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Med J Aust ; 220(3): 145-153, 2024 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305486


OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in the monthly numbers of hospital-based abortions and outpatient early medical abortions in Victoria during January 2012 - March 2022, with a particular interest in the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study; time series analysis of Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) data. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: All admitted care episodes in Victoria during 1 January 2012 - 31 March 2022 with medical abortion as the principal diagnosis; all PBS claims for mifepristone-misoprostol (MS-2 Step) during 1 January 2015 (date of listing) - 31 March 2022. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in monthly numbers (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of admissions for hospital-based and outpatient early medical abortions during the pre-pandemic period (January 2012 - March 2020), the first full month of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020), and the pandemic period (May 2020 - March 2022). RESULTS: The monthly number of hospital-based abortions declined in Victoria during the pre-pandemic period (slope, -2.92 [95% CI, -3.45 to -2.38] per month); the rate of decline was greater during the pandemic period (slope, -5.74 [95% CI, -10.5 to -0.96] per month). The monthly number of outpatient early medical abortions increased during the pre-pandemic period (slope, 5.94 [95% CI, 5.34-6.34] per month); it declined during the first month of the pandemic (slope, -26.4 [95% CI, -70.1 to -17.3] per month), but did not significantly change thereafter. The total monthly number of abortions during the pandemic period did not deviate markedly from the pre-pandemic median value. The pre-pandemic declines in monthly numbers of abortions in major city hospitals, in private hospitals, or at earlier than 14 weeks' gestation intensified during the pandemic period. During January 2015 - March 2020, 14 634 of 103 496 abortions were outpatient medical abortions (14%); during the pandemic period, 11 154 of 33 056 abortions were outpatient medical abortions (33%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of outpatient early medical abortion has steadily increased in Victoria since the PBS listing of mifepristone-misoprostol, which helped ensure access to abortion during the COVID-19 pandemic. Outpatient medical abortions may eventually outnumber surgical early abortions in Victoria, but they are not always appropriate: hospitals will continue to be essential for comprehensive abortion care.

Aborto Induzido , COVID-19 , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Mifepristona , Aborto Legal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , Vigilância da População , Hospitais Privados , COVID-19/epidemiologia
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 846, 2023 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38082241


BACKGROUND: Melbourne, Australia, recorded one of the longest and most stringent pandemic lockdowns in 2020, which was associated with an increase in preterm stillbirths among singleton pregnancies. Twin pregnancies may be particularly susceptible to the impacts of pandemic disruptions to maternity care due to their higher background risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of all twin pregnancies birthing in public maternity hospitals in Melbourne. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to compare perinatal outcomes between a pre-pandemic group to women in whom weeks 20+0 to 40+0 of gestation occurred entirely during one of two lockdown-exposure periods: exposure 1 from 22 March 2020 to 21 March 2021 and exposure 2 from 22 March 2021 to 27 March 2022. RESULTS: Total preterm births < 37 weeks were significantly lower in exposure 1 compared with the pre-pandemic period (63.1% vs 68.3%; adjusted risk ratio 0.92 95% CI 0.87-0.98, p = 0.01). This was mainly driven by fewer spontaneous preterm births (18.9% vs 20.3%; adjusted risk ratio 0.95 95% CI 0.90-0.99, p = 0.04). There were also lower rates of preterm birth < 34 weeks (19.9% vs 23.0%, adjusted risk ratio 0.93 95% CI 0.89-0.98 p = 0.01) and total iatrogenic births for fetal compromise (13.4% vs 20.4%; adjusted risk ratio 0.94 95% CI 0.89-0.98, p = 0.01). There were fewer special care nursery admissions (38.5% vs 43.4%; adjusted risk ratio 0.91 95% CI 0.87-0.95, p < 0.001) but no significant changes in stillbirth (1.5% vs 1.6%; adjusted risk ratio 1.00 95% CI 0.99-1.01, p = 0.82). Compared with the pre-pandemic period, there were more preterm births < 28 weeks and neonatal intensive care unit admissions in exposure 2. CONCLUSIONS: Melbourne's first lockdown-exposure period was associated with lower preterm births in twins without significant differences in adverse newborn outcomes. Our findings provide insights into the influences on preterm birth and the optimal timing of delivery for twins.

COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Doença Iatrogênica , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 228(5): 585.e1-585.e16, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336084


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection in pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of progression to severe disease, but vaccine uptake by pregnant women is hindered by persistent safety concerns. COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy has been shown to reduce stillbirth, but its relationship with preterm birth is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure the rate of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among women giving birth in Melbourne, Australia, and to compare perinatal outcomes by vaccination status. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study conducted after the June 2021 government recommendations for messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. Routinely collected data from all 12 public maternity hospitals in Melbourne were extracted on births at ≥20 weeks' gestation from July 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed from the total birth cohort. Perinatal outcomes were compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated women for whom weeks 20 to 43 of gestation fell entirely within the 9-month data collection period. The primary outcomes were the rates of stillbirth and preterm birth (spontaneous and iatrogenic) in singleton pregnancies of at least 24 weeks' gestation, after exclusion of congenital anomalies. Secondary perinatal outcomes included the rate of congenital anomalies among infants born at ≥20 weeks' gestation and birthweight ≤third centile and newborn intensive care unit admissions among infants born without congenital anomalies at ≥24 weeks' gestation. We calculated the adjusted odds ratio of perinatal outcomes among vaccinated vs unvaccinated women using inverse propensity score-weighting regression adjustment with multiple covariates; P<.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Births from 32,536 women were analyzed: 17,365 (53.4%) were vaccinated and 15,171 (47.6%) were unvaccinated. Vaccinated women were more likely to be older, nulliparous, nonsmoking, not requiring an interpreter, of higher socioeconomic status, and vaccinated against pertussis and influenza. Vaccination status also varied by region of birth. Vaccinated women had a significantly lower rate of stillbirth compared with unvaccinated women (0.2% vs 0.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.37; P<.001). Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in total preterm births at <37 weeks (5.1% vs 9.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.71; P<.001), spontaneous preterm birth (2.4% vs 4.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.96; P=.02), and iatrogenic preterm birth (2.7% vs 5.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.65; P<.001). Infants born to vaccinated mothers also had lower rates of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. There was no significant increase in the rate of congenital anomalies or birthweight ≤3rd centile in vaccinated women. Vaccinated women were significantly less likely to have an infant with a major congenital anomaly compared with the unvaccinated group (2.4% vs 3.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.94; P=.02). This finding remained significant even when the analysis was restricted to women vaccinated before 20 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy was associated with a reduction in stillbirth and preterm birth, and not associated with any adverse impact on fetal growth or development. Vaccine coverage was substantially influenced by known social determinants of health.

COVID-19 , Nascimento Prematuro , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Doença Iatrogênica , Resultado da Gravidez
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e055902, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815291


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a range of unprecedented disruptions to maternity care with documented impacts on perinatal outcomes such as stillbirth and preterm birth. Metropolitan Melbourne has endured one of the longest and most stringent lockdowns in globally. This paper presents the protocol for a multicentre study to monitor perinatal outcomes in Melbourne, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Multicentre observational study analysing monthly deidentified maternal and newborn outcomes from births >20 weeks at all 12 public maternity services in Melbourne. Data will be merged centrally to analyse outcomes and create run charts according to established methods for detecting non-random 'signals' in healthcare. Perinatal outcomes will include weekly rates of total births, stillbirths, preterm births, neonatal intensive care admissions, low Apgar scores and fetal growth restriction. Maternal outcomes will include weekly rates of: induced labour, caesarean section, births before arrival to hospital, postpartum haemorrhage, length of stay, general anaesthesia for caesarean birth, influenza and COVID-19 vaccination status, and gestation at first antenatal visit. A prepandemic median for all outcomes will be calculated for the period of January 2018 to March 2020. A significant shift is defined as ≥6 consecutive weeks, all above or below the prepandemic median. Additional statistical analyses such as regression, time series and survival analyses will be performed for an in-depth examination of maternal and perinatal outcomes of interests. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval for the collaborative maternity and newborn dashboard project has been obtained from the Austin Health (HREC/64722/Austin-2020) and Mercy Health (ref. 2020-031). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000878976; Pre-results.

COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Nascimento Prematuro , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cesárea , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Natimorto/epidemiologia