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1.
Science ; 384(6693): 312-317, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669572

RESUMO

Electrostatic capacitors are foundational components of advanced electronics and high-power electrical systems owing to their ultrafast charging-discharging capability. Ferroelectric materials offer high maximum polarization, but high remnant polarization has hindered their effective deployment in energy storage applications. Previous methodologies have encountered problems because of the deteriorated crystallinity of the ferroelectric materials. We introduce an approach to control the relaxation time using two-dimensional (2D) materials while minimizing energy loss by using 2D/3D/2D heterostructures and preserving the crystallinity of ferroelectric 3D materials. Using this approach, we were able to achieve an energy density of 191.7 joules per cubic centimeter with an efficiency greater than 90%. This precise control over relaxation time holds promise for a wide array of applications and has the potential to accelerate the development of highly efficient energy storage systems.

2.
Adv Mater ; 36(24): e2311559, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520395

RESUMO

It is shown that structural disorder-in the form of anisotropic, picoscale atomic displacements-modulates the refractive index tensor and results in the giant optical anisotropy observed in BaTiS3, a quasi-1D hexagonal chalcogenide. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal the presence of antipolar displacements of Ti atoms within adjacent TiS6 chains along the c-axis, and threefold degenerate Ti displacements in the a-b plane. 47/49Ti solid-state NMR provides additional evidence for those Ti displacements in the form of a three-horned NMR lineshape resulting from a low symmetry local environment around Ti atoms. Scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to directly observe the globally disordered Ti a-b plane displacements and find them to be ordered locally over a few unit cells. First-principles calculations show that the Ti a-b plane displacements selectively reduce the refractive index along the ab-plane, while having minimal impact on the refractive index along the chain direction, thus resulting in a giant enhancement in the optical anisotropy. By showing a strong connection between structural disorder with picoscale displacements and the optical response in BaTiS3, this study opens a pathway for designing optical materials with high refractive index and functionalities such as large optical anisotropy and nonlinearity.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(14): 17927-17936, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546411

RESUMO

Gallium nitride quantum dots (GaN QDs) are a promising material for optoelectronics, but the synthesis of freestanding GaN QDs remains a challenge. To date, the size-dependent photonic properties of freestanding GaN QDs have not been reported. Here, we examine the photonic properties exhibited by thin films composed of GaN QDs synthesized by nonequilibrium plasma aerotaxy. Each film exhibited two photoluminescence peaks after exposure to ambient air. The first peak was in the ultraviolet spectral region, and the second peak was in the visible region. Both peak positions depended on the QD size. Our findings, supported by transient absorption spectroscopy experiments, suggest that conduction band to valence band recombination was the cause of the ultraviolet photoluminescence and that recombination between the conduction band and an acceptor level was the cause of visible photoluminescence. Furthermore, we show that coating the surface of fresh QDs with Al2O3 suppressed the visible region photoluminescence, corroborating the conclusion that the photoactive defect was caused by oxidation in air.

4.
Science ; 383(6690): 1484-1492, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547260

RESUMO

Cellular purines, particularly adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), fuel many metabolic reactions, but less is known about the direct effects of pyrimidines on cellular metabolism. We found that pyrimidines, but not purines, maintain pyruvate oxidation and the tricarboxylic citric acid (TCA) cycle by regulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. PDH activity requires sufficient substrates and cofactors, including thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Depletion of cellular pyrimidines decreased TPP synthesis, a reaction carried out by TPP kinase 1 (TPK1), which reportedly uses ATP to phosphorylate thiamine (vitamin B1). We found that uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) acts as the preferred substrate for TPK1, enabling cellular TPP synthesis, PDH activity, TCA-cycle activity, lipogenesis, and adipocyte differentiation. Thus, UTP is required for vitamin B1 utilization to maintain pyruvate oxidation and lipogenesis.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Lipogênese , Pirimidinas , Complexo Piruvato Desidrogenase , Piruvatos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Piruvatos/metabolismo , Tiamina/metabolismo , Tiamina Pirofosfato/metabolismo , Uridina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Humanos , Células HeLa , Complexo Piruvato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
5.
Small ; 20(14): e2307167, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38152930

RESUMO

Atomically thin, few-layered membranes of oxides show unique physical and chemical properties compared to their bulk forms. Manganese oxide (Mn3O4) membranes are exfoliated from the naturally occurring mineral Hausmannite and used to make flexible, high-performance nanogenerators (NGs). An enhanced power density in the membrane NG is observed with the best-performing device showing a power density of 7.99 mW m-2 compared to 1.04 µW m-2 in bulk Mn3O4. A sensitivity of 108 mV kPa-1 for applied forces <10 N in the membrane NG is observed. The improved performance of these NGs is attributed to enhanced flexoelectric response in a few layers of Mn3O4. Using first-principles calculations, the flexoelectric coefficients of monolayer and bilayer Mn3O4 are found to be 50-100 times larger than other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Using a model based on classical beam theory, an increasing activation of the bending mode with decreasing thickness of the oxide membranes is observed, which in turn leads to a large flexoelectric response. As a proof-of-concept, flexible NGs using exfoliated Mn3O4 membranes are made and used in self-powered paper-based devices. This research paves the way for the exploration of few-layered membranes of other centrosymmetric oxides for application as energy harvesters.

6.
Adv Mater ; 35(42): e2303588, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37529860

RESUMO

Materials with large birefringence (Δn, where n is the refractive index) are sought after for polarization control (e.g., in wave plates, polarizing beam splitters, etc.), nonlinear optics, micromanipulation, and as a platform for unconventional light-matter coupling, such as hyperbolic phonon polaritons. Layered 2D materials can feature some of the largest optical anisotropy; however, their use in most optical systems is limited because their optical axis is out of the plane of the layers and the layers are weakly attached. This work demonstrates that a bulk crystal with subtle periodic modulations in its structure-Sr9/8 TiS3 -is transparent and positive-uniaxial, with extraordinary index ne = 4.5 and ordinary index no = 2.4 in the mid- to far-infrared. The excess Sr, compared to stoichiometric SrTiS3 , results in the formation of TiS6 trigonal-prismatic units that break the chains of face-sharing TiS6 octahedra in SrTiS3 into periodic blocks of five TiS6 octahedral units. The additional electrons introduced by the excess Sr form highly oriented electron clouds, which selectively boost the extraordinary index ne and result in record birefringence (Δn > 2.1 with low loss). The connection between subtle structural modulations and large changes in refractive index suggests new categories of anisotropic materials and also tunable optical materials with large refractive-index modulation.

8.
Nat Geosci ; 16(8): 683-688, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37564378

RESUMO

Wildfires emit large amounts of black carbon and light-absorbing organic carbon, known as brown carbon, into the atmosphere. These particles perturb Earth's radiation budget through absorption of incoming shortwave radiation. It is generally thought that brown carbon loses its absorptivity after emission in the atmosphere due to sunlight-driven photochemical bleaching. Consequently, the atmospheric warming effect exerted by brown carbon remains highly variable and poorly represented in climate models compared with that of the relatively nonreactive black carbon. Given that wildfires are predicted to increase globally in the coming decades, it is increasingly important to quantify these radiative impacts. Here we present measurements of ensemble-scale and particle-scale shortwave absorption in smoke plumes from wildfires in the western United States. We find that a type of dark brown carbon contributes three-quarters of the short visible light absorption and half of the long visible light absorption. This strongly absorbing organic aerosol species is water insoluble, resists daytime photobleaching and increases in absorptivity with night-time atmospheric processing. Our findings suggest that parameterizations of brown carbon in climate models need to be revised to improve the estimation of smoke aerosol radiative forcing and associated warming.

9.
Adv Mater ; 35(49): e2303283, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37540897

RESUMO

As one of the most fundamental physical phenomena, charge density wave (CDW) order predominantly occurs in metallic systems such as quasi-1D metals, doped cuprates, and transition metal dichalcogenides, where it is well understood in terms of Fermi surface nesting and electron-phonon coupling mechanisms. On the other hand, CDW phenomena in semiconducting systems, particularly at the low carrier concentration limit, are less common and feature intricate characteristics, which often necessitate the exploration of novel mechanisms, such as electron-hole coupling or Mott physics, to explain. In this study, an approach combining electrical transport, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and density-functional theory calculations is used to investigate CDW order and a series of hysteretic phase transitions in a dilute d-band semiconductor, BaTiS3 . These experimental and theoretical findings suggest that the observed CDW order and phase transitions in BaTiS3 may be attributed to both electron-phonon coupling and non-negligible electron-electron interactions in the system. This work highlights BaTiS3 as a unique platform to explore CDW physics and novel electronic phases in the dilute filling limit and opens new opportunities for developing novel electronic devices.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 25(8): 6527-6536, 2023 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36786417

RESUMO

Oxy-combustion systems result in enriched CO2 in exhaust gases; however, the utilization of the concentrated CO2 stream from oxy-combustion is limited by remnant O2. CH4 oxidation using Pd catalysts has been found to have high O2-removal efficiency. Here, the effect of excess CO2 in the feed stream on O2 removal with CH4 oxidation is investigated by combining experimental and theoretical approaches. Experimental results reveal complete CH4 oxidation without any side-products, and a monotonic increase in the rate of CO2 generation with an increase in CO2 concentration in the feed stream. Density-functional theory calculations show that high surface coverage of CO2 on Pd leads to a reduction in the activation energy for the initial dissociation of CH4 into CH3 and H, and also the subsequent oxidation reactions. A CO2-rich environment in oxy-combustion systems is therefore beneficial for the reduction of oxygen in exhaust gases.

11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1755, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720991

RESUMO

Electrical modulation of magnetic states in single-phase multiferroic materials, using domain-wall magnetoelectric (ME) coupling, can be enhanced substantially by controlling the population density of the ferroelectric (FE) domain walls during polarization switching. In this work, we investigate the domain-wall ME coupling in multiferroic h-YbFeO3 thin films, in which the FE domain walls induce clamped antiferromagnetic (AFM) domain walls with reduced magnetization magnitude. Simulation according to the phenomenological theory indicates that the domain-wall ME effect is dramatically enhanced when the separation between the FE domain walls shrinks below the characteristic width of the clamped AFM domain walls during the ferroelectric switching. Experimentally, we show that while the magnetization magnitude remains same for both the positive and the negative saturation polarization states, there is evidence of magnetization reduction at the coercive voltages. These results suggest that the domain-wall ME effect is viable for electrical control of magnetization.

12.
Sankhya B (2008) ; 85(1): 33-53, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36532236

RESUMO

The use of multi-auxiliary variables helps in increasing the precision of the estimators, especially when the population is rare and hidden clustered. In this article, four ratio-cum-product type estimators have been proposed using two auxiliary variables under adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) design. The expressions of the mean square error (MSE) of the proposed ratio-cum-product type estimators have been derived up to the first order of approximation and presented along with their efficiency conditions with respect to the estimators presented in this article. The efficiency of the proposed estimators over similar existing estimators have been assessed on four different populations two of which are of the daily spread of COVID-19 cases. The proposed estimators performed better than the estimators presented in this article on all four populations indicating their wide applicability and precision.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(40): 18272-18285, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173417

RESUMO

Materials with metastable phases can exhibit vastly different properties from their thermodynamically favored counterparts. Methods to synthesize metastable phases without the need for high-temperature or high-pressure conditions would facilitate their widespread use. We report on the electrochemical growth of microcrystals of bismuth selenide, Bi2Se3, in the metastable orthorhombic phase at room temperature in aqueous solution. Rather than direct epitaxy with the growth substrate, the spontaneous formation of a seed layer containing nanocrystals of cubic BiSe enforces the metastable phase. We first used single-crystal silicon substrates with a range of resistivities and different orientations to identify the conditions needed to produce the metastable phase. When the applied potential during electrochemical growth is positive of the reduction potential of Bi3+, an initial, Bi-rich seed layer forms. Electron microscopy imaging and diffraction reveal that the seed layer consists of nanocrystals of cubic BiSe embedded within an amorphous matrix of Bi and Se. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that epitaxial matching between cubic BiSe and orthorhombic Bi2Se3 can help stabilize the metastable orthorhombic phase over the thermodynamically stable rhombohedral phase. The spontaneous formation of the seed layer enables us to grow orthorhombic Bi2Se3 on a variety of substrates including single-crystal silicon with different orientations, polycrystalline fluorine-doped tin oxide, and polycrystalline gold. The ability to stabilize the metastable phase through room-temperature electrodeposition in aqueous solution without requiring a single-crystal substrate broadens the range of applications for this semiconductor in optoelectronic and electrochemical devices.

14.
iScience ; 25(4): 104161, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434554

RESUMO

Alloying is a successful strategy for tuning the phases and properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). To accelerate the synthesis of TMDC alloys, we present a method for generating temperature-composition equilibrium phase diagrams by combining first-principles total-energy calculations with thermodynamic solution models. This method is applied to three representative 2D TMDC alloys: an isostructural alloy, MoS2(1-x)Te2x , and two heterostructural alloys, Mo1-x W x Te2 and WS2(1-x)Te2x . Using density-functional theory and special quasi-random structures, we show that the mixing enthalpy of these binary alloys can be reliably represented using a sub-regular solution model fitted to the total energies of relatively few compositions. The cubic sub-regular solution model captures 3-body effects that are important in TMDC alloys. By comparing phase diagrams generated with this method to those calculated with previous methods, we demonstrate that this method can be used to rapidly design phase diagrams of TMDC alloys and related 2D materials.

15.
ChemSusChem ; 14(21): 4613-4614, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661970

RESUMO

Invited for this month's cover are the groups of Prof. Vijay Ramani and Prof. Rohan Mishra at Washington University in St. Louis and their collaborators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Full Paper itself is available at 10.1002/cssc.202101341.

16.
ChemSusChem ; 14(21): 4680-4689, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383996

RESUMO

Clusters of nitrogen- and carbon-coordinated transition metals dispersed in a carbon matrix (e. g., Fe-N-C) have emerged as an inexpensive class of electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, it was shown that optimizing the interaction between the nitrogen-coordinated transition metal clusters embedded in a more stable and corrosion-resistant carbide matrix yielded an ORR electrocatalyst with enhanced activity and stability compared to Fe-N-C catalysts. Utilizing first-principles calculations, an electrostatics-based descriptor of catalytic activity was identified, and nitrogen-coordinated iron (FeN4 ) clusters embedded in a TiC matrix were predicted to be an efficient platinum-group metal (PGM)-free ORR electrocatalyst. Guided by theory, selected catalyst formulations were synthesized, and it was demonstrated that the experimentally observed trends in activity fell exactly in line with the descriptor-derived theoretical predictions. The Fe-N-TiC catalyst exhibited enhanced activity (20 %) and durability (3.5-fold improvement) compared to a traditional Fe-N-C catalyst. It was posited that the electrostatics-based descriptor provides a powerful platform for the design of active and stable PGM-free electrocatalysts and heterogenous single-atom catalysts for other electrochemical reactions.

17.
Nanoscale ; 13(27): 11963-11975, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212950

RESUMO

This study presents a comprehensive investigation on the aerosol synthesis of a semiconducting double perovskite oxide with a nominal composition of KBaTeBiO6, which is considered as a potential candidate for CO2 photoreduction. We demonstrate the rapid synthesis of the multispecies compound KBaTeBiO6 with extremely high purity and controllable size through a single-step furnace aerosol reactor (FuAR) process. The formation mechanism of the perovskite through the aerosol route is investigated using thermogravimetric analysis to identify the optimal reference temperature, residence time and other operational parameters in the FuAR synthesis process to obtain highly pure KBaTeBiO6 nanoparticles. It is observed that particle formation in the FuAR is based on a combination of gas-to-particle and liquid-to-particle mechanisms. The phase purity of the perovskite nanoparticles depends on the ratio of the residence time and the reaction time. The particle size is strongly affected by the precursor concentration, residence time and furnace temperature. Finally, the photocatalytic performance of the synthesized KBaTeBiO6 nanoparticles is investigated for CO2 photoreduction under UV-light. The best performing sample exhibits an average CO production rate of 180 µmol g-1 h-1 in the first half hour with a quantum efficiency of 1.19%, demonstrating KBaTeBiO6 as a promising photocatalyst for CO2 photoreduction.

18.
Adv Mater ; 33(31): e2100347, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173281

RESUMO

High-entropy alloys combine multiple principal elements at a near equal fraction to form vast compositional spaces to achieve outstanding functionalities that are absent in alloys with one or two principal elements. Here, the prediction, synthesis, and multiscale characterization of 2D high-entropy transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) alloys with four/five transition metals is reported. Of these, the electrochemical performance of a five-component alloy with the highest configurational entropy, (MoWVNbTa)S2 , is investigated for CO2 conversion to CO, revealing an excellent current density of 0.51 A cm-2 and a turnover frequency of 58.3 s-1 at ≈ -0.8 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode. First-principles calculations show that the superior CO2 electroreduction is due to a multi-site catalysis wherein the atomic-scale disorder optimizes the rate-limiting step of CO desorption by facilitating isolated transition metal edge sites with weak CO binding. 2D high-entropy TMDC alloys provide a materials platform to design superior catalysts for many electrochemical systems.

19.
Nano Lett ; 21(10): 4160-4166, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974439

RESUMO

Interfacial behavior of quantum materials leads to emergent phenomena such as quantum phase transitions and metastable functional phases. Probes for in situ and real time surface-sensitive characterization are critical for control during epitaxial synthesis of heterostructures. Termination switching in complex oxides has been studied using a variety of probes, often ex situ; however, direct in situ observation of this phenomena during growth is rare. To address this, we establish in situ and real time Auger electron spectroscopy for pulsed laser deposition with reflection high energy electron diffraction, providing structural and compositional surface information during film deposition. Using this capability, we show the direct observation and control of surface termination in heterostructures of SrTiO3 and SrRuO3. Density-functional-theory calculations capture the energetics and stability of the observed structures, elucidating their electronic behavior. This work demonstrates an exciting approach to monitor and control the composition of materials at the atomic scale for control over emergent phenomena and potential applications.

20.
Aging Dis ; 11(6): 1567-1584, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269107

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which genetic factors contribute approximately 70% of etiological effects. Studies have found many significant genetic and environmental factors, but the pathogenesis of AD is still unclear. With the application of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, research using genetic data has shown explosive growth. In addition to conventional statistical methods for the processing of these data, artificial intelligence (AI) technology shows obvious advantages in analyzing such complex projects. This article first briefly reviews the application of AI technology in medicine and the current status of genetic research in AD. Then, a comprehensive review is focused on the application of AI in the genetic research of AD, including the diagnosis and prognosis of AD based on genetic data, the analysis of genetic variation, gene expression profile, gene-gene interaction in AD, and genetic analysis of AD based on a knowledge base. Although many studies have yielded some meaningful results, they are still in a preliminary stage. The main shortcomings include the limitations of the databases, failing to take advantage of AI to conduct a systematic biology analysis of multilevel databases, and lack of a theoretical framework for the analysis results. Finally, we outlook the direction of future development. It is crucial to develop high quality, comprehensive, large sample size, data sharing resources; a multi-level system biology AI analysis strategy is one of the development directions, and computational creativity may play a role in theory model building, verification, and designing new intervention protocols for AD.

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