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1.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836109

RESUMO

A varied and well-planned diet can meet the nutritional needs of an athlete; however, in certain cases, it could be advisable to increase the intake of some vitamins, minerals or other components through the controlled intake of fortified foods or dietary supplements. In the European Union, a high number of sport foods and supplements are marketed; athletes could at times consume them indiscriminately or even choose products that have not been evaluated and approved by scientific evidence. In this sense, it is necessary to know and interpret the specific regulations for these products in order to make adequate use of them. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the current status of the European regulatory framework, focusing on: (1) regulation of the marketing and labelling of both fortified foods and supplements; (2) regulation of the use of substances used as ingredients in fortified foods; and (3) regulation of nutritional claims and/or health properties associated with nutrients, ingredients and other related substances. This review can facilitate knowledgeable decision making by sports nutrition professionals in order to counsel or manage adequate food choices as well as help consumers make better-informed food decisions. Other experts, such as producers who ensure food safety, might also be interested in this review.


Assuntos
Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos Fortificados , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades Nutricionais
2.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796764

RESUMO

Food exchange lists have been widely used in dietary practice in health and disease situations, but there are still no exchange lists for sports foods. The aim of this study was to apply a previous published methodology to design food exchange lists to the development of a sports food exchange list, with sport products available in Spain. A cross-sectional study of the nutritional composition of sports foods, regarding macronutrients and energy, was carried out. A total of 322 sports foods from 18 companies were selected, taking into account their interest in sports practice and with nutritional data provided by companies. Sports foods were divided into seven groups: sports drinks; sports gels; sports bars; sports confectionery; protein powders; protein bars; and liquid meals. A sports food composition database based on portion size usually consumed by athletes and/or recommended in commercial packaging was created. Within each sports foods group, different subgroups were defined due to differences in the main and/or secondary macronutrient. The definition of each exchange list with the amounts-in grams-of each sports food within each group and subgroup, was done using statistical criteria such as mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and Z value. Final exchange values for energy and macronutrient have been established for each group and subgroup using a methodology to design food exchange lists previously published by the authors. In addition, those products with high Z values that can provide greater variability in dietary planning were included. The usefulness of sport foods lists as well as the use of an exchange system in the dietary practice of sports nutrition is discussed, and examples of how to use them with athletes are presented. This first sport foods exchange list showed in this study, with commercial sports products available in Spain, can be a novel tool for dietetic practice and also can allow sport nutrition professionals to develop another sport food list using the methodology described in this paper. Its management would allow dietitians to adapt dietary plans more precisely to the training and/or competition of the athlete.


Assuntos
Dietética/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Planejamento de Cardápio/métodos , Nutrientes/análise , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Espanha , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
3.
Food Chem ; 270: 452-458, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174071

RESUMO

Traditional tomatoes are highly valued for their organoleptic quality and cultural links with a territory. At present, strong competition has put these crops at risk, and it is necessary to differentiate the local cultivars and improve their nutritional value. This work focused on the nutritional study of four selected lines of a local tomato grown in two locations and in two agronomic conditions to nutritionally characterize the tomatoes and to study the effect of location and cultivation on nutritional parameters. Data on nutritional characterization revealed significant effects of location and treatment in most compounds. Tomatoes grown in traditional areas showed a significantly higher concentration of some phenolic acids and beta-carotene. Lycopene contents were not location dependent. The open field test showed significant differences in all the components. Regarding the best nutritional genotypes, all the components were dependent on lines, and significant differences were confirmed between them.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Valor Nutritivo , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Carotenoides , Comportamento do Consumidor , Frutas/química , Genótipo , Solanum lycopersicum/química
4.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2018 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585248

RESUMO

Vegan diets in children need to be adequately planned so they can safely meet children's requirements for growth and development. Adequate and realistic meal planning guidelines should not be difficult to achieve, thanks to the increasing number and availability of natural and fortified vegan foods, which can help children to meet all their nutrients requirements. In order to ensure an adequate supply of key nutrients, families and health professionals need accurate, reliable, and easy-to-use meal planning tools. The aim of this article is to provide a practical approach system to meal planning, based on the same food exchange methodology that has been already published in adults. Daily portions of each food exchange group have been calculated so the resulting menu provides at least 90% of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of protein, iron, zinc, calcium, and n-3 fatty acids for each age group, sex, and physical activity level. These diets do not provide enough vitamin B-12 and vitamin D. Although fortified plant drinks, breakfast cereals or plant protein-rich products could provide variable amounts of these two vitamins, B12 supplementation is always recommended and vitamin D supplementation should be considered whenever sun exposure is limited. This tool can be used to plan healthful and balanced vegan diets for children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegana , Alimentos/classificação , Refeições , Adolescente , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Gorduras na Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Veganos
7.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597906

RESUMO

Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) offer recommendations that help population to meet nutrient requirements. Most European FBDGs include quantitative information regarding daily and weekly consumed foods, but for occasionally consumed foods, they only recommend limiting their intake, without giving specific advice on portions. As these foods are consumed by the general population as a part of the cultural and culinary tradition of each country, it is important to establish the maximum frequency and the portions that would be acceptable to be included in a healthy eating pattern. This study outlines the methodology to include these foods in a national (Spanish) FBDG. Firstly, commonly consumed foods were selected and grouped, and portions were defined according to their nutritional value, so different foods within a group could be exchanged. Then, macronutrient profiles of occasionally consumed foods were compared to the frequently consumed food groups to determine to what extent they had a similar nutritional content. Finally, some combinations of foods, with or without the inclusion of occasionally consumed groups, were calculated. A maximum number of servings per group was defined according to their energy and nutrient content. Occasionally consumed foods can be included in a healthy diet as long as they are consumed in the small quantities as shown in this study and as long as they replace equivalent portions of other foods of frequent consumption. This new tool shows how to include occasionally consumed foods in a diet while maintaining its overall nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos/classificação , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Espanha
9.
Nutr Hosp ; 33(2): 121, 2016 Mar 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27238802

RESUMO

Introducción: una dieta vegetariana puede satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales si está bien planificada. En este sentido, los vegetarianos deben ser aconsejados para elegir alimentos alternativos a los productos de origen animal seleccionando el tamaño de porción adecuada de cada uno de ellos. El valor nutricional de las porciones de los alimentos vegetales tradicionales es bien conocido, sin embargo, el mercado vegetariano ofrece otros productos cuya composición química es menos conocida, ya que no son alimentos ampliamente consumidos por la población. Es necesario conocer tanto el contenido de nutrientes de las porciones de estos alimentos como la biodisponibilidad de estos nutrientes en la dieta vegetariana. Objetivos: este trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la información disponible sobre el aporte nutricional a la dieta de un adulto sano de las porciones de alimentos utilizados por la población vegetariana. Además, se discuten algunos puntos sobre la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más relevantes, y se proponen alternativas para mejorar su utilización. Métodos: los datos de composición de los alimentos veganos, por 100 g, se buscaron en bases de datos de composición de alimentos, y a partir de ellos se calculó la composición química de las porciones. Después, estos datos nutricionales se compararon con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia europeas para la población adulta, y se discutió la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más importantes.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Valor Nutritivo , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Vegana , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Humanos , Valores de Referência , Verduras/química
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 33(2): 386-394, mar.-abr. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-153317

RESUMO

Introduction: A vegan diet can meet nutritional requirements if it is well planned. In this sense, vegans should be advised to choose alternatives to animal products and to select the appropriate respective serving size of them. The nutritional value of traditional plant foods portions is well known, however, the vegetarian market offers other products whose chemical composition is less known, as they are not widely consumed by the population. It is necessary to know both, the nutrient content of portions of these foods, and bioavailability of these nutrients in plant food diets. Objectives: This work aims to refine the available information about the nutritional contribution to the diet of a healthy adult of the main common vegan foods portions. In addition, some points about bioavailability of the most relevant nutrients are discussed, and alternatives proposed to improve nutrient utilization. Methods: Composition data of common vegan foods per 100 g were searched from food composition database, and serving size nutrient composition was calculated. Nutritional data were compared to European dietary reference values for nutrient intakes for adult population, and bioavailability of the most important nutrients was discussed (AU)


Introducción: una dieta vegetariana puede satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales si está bien planificada. En este sentido, los vegetarianos deben ser aconsejados para elegir alimentos alternativos a los productos de origen animal seleccionando el tamaño de porción adecuada de cada uno de ellos. El valor nutricional de las porciones de los alimentos vegetales tradicionales es bien conocido, sin embargo, el mercado vegetariano ofrece otros productos cuya composición química es menos conocida, ya que no son alimentos ampliamente consumidos por la población. Es necesario conocer tanto el contenido de nutrientes de las porciones de estos alimentos como la biodisponibilidad de estos nutrientes en la dieta vegetariana. Objetivos: este trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la información disponible sobre el aporte nutricional a la dieta de un adulto sano de las porciones de alimentos utilizados por la población vegetariana. Además, se discuten algunos puntos sobre la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más relevantes, y se proponen alternativas para mejorar su utilización. Métodos: los datos de composición de los alimentos veganos, por 100 g, se buscaron en bases de datos de composición de alimentos, y a partir de ellos se calculó la composición química de las porciones. Después, estos datos nutricionales se compararon con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia europeas para la población adulta, y se discutió la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más importantes (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dieta Vegetariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Análise de Alimentos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Necessidades Nutricionais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Sementes , Óleos de Plantas/análise
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