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1.
Inorg Chem ; 62(44): 18157-18171, 2023 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37871434

RESUMO

Copper(I) halides are well-known for their structural diversity and rich photoluminescence properties, showing great potential for the development of solid-state lighting technology. A series of four molecular copper iodide clusters based on the [Cu4I4] cubane geometry is reported. Among them, [Cu8I8] octanuclear clusters of rare geometry resulting from dimerization of the tetranuclear counterparts were also synthesized. Two different phosphine ligands were studied, bearing either a styrene or an ethyl group. Therefore, the effect of the dimerization and of the ligand nature on the photophysical properties of the resulting clusters is investigated. The structural differences were analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared, and Raman analyses. Compared to the ethyl group, the styrene function appears to greatly impact the photophysical properties of the clusters. The luminescence thermochromic properties of the ethyl derivatives and the intriguing photophysical properties of the clusters with styrene function were rationalized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Thus, the styrene group significantly lowers in energy the vacant orbitals and consequently affects the global energetic layout of the clusters. From this study, it was found that the nuclearity of copper iodide clusters eventually has less influence on the photophysical properties than the nature of the ligand. The design of proper ligands should therefore be considered when developing materials for specific lighting applications.

2.
Anal Chem ; 94(23): 8120-8125, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648814

RESUMO

The development of instruments combining multiple characterization and imaging tools drove huge advances in material science, engineering, biology, and other related fields. Notably, the coupling of SEM with micro-Raman spectrometry (µRaman) provides the means for the correlation between structural and physicochemical properties at the surface, while dual focused ion beam (FIB)-scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) operating under cryogenic conditions (cryo-FIB-SEM) allow for the analysis of the ultrastructure of materials in situ and in their native environment. In cryo-FIB-SEM, rapid and efficient methods for assessing vitrification conditions in situ are required for the accurate investigation of the original structure of hydrated samples. This work reports for the first time the use of a cryo-FIB-SEM-µRaman instrument to efficiently assess the accuracy of cryo-fixation methods. Analyses were performed on plunge-freezed highly hydrated calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and a gelatin composite. By making a trench of a defined thickness with FIB, µRaman analyses were carried out at a specific depth within the frozen material. Results show that the µRaman signal is sensitive to the changes in the molecular structures of the aqueous phase and can be used to examine the depth of vitreous ice in frozen samples. The method presented in this work provides a reliable way to avoid imaging artifacts in cryo-FIB-SEM that are related to cryo-fixation and therefore constitutes great interest in the study of vitreous materials exhibiting high water content, regardless of the sample preparation method (i.e., by HPF, plunge freezing, and so on).


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Gelo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Congelamento , Água
3.
Inorg Chem ; 60(4): 2406-2413, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478208

RESUMO

The K3Sb4BO13 (KSBO) material undergoes an uncommon symmetry increase upon cooling, from triclinic symmetry at room temperature to monoclinic symmetry at low temperature. The first-order phase transition is accompanied by shrinkage of the unit cell, resulting in the transformation of every pair of head-to-tail triangular BO3 groups into one B2O6 unit featuring unique edge-sharing BO4 tetrahedra. This is the first material with B2O6 units formed through temperature lowering and exhibiting a B-O anionic framework composed uniquely of isolated edge-sharing BO4 tetrahedra. Several techniques including single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments, Raman and 11B magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopies, and, for the first time, B K-edge electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to evidence the rare and discrete B2O6 units. The complete transformation of BO3 units into B2O6 units makes the KSBO compound the perfect candidate to extract information about B2O6 units whose signal can be unambiguously assigned.

4.
ACS Nano ; 15(1): 596-603, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444504

RESUMO

Above a critical diameter, single- or few-walled carbon nanotubes spontaneously collapse as flattened carbon nanotubes. Raman spectra of isolated flattened and cylindrical carbon nanotubes have been recorded. The collapse provokes an intense and narrow D band, despite the absence of any lattice disorder. The curvature change near the edge cavities activates a D band, despite framework continuity. Theoretical calculations based on Placzek approximation fully corroborate this experimental finding. Usually used as a tool to quantify defect density in graphenic structures, the D band cannot be used as such in the presence of a graphene fold. This conclusion should serve as a basis to revisit materials comprising structural distortion where poor carbon organization was concluded on a Raman basis. Our finding also emphasizes the different visions of a defect between chemists and physicists, a possible source of confusion for researchers working in nanotechnologies.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 59(18): 13607-13620, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909432

RESUMO

In the field of stimuli-responsive luminescent materials, mechanochromic compounds exhibiting reversible emission color changes activated by mechanical stimulation present appealing perspectives in sensor applications. The mechanochromic luminescence properties of the molecular cubane copper iodide cluster [Cu4I4[PPh2(C6H4-CH2OH)]4] (1) are reported in this study. This compound can form upon melting an amorphous phase, giving an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the mechanochromism phenomenon. Because the mechanically induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition is only partial, the completely amorphous phase represents the ultimate state of the mechanically altered phase. Furthermore, the studied compound could form two different crystalline polymorphs, namely, [Cu4I4[PPh2(C6H4-CH2OH)]4]·C2H3N (1·CH3CN) and [Cu4I4[PPh2(C6H4-CH2OH)]4]·3C4H8O (1·THF), allowing the establishment of straightforward structure-property relationships. Photophysical and structural characterizations of 1 in different states were performed, and the experimental data were supported by theoretical investigations. Solid-state NMR analysis permitted quantification of the amorphous part in the mechanically altered phase. IR and Raman analysis enabled identification of the spectroscopic signatures of each state. Density functional theory calculations led to assignment of both the NMR characteristics and the vibrational bands. Rationalization of the photoluminescence properties was also conducted, with simulation of the phosphorescence spectra allowing an accurate interpretation of the thermochromic luminescence properties of this family of compounds. The combined study of crystalline polymorphism and the amorphous state allowed us to get deeper into the mechanochromism mechanism that implies changes of the [Cu4I4] cluster core geometry. Through the combination of multistimuli-responsive properties, copper iodide clusters constitute an appealing class of compounds toward original functional materials.

6.
Nanoscale ; 12(23): 12602-12612, 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501469

RESUMO

Lamellar nanoporous gold thin films, constituted of a stack of very thin layers of porous gold, are synthesized by chemical etching from a stack of successively deposited nanolayers of copper and gold. The gold ligament size, the pore size and the distance between lamellas are tunable in the few tens nanometer range by controlling the initial thickness of the layers and the etching time. The SERS activity of these lamellar porous gold films is characterized by their SERS responses after adsorption of probe bipyridine and naphtalenethiol molecules. The SERS signal is investigated as a function of the bipyridine concentration from 10-14 mol L-1 to 10-3 mol L-1. The higher SERS response corresponds to an experimental detection limit down to 10-12 mol L-1. These performance is mainly attributed to the specific nanoporous gold architecture and the larger accessible surface to volume ratio. The lamellar nanoporous gold substrate is explored for sensitive SERS detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a surrogate molecule of the highly toxic G-series nerve agents. The resultant nanostructure facilitates the diffusion of target molecules through the nanopores and their localization at the enhancing metallic surface leading to the unequivocal Raman signature of DMMP at a concentration of 5 parts per million.

7.
Chem Asian J ; 14(18): 3166-3172, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461221

RESUMO

The aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties of two different copper iodide clusters have been studied. These two [Cu4 I4 L4 ] clusters differ by their coordinated phosphine ligand and the luminescent mechanochromic properties are only displayed by one of them. The two clusters are AIE-active luminophors that exhibit an intense emission in the visible region upon aggregation. The formed particles present luminescent thermochromism comparable to that of the bulk compounds. The observed AIE properties can be attributed to suppression of nonradiative relaxation of the excited states in a more rigid state, in relation to the large structural relaxation of the excited triplet state. The differences observed in the AIE properties of the two clusters can be related to the different ligands. A correlation between the luminescence mechanochromic properties and the AIE effect is not straightforward, but the formation of "soft" molecular solids is a common characteristic that can explain the photoactive properties of these compounds.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(6): 3066-3072, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672929

RESUMO

This paper demonstrates the use of surface plasmon resonance of core-shell Ag@TiO2 particles in SHINERS experiments. A copper(ii) complex grafted onto Ag@TiO2 surface was probed by Raman spectroscopy using resonance excitation profiles vs. excitation wavelengths (514, 633 and 785 nm) to tune the Raman signals. Enhancement factors of the SHINERS assembly have been estimated and compared to the SERS effect of unmodified silver NPs colloidal dispersions. Finally, the grafting of the copper(ii) complex onto Ag@TiO2 was advantageously compared to the grafting onto Ag@SiO2 shell.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 30(5): 055603, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520423

RESUMO

Nanostructuration and self-ordering of semiconducting organic materials are required to fabricate highly efficient photovoltaic and photoemissive devices. In this work, we investigated the combined effect of melt-assisted template processing and self-ordering of high purity regio-regular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to obtain nanofibers of P3HT and of P3HT-single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) nanocomposites. An original ordering of the polymer and the carbon nanotubes within the nanofibers, as well as their surprising anisotropic photoluminescent properties were determined by vibrational and optical spectroscopy. It was attributed to the combined effect of the melt-assisted wetting confined within alumina nanopores, altogether with the self-organization of both P3HT chains on the one hand, and of the P3HT charged with SWNT on the other hand. It is proposed that the well-ordered regio-regular P3HT matrix orientation is promoted by the interaction with the alumina pore surface and the 1D confinement. For the composite case, the P3HT matrix imposes additionally a preferential orientation of the SWNT transversal to the nanofiber axis. This original organization is responsible for the unexpected polarization of the composite nanofibers photoluminescence. This work opens the way to alternative methods for tackling challenges of nanofabrication to obtain more efficient optoelectronic nanodevices.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(41): 13618-13623, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133113

RESUMO

Layered transition metal compounds represent a major playground to explore unconventional electric or magnetic properties. In that framework, topochemical approaches that mostly preserve the topology of layered reactants have been intensively investigated to tune properties and/or design new materials. Topochemical reactions often involve the insertion or deinsertion of a chemical element accompanied by a change of oxidation state of the cations only. Conversely, cases where anions play the role of redox centers are very scarce. Here we show that the insertion of copper into two dimensional precursors containing chalcogen dimers (Q2 )2- (Q=S, Se) can produce layered materials with extended (CuQ) sheets. The reality of this topochemical reaction is demonstrated here for different pristine materials, namely La2 O2 S2 , Ba2 F2 S2 , and LaSe2 . Therefore, this work opens up a new synthetic strategy to design layered transition metal compounds from precursors containing polyanionic redox centers.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9518, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934614

RESUMO

The influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes enriched in semiconductor (S-SWNTs) and metallic (M-SWNTs) tubes on the photoluminescence (PL) of polyaniline (PANI), electrosynthesized in the presence of the H2SO4 and HCl solutions, is reported. The emission bands peaked at 407-418 and 440-520 nm indicate that the electropolymerization of aniline (ANI) leads to the formation of short and longer macromolecular chains (MCs), respectively. We demonstrate that the reaction product consists of ANI tetramers (TT) and trimers (TR) as well as PANI-salt. Using Raman scattering and IR absorption spectroscopy, a covalent functionalization of SWNTs with shorter and longer MCs of PANI-salt is demonstrated. The presence of S-SWNTs and M-SWNTs induces a decrease in ANI TT weight in the reaction product mass consisting in S-SWNTs and M-SWNTs covalently functionalized with PANI-emeraldine salt (ES) and PANI-leucoemeraldine salt (LS), respectively. A PANI PL quenching is reported to be induced of the S-SWNTs and M-SWNTs. A de-excitation mechanism is proposed to explain PANI PL quenching.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 54(22): 10623-31, 2015 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26502801

RESUMO

Polycrystalline samples of Mn1-xCuxWO4 (x ≤ 0.5) have been prepared by a solid-state synthesis as well as from a citrate synthesis at moderate temperature (850 °C). The goal is to study changes in the structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of magnetoelectric type-II multiferroic MnWO4 caused by replacing Jahn-Teller-inactive Mn(2+) (d(5), S = 5/2) ions with Jahn-Teller-active Cu(2+) (d(9), S = 1/2) ions. Combination of techniques including scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that the polycrystalline samples with low copper content 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 are solid solution that forms in the monoclinic P2/c space group. Rietveld analyses indicate that Cu atoms substitutes for Mn atoms at the Mn crystallographic site of the MnWO4 structure and suggest random distributions of Jahn-Teller-distorted CuO6 octahedra in the solid solution. Magnetic susceptibility reveals that only 5% of Cu substitution suppresses the nonpolar collinear AF1 antiferromagnetic structure observed in pure MnWO4. Type-II multiferroicity survives a weak Cu substitution rate (x < 0.15). Multiferroic transition temperature and Néel temperature increase as the amount of Cu increases. New trends in some of the magnetic properties and in dielectric behaviors are observed for x = 0.20 and 0.25. Careful analysis of the magnetic susceptibility reveals that the incorporation of Cu into MnWO4 strengthens the overall antiferromagnetic interaction and reduces the magnetic frustration.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(3): 1932-42, 2015 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561442

RESUMO

The fabrication of hybrid core-shell nanoassemblies involving a nondoped azo photochromic core coated with a dense shell of gold nanoparticles is reported to investigate the influence of localized plasmons onto the azo core photoisomerization. Photochromic organic nanoparticles, regarded as a novel class of high-density photoswitchable nanomaterials, are first elaborated upon precipitation in water of push-pull azo molecules, containing sulfur-terminated units to chelate gold nanoparticles. Photoisomerization studies of the azo nanoparticles reveal significantly higher E → Z photoconversion yields and Z → E thermal back relaxation rate constants compared to those of dyes processed as thin films and in solution, respectively. These unexpected results are ascribed to the large surface-to-volume ratio and cooperative effects encountered in nanoparticles that deform without disassembling under polarized illumination as a result of the weak change in the azo dipole moment. UV-vis spectroscopy and Raman microscopy of the hybrid nanoassemblies show strong optical coupling between both photoactive constituents, confirming that gold nanoparticles are tightly positioned on the azo core surface. Such coupling causes partial quenching of the azo photoisomerization but does not impact the thermal back relaxation. Longer sulfur-terminated chains provide reduced quenching of the photoreaction by the localized plasmons, thereby opening perspectives toward plasmon-mediated deformation of nano-objects for light-controlled nanomechanics.

14.
J Phys Chem B ; 118(19): 5278-88, 2014 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24766480

RESUMO

Vibrational dynamics in triarylamine dendrimers was studied in a complementary way by Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopies and incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (IINS). Three molecules were investigated, namely, unsubstituted triarylamine dendrimer of the first generation and two dendrimers of the first and second generation, substituted in the crown with butyl groups. To facilitate the assignment of the observed IR and Raman modes as well as the IINS peaks, vibrational models, based on the general valence force field method (GVFF), were calculated for all three compounds studied. A perfect consistency between the calculated and experimental results was found. Moreover, an important complementarity of the vibrational spectroscopies and IINS was established for the investigated dendrimers. The IINS peaks originating mainly from the C-H motions were not restricted by particular selection rules and only dependent on the IINS cross section. To the contrary, Raman and IR bands were imposed by the selection rules and the local geometry of the dendrimers yielding mainly C-C and C-N deformation modes with those of C-H nature of much lower intensity. Raman spectroscopy was also applied to the studies of the oxidation of dendrimers to their cationic forms. A strong Raman resonance effect was observed, since the spectra of the studied compounds, registered at different levels of their oxidation, strongly depended on the position of the excitation line with respect to their electronic spectrum. In particular, the blue (458 nm) excitation line turned out to be insensitive toward the cationic forms yielding very limited spectral information. To the contrary, the use of the red (647 nm) and infrared (1064 nm) excitation lines allowed for an unambiguous monitoring of the spectral changes in dendrimers oxidized to nominally monocationic and tricationic states. The analysis of oxidation-induced spectral changes in the tricationic state indicated that the charge storage configuration predominantly involved one spinless dication of the quinoid bond sequence and one radical cation. However, small numbers of dications were also found in a nominally monocationic state, where only radical cations should have been present. This finding was indicative of some inhomogeneity of the oxidation.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23602953

RESUMO

Polarized infrared (IR) reflectance measurements at near-normal incidence were recorded from the ac-plane of a monoclinic brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O) crystal in the 800-1200 cm(-1) spectral range (P-O stretching modes). The adjustment of these data, on the basis of a dispersion analysis (DA) model for monoclinic case, allowed the determination of oscillators parameters for the four P-O stretching observed modes of the phosphate group.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Fosfatos/química , Cristalização , Eletricidade , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Químicos , Pós , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(42): 16938-46, 2011 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21923167

RESUMO

We present a systematic Raman study over a range of excitation energies of arc discharge single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) covalently functionalized according to two processes, esterification and reductive alkylation. The SWCNTs are characterized by resonance Raman spectroscopy at each step of the functionalization process, showing changes in radial breathing mode frequencies and transition energies for both semiconducting and metallic tubes. Particular attention is given to a family of tubes clearly identified in the Kataura plot for which we continuously tune the excitation energy from 704 to 752 nm. This allows us to quantify the energy shift occurring in the spacing of the van Hove singularities. We demonstrate that, independently of the functionalization technique, the type of chain covalently bound to the tubes plays an important role, notably when oxygen atoms lie close to the tubes, inducing a larger shift in transition energy as compared to that of other carbonaceous chains. The study shows the complexity of interpreting Raman data and suggests many interpretations in the literature may need to be revisited.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 10(27): 4027-35, 2008 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18597017

RESUMO

Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) containing one diaminopyrimidine side group per ten repeat units (P3HT-co-P3(ODAP)HT) can form molecular composites with 1-(6-mercaptohexyl)thymine capped CdSe nanocrystals (CdSe(MHT)) via hydrogen bonds directed molecular recognition. Here we report complementary spectroscopic, electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical investigations of both the functionalized poly(thiophene) and its composite with the nanocrystals, the latter being fabricated using the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique. UV-Vis-NIR and Raman spectroelectrochemical investigations unequivocally show that the onset of the first anodic peak in the cyclic voltammogram of the copolymer can be attributed to the oxidation of the pi-conjugated backbone in the polymer chains. For this reason, it is possible to determine the width and the position of its band gap (corresponding to the pi-pi* transition) by UV-Vis spectroscopy combined with cyclic voltammetry. These studies show that the polymer exhibits a slightly larger band gap with the HOMO level insignificantly lower in energy (by 0.03 eV) as compared to the case of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) of comparable degree of polymerization. Hydrogen bond interactions of the polymer with CdSe(MHT) in the molecular composite result in a hypsochromic shift of the band corresponding to the pi-pi* transition from 504 nm to 488 nm. This can be taken as a spectroscopic manifestation of the conformational changes induced by shortening of the conjugation length. The observed spectral modifications are consistent with electrochemically determined lowering of the polymer HOMO level (from -4.91 eV in the pure polymer to -4.99 eV in the composite). Cyclic voltammetry studies supported by spectroelectrochemistry also show that the redox stability of CdSe(MHT) in the molecular composite with P3HT-co-P3(ODAP)HT is lower than that determined for stearate-capped nanocrystals. Their irreversible oxidation starts at E = +0.7 V vs. Ag/0.1 M Ag(+)i.e. at potentials by ca. 0.3 V lower than the oxidation of stearate stabilized CdSe nanocrystals of the same size. We show that-despite these modifications-the alignment of the HOMO and LUMO levels of the composite components remains appropriate for its use in hybrid solar cells, which is demonstrated by the photovoltaic effect observed for the LbL-processed composite sandwiched between two electrodes.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Eletroquímica/métodos , Nanopartículas , Nanotecnologia , Fotoquímica/métodos , Compostos de Selênio/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Cristalização , Condutividade Elétrica , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Polímeros , Tiofenos/química
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