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1.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585876

RESUMO

GenoTools, a Python package, streamlines population genetics research by integrating ancestry estimation, quality control (QC), and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) capabilities into efficient pipelines. By tracking samples, variants, and quality-specific measures throughout fully customizable pipelines, users can easily manage genetics data for large and small studies. GenoTools' "Ancestry" module renders highly accurate predictions, allowing for high-quality ancestry-specific studies, and enables custom ancestry model training and serialization, specified to the user's genotyping or sequencing platform. As the genotype processing engine that powers several large initiatives including the NIH's Center for Alzheimer's and Related Dementias (CARD) and the Global Parkinson's Genetics Program (GP2). GenoTools was used to process and analyze the UK Biobank and major Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) datasets with over 400,000 genotypes from arrays and 5000 sequences and has led to novel discoveries in diverse populations. It has provided replicable ancestry predictions, implemented rigorous QC, and conducted genetic ancestry-specific GWAS to identify systematic errors or biases through a single command. GenoTools is a customizable tool that enables users to efficiently analyze and scale genotype data with reproducible and scalable ancestry, QC, and GWAS pipelines.

2.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: University students who experience more discrimination typically report more negative consequences from alcohol use. The study aimed to assess whether drinking to cope and protective behavioral strategies for alcohol use would help explain the relationship between everyday discrimination and alcohol-related consequences among university student drinkers. METHOD: Data were collected in Fall 2020 and the sample included 707 undergraduate and graduate students from a large public institution in the northeast who reported consuming alcohol in the past month. Participants identified predominantly as women (71.7%; 24.6% men) and White (65.1%; 7.9% Black/African American; 7.2% Asian/Asian American; 7.1% Hispanic/Latinx). A cross-sectional serial mediation analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted using Mplus. RESULTS: Controlling for alcohol use, results supported a serial partial mediation model. More experiences of discrimination predicted a significant increase in alcohol-related consequences, above and beyond the increase attributed to drinking to cope. More frequent use of protective behavioral strategies significantly increased the odds of reporting no alcohol-related consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking to cope and protective behavioral strategies for alcohol use may help explain why university students who report frequent discrimination are more likely to experience alcohol-related consequences, independent of how much alcohol they consume. Findings can inform clinical and prevention practice, advocacy, and training.

3.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips20230157, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347813

RESUMO

Stressful events can exacerbate symptoms of psychiatric disorders among primary care patients, putting them at increased risk for suicide. In a pilot study that ran from August to December of 2020, researchers evaluated the acceptability and implementation of Managing Emotions in Disaster and Crisis (MEDIC), a self-help intervention designed to assist at-risk primary care patients. A total of 108 at-risk veterans completed baseline and 6-week assessments. Results were promising, with high patient acceptability and engagement along with improvement in all measures of mental illness symptoms from baseline to posttreatment. Self-help interventions like MEDIC may offer a low-burden way for primary care providers to support more patients.

4.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(3): 1197-1211, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212437

RESUMO

Latinx gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (LMSM) report lower pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use than their white, non-Latinx counterparts. We hypothesize that this disparity is partially attributable to social ecological factors that can be addressed via prevention interventions. In this retrospective study, we first examined data from 253 LMSM to determine whether theorized associations existed between acquisition of a PrEP prescription (uptake) in relation to several social ecological factors based on a conceptual framework of determinants of access to and uptake of PrEP for LMSM. We also explored relations between frequency of PrEP use (adherence) and social ecological factors with a subsample of 33 LMSM who had initiated PrEP 12 months prior to assessment. In this study, individual-level factors from this framework included age and socioeconomic status. Perceived access to medical care represented both individual- and community-level determinants of PrEP uptake and adherence. Interpersonal-level factors were social support and relationship status. Structural/cultural-level factors were sexual identity development status, the masculinity norm of heterosexual self-presentation, traditional Latinx masculine gender role beliefs of machismo and caballerismo, racial identity, and immigration status. Results indicated that older men and those who endorsed the synthesis/integration status of sexual identity development were more likely to acquire a PrEP prescription during their lifetime in comparison to peers. PrEP adherence was linked with being older, reporting higher socioeconomic status, reporting more appraisal social support, self-identifying as white-Latinx, being U.S.-born, and endorsing less sexual identity uncertainty and more heterosexual self-presentation. Results specify modifiable factors that may inform tailored, community-based prevention efforts to increase PrEP use and decrease existing HIV/AIDS disparities among LMSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hispânico ou Latino
5.
Anesthesiology ; 140(5): 890-905, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38207324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-density electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring remains underutilized in clinical anesthesia, despite its obvious utility in unraveling the profound physiologic impact of these agents on central nervous system functioning. In school-aged children, the routine practice of rapid induction with high concentrations of inspiratory sevoflurane is commonplace, given its favorable efficacy and tolerance profile. However, few studies investigate topographic EEG during the critical timepoint coinciding with loss of responsiveness-a key moment for anesthesiologists in their everyday practice. The authors hypothesized that high initial sevoflurane inhalation would better precipitate changes in brain regions due to inhomogeneities in maturation across three different age groups compared with gradual stepwise paradigms utilized by other investigators. Knowledge of these changes may inform strategies for agent titration in everyday clinical settings. METHODS: A total of 37 healthy children aged 5 to 10 yr underwent induction with 4% or greater sevoflurane in high-flow oxygen. Perturbations in anesthetic state were investigated in 23 of these children using 64-channel EEG with the Hjorth Laplacian referencing scheme. Topographical maps illustrated absolute, relative, and total band power across three age groups: 5 to 6 yr (n = 7), 7 to 8 yr (n = 8), and 9 to 10 yr (n = 8). RESULTS: Spectral analysis revealed a large shift in total power driven by increased delta oscillations. Well-described topographic patterns of anesthesia, e.g., frontal predominance, paradoxical beta excitation, and increased slow activity, were evident in the topographic maps. However, there were no statistically significant age-related changes in spectral power observed in a midline electrode subset between the groups when responsiveness was lost compared to the resting state. CONCLUSIONS: High initial concentration sevoflurane induction causes large-scale topographic effects on the pediatric EEG. Within the minute after unresponsiveness, this dosage may perturb EEG activity in children to an extent where age-related differences are not discernible.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios , Éteres Metílicos , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Sevoflurano , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Eletroencefalografia , Anestesia Geral , Encéfalo
6.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37693505

RESUMO

Cells react to stress by triggering response pathways, leading to extensive alterations in the transcriptome to restore cellular homeostasis. The role of RNA metabolism in shaping the cellular response to stress is vital, yet the global changes in RNA stability under these conditions remain unclear. In this work, we employ direct RNA sequencing with nanopores, enhanced by 5' end adaptor ligation, to comprehensively interrogate the human transcriptome at single-molecule and nucleotide resolution. By developing a statistical framework to identify robust RNA length variations in nanopore data, we find that cellular stress induces prevalent 5' end RNA decay that is coupled to translation and ribosome occupancy. Unlike typical RNA decay models in normal conditions, we show that stress-induced RNA decay is dependent on XRN1 but does not depend on removal of the poly(A) tail. We observed that RNAs undergoing decay are predominantly enriched in the stress granule transcriptome. Inhibition of stress granule formation via genetic ablation of G3BP1 and G3BP2 fully rescues RNA length and suppresses stress-induced decay. Our findings reveal RNA decay as a key determinant of RNA metabolism upon cellular stress and dependent on stress-granule formation.

7.
Psychol Men Masc ; 24(3): 261-268, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044977

RESUMO

Objectives: Participation in sports can increase young adults' risk for heavy alcohol use and related consequences. Among student-athletes, more men report heavy drinking than women. These gender differences may reflect men's expression of masculinity which can encompass excessive consumption. While a growing body of research indicates that general masculine norms are positively associated with alcohol use and consequences among men, the extent to which alcohol-specific masculine norms can increase student-athletes' risk for elevated drinking and related outcomes is not yet known. Thus, we examined how masculine drinking norms are associated with alcohol use and related consequences while accounting for demographics and multiple dimensions of general masculine norms. Methods: 1,825 NCAA student-athletes (White=79%, Mage=20.1/SDage=1.3; 50 colleges/universities) completed a confidential online survey which included questions regarding masculine drinking norms of excess and control and conformity to general masculine norms. Results: We created latent constructs and tested a path model in SEM. Results indicated that, after accounting for demographics and multiple dimensions of general masculine norms, the masculine drinking norm of excess was positively associated with alcohol use and consequences. Conversely, control was negatively related to alcohol use but unrelated to consequences. Compared to control and other dimensions of general masculine norms, excess was most strongly related to alcohol use and consequences. Conclusions: A move from assessing general masculine norms toward alcohol-specific masculine norms can further researchers' and practitioners' knowledge of masculine norms and their link to drinking behaviors, and enhance the application of masculine norms in alcohol intervention and prevention programs.

8.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38014155

RESUMO

Quantification of the dynamics of RNA metabolism is essential for understanding gene regulation in health and disease. Existing methods rely on metabolic labeling of nascent RNAs and physical separation or inference of labeling through PCR-generated mutations, followed by short-read sequencing. However, these methods are limited in their ability to identify transient decay intermediates or co-analyze RNA decay with cis-regulatory elements of RNA stability such as poly(A) tail length and modification status, at single molecule resolution. Here we use 5-ethynyl uridine (5EU) to label nascent RNA followed by direct RNA sequencing with nanopores. We developed RNAkinet, a deep convolutional and recurrent neural network that processes the electrical signal produced by nanopore sequencing to identify 5EU-labeled nascent RNA molecules. RNAkinet demonstrates generalizability to distinct cell types and organisms and reproducibly quantifies RNA kinetic parameters allowing the combined interrogation of RNA metabolism and cis-acting RNA regulatory elements.

10.
J Parasitol ; 109(5): 486-494, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37722695

RESUMO

Bot flies (Oestridae: Cuterebrinae) are obligate mammalian parasites that complete the larval stage of their life cycle under the skin of their host. Most detailed studies of bot fly larval disease ecology have been conducted in temperate deciduous zone rodent systems. To understand the relative importance of seasonal and spatial factors, as well as factors intrinsic to the host, in underpinning the likelihood and extent of parasitism by bot flies in non-rodent hosts as well as in arid-land ecosystems, we examined the dynamic for black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii) parasitism by bot fly larvae (Cuterebra spp.) across 7 repeatedly sampled sites spread across approximately 500 km of the Chihuahuan Desert ecoregion of southern New Mexico. This environment is characterized by a climate that includes hot dry summers and cool to cold dry winters, as well as strongly seasonal summer monsoonal rains. Lagomorphs are a common mid-sized mammal in these landscapes. Bot fly parasitism was strongly seasonal, with peak prevalence and abundance in the spring, and there was spatial variation in the extent of parasitism between collection sites. Additionally, jackrabbits in better body condition were less likely to be parasitized (as indicated by kidney fat index). We did not find sex-based differences in bot fly parasitism between male and female jackrabbits. Thus, in arid-land ecoregions, abiotic factors are likely the primary driver of the bot fly-host interaction, whereas factors intrinsic to the host were of secondary importance for characterizing the interactions of bot flies and lagomorphs.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Lebres , Lagomorpha , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Ecossistema , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Larva
11.
Lancet Planet Health ; 7(6): e501-e517, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37286247

RESUMO

Globally, many resource extraction projects such as mines and hydroelectric dams are developed on the territories of Indigenous Peoples. Recognising land as a determinant of Indigenous Peoples' health, our objective is to synthesise evidence about the mental health impacts on Indigenous communities who experience land dispossession due to industrial resource development (mining, hydroelectric, petroleum, and agricultural). We systematically reviewed studies that focused on Indigenous land dispossession in Australia, Aotearoa (New Zealand), North and South America, and the Circumpolar North. We searched Scopus, Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Global Health on OVID for peer-reviewed articles published in English from database inception to Dec 31, 2020. We also searched for books, research reports, and scholarly journals specialising in Indigenous health or Indigenous research. We included documents that reported on primary research, focused on Indigenous Peoples in settler colonial states, and reported on mental health and industrial resource development. Of the 29 included studies, 13 were related to hydroelectric dams, 11 to petroleum developments, nine to mining, and two to agriculture. Land dispossession due to industrial resource development had predominantly negative mental health impacts on Indigenous communities. The impacts were consequences of colonial relations that threatened Indigenous identities, resources, languages, traditions, spirituality, and ways of life. Health impact assessment processes in industrial resource development must expressly consider risks and potential impacts on mental health and respect Indigenous rights by making knowledge about mental health risks a central component to decisions about free, prior, and informed consent.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Austrália , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Nova Zelândia
12.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 179, 2023 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37291611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted parental and child mental health and wellbeing in the UK. This study aimed to explore the experiences of parents of children with rare neurological and neurodevelopmental conditions with a known or suspected genetic cause (neurogenetic) across the first year of the pandemic in the UK. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parents of children with rare neurogenetic conditions. Parents were recruited via opportunity sampling from the CoIN Study, a longitudinal quantitative study exploring the impact of the pandemic on the mental health and wellbeing of families with rare neurogenetic conditions. Interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes were identified: (1) "A varied impact on child wellbeing: from detrimental to 'no big drama'"; (2) "Parental mental health and wellbeing: impact, changes, and coping"; (3) "'The world had shut its doors and that was that': care and social services during the pandemic"; and (4) "Time and luck: abstract concepts central to parents' perspectives of how they coped during the pandemic". The majority of parents described experiencing an exacerbation of pre-pandemic challenges due to increased uncertainty and a lack of support, with a minority reporting positive effects of the pandemic on family wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: These findings offer a unique insight into the experiences parents of children with rare neurogenetic conditions across the first year of the pandemic in the UK. They highlight that the experiences of parents were not pandemic-specific, and will continue to be highly relevant in a non-pandemic context. Future support should to be tailored to the needs of families and implemented across diverse future scenarios to promote coping and positive wellbeing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Saúde Mental
13.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-5, 2023 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37159923

RESUMO

Objective: Drinking more and drinking to cope increase undergraduates' likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems (ARP; e.g., driving intoxicated). In accordance with stress-coping models of addiction, anxiety about COVID-19 may motivate undergraduates to drink to cope, leading them to experience more ARP. However, this hypothesis has not been tested. Participants and methods: During fall 2020, 358 undergraduate drinkers (Mage = 21.18; 69.80% cis-women; 62.30% White) provided data regarding COVID-anxiety, alcohol consumption, drinking to cope, and ARP during an annual student survey. Results: Mediation analysis controlling for alcohol consumption revealed greater COVID-anxiety predicted higher levels of drinking to cope; in turn, higher levels of drinking to cope were associated with more ARP. Additionally, the positive relationship between greater COVID-anxiety and experiencing more ARP was explained entirely by higher levels of drinking to cope. Conclusion: During the pandemic and beyond, university prevention and intervention initiatives should target coping motives for alcohol use to help students avoid ARP.

14.
Haematologica ; 108(10): 2616-2625, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37051756

RESUMO

Venetoclax+azacitidine is the standard of care for newly-diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for whom intensive chemotherapy is inappropriate. Efforts to optimize this regimen are necessary. We designed a clinical trial to investigate two hypotheses: i) higher doses of venetoclax are tolerable and more effective, and ii) azacitidine can be discontinued after deep remissions. Forty-two newly diagnosed AML patients were enrolled in the investigator-initiated High Dose Discontinuation Azacitidine+Venetoclax (HiDDAV) Study (clinicaltrials gov. Identifier: NCT03466294). Patients received one to three "induction" cycles of venetoclax 600 mg daily with azacitidine. Responders received MRD-positive or MRDnegative "maintenance" arms: azacitidine with 400 mg venetoclax or 400 mg venetoclax alone, respectively. The toxicity profile of HiDDAV was similar to 400 mg venetoclax. The overall response rate was 66.7%; the duration of response (DOR), event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival were 12.9, 7.8 and 9.8 months, respectively. The MRD negativity rate was 64.3% by flow cytometry and 25.0% when also measured by droplet digital polymerase chain recation. MRD-negative patients by flow cytometry had improved DOR and EFS; more stringent measures of MRD negativity were not associated with improved OS, DOR or EFS. Using MRD to guide azacitidine discontinuation did not lead to improved DOR, EFS or OS compared to patients who discontinued azacitidine without MRD guidance. Within the context of this study design, venetoclax doses >400 mg with azacitidine were well tolerated but not associated with discernible clinical improvement, and MRD may not assist in recommendations to discontinue azacitidine. Other strategies to optimize, and for some patients, de-intensify, venetoclax+azacitidine regimens are needed.


Assuntos
Azacitidina , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasia Residual/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1036388, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36876013

RESUMO

Introduction: Individuals working in the field of veterinary care are regularly affected by their profession. High levels of responsibility to often provide life-saving health care to animals combined with having to manage owners' expectations and irregular working hours can cause considerable levels of work-related stress among professionals in equine veterinary practice. On the positive side, research also shows that working in the veterinary profession can have a positive impact on personal wellbeing and feelings of fulfillment. A limited number of studies has investigated work satisfaction and engagement among veterinarians across the globe, and none specifically in the equine veterinary work field. The aim of the current study was to identify relevant predictors of employee engagement and work satisfaction in relation to demographic and work environment related factors in the equine veterinary profession. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate work satisfaction and employee engagement among equine veterinary professionals from the UK, the US and the Netherlands using an online survey. Results: Results suggest that levels of work engagement and satisfaction in the veterinary profession may be gauged using four factors. These factors encompass Pride and purpose (the extent to which personal core values align with the mission of the employer, i.e., the veterinary practice), Company culture and relationship with management (the manner in which staff members interact with each other and the management), Working conditions and compensation (formal employment conditions relating to responsibilities and rewards and levels of collegiality) and Team culture and learning possibilities (encouragement to pursue personal and professional growth). Discussion: Findings underline the importance of being particularly mindful of inexperienced colleagues, those with demanding family commitments and, where feasible, of providing employees with a modicum of autonomy in order to ensure a satisfied equine veterinary workforce.

16.
Poult Sci ; 102(5): 102604, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36958061

RESUMO

Millions of poultry are farmed intensively every year across the United Kingdom (UK) to produce both meat and eggs. There are inevitable situations that require birds to be emergency killed on farm to alleviate pain and suffering. In Europe and the UK, emergency methods are regulated by the European Council Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2009 and The Welfare of Animals at the Time of Killing Regulations (England 2015; Scotland 2012; Wales and Northern Ireland 2014). Cervical dislocation has been reported to be the most widely used method prior to these legislative changes which took place from 1 January 2013. Based on limited scientific evidence and concern for bird welfare, these legislative changes incorporated restrictions based on bird weight for both manual (≤3 kg) and mechanical (≤5 kg) cervical dislocation, and introduced an upper limit in the number of applications for manual cervical dislocation (up to 70 birds per person per day). Furthermore, it removed methods which showed evidence of crushing injury to the neck. However, since legal reform new scientific evidence surrounding the welfare consequences of cervical dislocation and the development of novel methods for killing poultry in small numbers on farm have become available. Whether the UK poultry industry have adopted these novel methods, and whether legislative reform resulted in a change in the use of cervical dislocation in the UK remains unknown. Responses from 215 respondents working across the UK poultry industry were obtained. Despite legal reform, manual cervical dislocation remains the most prevalent method used across the UK for killing poultry on farm (used by 100% of farms) and remains the preferred method amongst respondents (81.9%). The use of alternative methods such as Livetec Nex® and captive bolt guns were available to less than half of individuals and were not frequently employed for broilers and laying hens. Our data suggests there is a lack of a clear alternative to manual cervical dislocation for individuals working with larger species and a lack of gold standard methodology. This risks bird welfare at killing and contributes to inconsistency across the industry. We suggest providing stakeholders with practical alternatives prior to imposing legislative changes and effective knowledge transfer between the scientific community and stakeholders to promote positive change and protect bird welfare.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Feminino , Fazendas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Óvulo , Reino Unido , Bem-Estar do Animal
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4808, 2023 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36959244

RESUMO

Rodents are the predominant species used for scientific research and must be humanely killed upon completion of the work. In the UK this is regulated by Schedule 1 of the Animals Scientific Procedures Act 1986, which lists permitted methodologies considered capable of humane killing, including overdose of an anaesthetic, exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, dislocation of the neck and concussion of the brain by striking the cranium. Although all are permitted, operator motivations behind method selection and individual operator preference remain unknown. The views of 219 laboratory animal personnel on institutional availability and use of Schedule 1 killing methods for laboratory rodents were obtained. Only 10% of participants reported that all four methods were available at their institution with 57.5% of respondents preferring cervical dislocation. For CO2, only 18.6% of participants reported using the recommended flow rate, while 45.5% did not know the flow rate employed. We highlight the urgent requirement for the development of quality-controlled training programmes, to improve knowledge and confidence in the selection and application of killing methods. We advocate for continuous review of killing practices to ensure best practice is reflected in legislation and achieve optimal protection of the welfare of laboratory rodents during killing.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Roedores , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono , Animais de Laboratório , Reino Unido
18.
J Am Coll Health ; 71(4): 1250-1258, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242533

RESUMO

Objective: Athletic involvement is linked to increased risk for heavy alcohol use among college students. We examined whether student-athletes from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds differ with respect to heavy drinking and related consequences. Method: Participants were 15,135 student-athlete drinkers (50.7% female) from 170 NCAA member institutions who participated in an online study. Results: Findings from our hierarchical linear models indicated that being a male student-athlete was associated with an increased likelihood of high intensity drinking (10/8 + drinks/per sitting for males/females) for White, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Black student-athletes, but not for Hispanic student-athletes. Additionally, being a female student-athlete was associated with higher levels of negative alcohol-related consequences across all racial/ethnic groups. Finally, at similar drink quantities, compared to being a White student-athlete, being an Asian American/Pacific Islander student-athlete was associated with higher levels of alcohol-related consequences. Conclusions: Student-athlete drinkers are not homogeneous with respect to heavy drinking and related consequences.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Universidades , Atletas , Etanol
19.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 1027878, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524223

RESUMO

Alternatives to carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning for the commercial slaughter of pigs are urgently needed because there is robust evidence that exposing pigs to hypercapnic environments is associated with pain, fear, and distress. Hypobaric hypoxia (via gradual decompression, also known as Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning or LAPS) has been validated in poultry as a humane option, but its potential to improve the welfare of pigs at slaughter is unknown. We investigated the potential of hypobaric hypoxia to reliably elicit a non-recovery state in anesthetized weaner-grower pigs within a commercially viable timeframe. We determined the effect of candidate decompression rates (40, 60, 80, 100 ms-1, at two cycle durations 480 s and 720 s) on a range of physiological and reflexive behavioral indicators of hypoxia and death. We found that the decompression rates tested caused a 100% death rate. As expected, the decompression rate had overarching effects on behavioral and physiological markers of hypoxia and death, with faster decompression rates resulting in shorter latencies to cardiac arrest and cessation of breathing. We observed a higher proportion of pigs displaying repeated and prolonged whole-body movements (likely indicative of convulsive activity) at higher frequencies when we applied the slowest decompression rate (40 ms-1) compared to all other rates. Since these responses may impact the carcass and meat quality, the slower rate of decompression (40 ms-1) should be excluded as a candidate decompression rate. Furthermore, given the marginal effects of decompression rate on physiological indicators of death and reflexive behavioral parameters, we also recommend that the fastest rate tested (100 ms-1) is excluded in further study on conscious pigs (to prevent conscious animals from being exposed to unnecessary faster decompression rates which may compromise animal welfare). This work represents a necessary proof of principle step and confirms the potential of gradual decompression for stunning purposes in pigs. Importantly, however, the data presented provide no information on the welfare outcomes associated with decompression in conscious pigs. Subsequent work should focus on the comprehensive welfare assessment of intermediate decompression rates to determine the potential of hypobaric hypoxia to provide a humane stunning method for pigs.

20.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 1027883, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439339

RESUMO

Pigs are commonly stunned pre-slaughter by exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2), but this approach is associated with significant welfare concerns. Hypobaric hypoxia, achieved with gradual decompression (also known as Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning or LAPS) may be an alternative, allowing the retention of welfare friendly handling approaches and group stunning. Although validated in poultry, the feasibility and welfare consequences of gradual decompression for pigs are unknown. Here, we characterize pathological changes in 60 pigs resulting from exposure to a range of candidate decompression curves (ranging from 40 to 100 ms-1 ascent equivalent, with two cycle durations 480 and 720 s). To protect welfare, we worked on unconscious, terminally anesthetized pigs which were subject to detailed post-mortem examinations by a specialized porcine veterinary pathologist. All pigs were killed as a result of exposure to decompression, irrespective of cycle rate or length. Pigs showed no external injuries during ante-mortem inspections. Exposing pigs to decompression and the unavoidable subsequent recompression resulted in generalized congestion of the carcass, organs and body cavities including the ears, oral cavity, conjunctivae and sclera, mucosa of other external orifices (anus and vulva), nasal planum, nasal cavities including nasal conchae, frontal sinuses, cranium, meninges, brain, larynx, trachea, lungs, heart, parietal pleura of the thoracic cavity, peritoneum of the abdominal cavity, stomach, small intestine, caecum, colon, liver, spleen and kidneys and representative joint cavities in the limbs (stifles and elbows). Various severities of hemorrhage were observed in the conjunctivae and sclera, mucosa of other external orifices (anus and vulva), nasal cavities including nasal conchae, frontal sinuses, cranium, meninges, brain, larynx, tracheal lumen, lungs, parietal pleura of the thoracic cavity, liver, spleen and kidneys and representative joint cavities in the limbs (stifles and elbows). In general, faster decompression rates produced higher scores, but in the conjunctivae, sclera and kidneys, faster decompression rates were associated with marginally lower congestion scores. There was considerable individual variation in pathological scores across all body regions. The congestion and hemorrhage observed could translate into welfare harms in conscious pigs undergoing this type of stunning, depending when in the cycle the damage is occurring, but no welfare related conclusions can be drawn from the responses of unconscious pigs. Since recompression is always required, its effects cannot be separated from decompression, however cessation of cardiac activity several minutes before recompression should have eliminated any haemodynamic effects relating to cardiac function and blood pressure. This study represents the first systematic attempt to identify candidate rate profiles to underpin future explorations of decompression as a stunning method for pigs. These pathological findings also inform discussions about the likely carcass quality implications of this novel stunning method.

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