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20645139

RESUMO

Iron deposits are associated with lipid phenotype in familial hypertriglyceridemias, mainly familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) and familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG). In turn, diet plays an important role in hypertriglyceridemias although it is not known if dietary patterns are associated with iron concentration in these disorders. The objective was to determine the relationship between diet and iron deposits, measured through serum ferritin concentration, in patients with FCH and FHTG. The study was composed of 140 patients, 107 with FCH and 33 with FHTG. Subjects completed a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Dividing subjects by ferritin tertiles adjusted by sex, there were no significant differences in dietary patterns except in dairy products consumption which was lower in the highest ferritin tertile. Subjects were also divided by triglycerides tertiles adjusted by sex. Those subjects in the highest tertile had lower HDL cholesterol and higher ferritin concentrations. Regarding to dietary parameters, there were significant differences in marine omega three fatty acids and vegetables presenting higher and lower consumption, respectively, those patients in the highest tertile of triglycerides. Moreover, there was not a significant correlation between dietary iron intake and any parameter, both biochemical and dietary, including ferritin concentrations. In conclusion, in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia, triglycerides are associated with ferritin concentrations but dietary patterns are not related to iron deposits. Our results highly support the concept that the genetic mechanisms driven to hypertriglyceridemia also favor iron overload.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ferritinas/sangue , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo IV/sangue , Ferro/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/genética , Sobrecarga de Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Am J Health Promot ; 23(1): 27-30, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18785371

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Wine consumption has been related to a reduced cardiovascular risk. This effect has been attributed partly to the healthier diet of wine drinkers. We compared food habits according to alcoholic beverage preference in a Mediterranean population. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of a large sample of participants at high risk for cardiovascular disease. SETTING: Primary care centers in a Mediterranean country, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1675 men aged 55 to 80 years old and 2150 women aged 60 to 80 years old who had no documented cardiovascular disease but had either diabetes or at least three major cardiovascular risk factors. MEASURES: A food frequency questionnaire, alcoholic beverage consumption, adherence to Mediterranean diet, age, family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and educational level were measured. ANALYSIS: We analyzed differences in food consumption according to the type of alcoholic beverage preferentially consumed and adjusted the estimates for age, body mass index, cholesterol level, and total energy intake. RESULTS: We found no substantial differences in adherence to the Mediterranean diet according to the main type of alcoholic beverage consumed, and we found no evidence that Mediterranean wine drinkers at high cardiovascular risk have a healthier diet than other drinkers. However, a better dietary pattern was found among nondrinkers than among drinkers. CONCLUSION: This large, Mediterranean study does not support an association between wine consumption and healthier dietary habits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta , Vinho , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Obes Facts ; 1(2): 80-7, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20054166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between BMI and lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking habits, education level and marital status in a Spanish graduate population. METHOD: Cross-sectional analysis of 8,706 participants (3,643 men and 5,063 women) from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study, an ongoing dynamic cohort study in Spain. Data on body weight, height and sociodemographic characteristics, and lifestyle habits were collected with self-administered validated questionnaires. RESULTS: Among older participants (above sex-specific median age), educational level was a factor independently associated with BMI. University graduates with a lower educational level (3-year college degree or 5-year university degree) had a significantly higher BMI than those with doctorate which requires, at least, 8 years of university studies in Spain. Mean BMI was significantly higher among past smokers than among never smokers. Alcohol consumption, marital and smoking status were associated with BMI only among men. CONCLUSION: In a study whose members were all university graduates, several factors were independently associated with a higher BMI, such as less years of higher education, past smoking, marital status and higher alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 60(4): 219-24, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16395633

RESUMO

The consumption of specific foods in energy-restricted diets may affect the weight loss process. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether obese women following two hypocaloric diets with distinct fruit content differ in weight loss and metabolic responses. Fifteen obese women were included, who were randomly assigned to follow a low or a high-fruit energy-restricted diet for 8 weeks. The main outcome variables were weight and fat losses. Metabolic measurements concerning macronutrient oxidation were also assessed by using (13)C labelled fructose and indirect calorimetry. The induced weight loss was similar for both diets (6.9 +/- 2% vs. 6.6 +/- 2%, p = 0.785). Both experimental diets similarly improved the lipid plasma profile in the participants, but the cholesterol fall was higher in obese subjects receiving the diet containing more fruit. No statistical differences in lipids carbohydrates and (13)C labelled fructose utilisation were observed, but protein oxidation was differently affected by the experimental diets. The compensatory effects of the associated fibre/fructose intake may explain the lack of a specific effect of the fruit amount on hypocaloric diets designed to weight loss, although the increased fibre content from enriched fruit diets may be involved in the favourable effects on cholesterol plasma levels.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Redutora , Frutas , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Redução de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Calorimetria Indireta , Isótopos de Carbono , Colesterol/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Rev. nutr ; 17(3): 327-338, jul.-set. 2004. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-385855

RESUMO

A obesidade definida como a acumulação excessiva de gordura corporal deriva de um desequilíbrio crônico entre a energia ingerida e a energia gasta. Neste desequilíbrio podem estar implicados diversos fatores relacionados com o estilo de vida (dieta e exercício físico), alterações neuro-endócrinas, juntamente com um componente hereditário. O componente genético constitui um fator determinante de algumas doenças congênitas e um elemento de risco para diversas doenças crônicas como diabetes, osteoporose, hipertensão, câncer, obesidade, entre outras. O aumento da prevalência da obesidade em quase todos os países durante os últimos anos, parece indicar que existe uma predisposição ou susceptibilidade genética para a obesidade, sobre a qual atuam os fatores ambientais relacionados com os estilos de vida, em que se incluem principalmente os hábitos alimentares e a atividade física. A utilização de modelos animais de obesidade, a transferência génica e os estudos de associação e ligamento, permitiram a identificação de vários genes implicados na obesidade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Obesidade
20.
Nutrition ; 19(1): 25-9, 2003 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12507635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This dietary trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an experimental short-term fasting period followed by a high-carbohydrate meal on energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and sympathetic nervous system activity in normal (body mass index < 25 kg/m(2)) and overweight (body mass index > 27 kg/m(2)) men who were healthy, non-diabetic or with no other endocrine disease, non-smokers, not taking oral prescription medications, and with a stable body weight for the previous 3 mo. METHODS: Fasting and fed energy expenditures and diet-induced thermogenesis were measured after a high-carbohydrate meal in seven overweight and six lean young male subjects by indirect calorimetry. Heart rate, urinary excretion of catecholamines, serum glucose, and insulin were also measured over the experimental fasting (7.5 h) and postprandial (4 h) periods. RESULTS: After carbohydrate intake, overweight men showed a significantly higher energy production (kJ/kg of fat-free mass) than did lean individuals, and the diet-induced thermogenesis (percentage of energy intake) was positively correlated with body fat (kg), percentage of body fat, fat-free mass (kg), and fasting pre-meal serum insulin levels. Postprandial cumulative energy expenditure was directly associated with postprandial insulin response and with mean postprandial heart rate values. No significant differences in urinary catecholamines were found between lean and overweight men at basal conditions or during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight individuals showed similar short-term sympathetic nervous system responses induced by an experimental fasting period. Although diet-induced thermogenesis after carbohydrate intake was not statistically different between lean and overweight men, the postprandial insulin response and body fat content seemed to be involved in sympathetic nervous system activity.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Insulina/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Calorimetria Indireta , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Jejum , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Oxirredução , Período Pós-Prandial , Respiração
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