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1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296688, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335166

RESUMO

Male orangutans (Pongo spp.) exhibit bimaturism, an alternative reproductive tactic, with flanged and unflanged males displaying two distinct morphological and behavioral phenotypes. Flanged males are larger than unflanged males and display secondary sexual characteristics which unflanged males lack. The evolutionary explanation for alternative reproductive tactics in orangutans remains unclear because orangutan paternity studies to date have been from sites with ex-captive orangutans, provisioning via feeding stations and veterinary care, or that lack data on the identity of mothers. Here we demonstrate, using the first long-term paternity data from a site free of these limitations, that alternative reproductive tactics in orangutans are condition-dependent, not frequency-dependent. We found higher reproductive success by flanged males than by unflanged males, a pattern consistent with other Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) paternity studies. Previous paternity studies disagree on the degree of male reproductive skew, but we found low reproductive skew among flanged males. We compare our findings and previous paternity studies from both Bornean and Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) to understand why these differences exist, examining the possible roles of species differences, ecology, and human intervention. Additionally, we use long-term behavioral data to demonstrate that while flanged males can displace unflanged males in association with females, flanged males are unable to keep other males from associating with a female, and thus they are unable to completely mate guard females. Our results demonstrate that alternative reproductive tactics in Bornean orangutans are condition-dependent, supporting the understanding that the flanged male morph is indicative of good condition. Despite intense male-male competition and direct sexual coercion by males, female mate choice is effective in determining reproductive outcomes in this population of wild orangutans.


Assuntos
Pongo abelii , Pongo pygmaeus , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Reprodução , Ecologia
2.
Behav Ecol Sociobiol ; 78(1): 12, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235053

RESUMO

Abstract: In many group-living species, individuals are required to flexibly modify their communicative behaviour in response to current social challenges. To unravel whether sociality and communication systems co-evolve, research efforts have often targeted the links between social organisation and communicative repertoires. However, it is still unclear which social or interactional factors directly predict communicative complexity. To address this issue, we studied wild and zoo-housed immature orangutans of two species to assess the impact of the socio-ecological setting on the production of non-vocal signal repertoires. Specifically, we compared repertoire size, dyadic repertoire similarity, and number of social goals (i.e. observer's estimate of the signaller's intended interaction outcome) for communicative interactions with mothers versus other conspecifics, controlling for critical individual and environmental factors. In this small sample of immature orangutans, wild-captive contrasts were statistically significant only for other-directed repertoires, but not for mother-directed repertoires, and not for the number of social goals that immatures communicated towards. While the repertoires of individuals living in the same research setting were more similar than those living in contrasting settings, this difference was most pronounced for other-directed repertoires of the less socially tolerant orangutan species. These results suggest that the boosted interactional opportunities in captivity rather than mere differences in environmental affordances or communicative needs drive the wild-captive contrast in orangutan communicative repertoires. Overall, this fine-grained analysis of repertoires further underscores that not only a species' social organisation but also the targeted audience may have a profound impact on communicative behaviour. Significance statement: Navigating a dynamic social environment often requires flexible signal use. While it has repeatedly been shown that the social organisation and structure of species predict the complexity of their communication systems, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are largely unknown. Because targeted studies to assess this issue in great apes are difficult, we take an alternative approach here: we compare the same species living in the wild and in artificial habitats in captivity. This contrast allows a direct test of how repertoires respond to the relevant difference in socio-ecological conditions. Our results show that the diversity of interaction partners (i.e. social opportunities), but not the diversity of social goals (i.e. possible interaction outcomes) or the broader physical opportunities (i.e. safe ground use), predict the size and consistency of wild and captive signalling repertoires. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00265-023-03426-3.

3.
iScience ; 26(7): 107088, 2023 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37456857

RESUMO

Tropical peatlands are the sites of Earth's largest fire events, with outsized contributions to greenhouse gases, toxic smoke, and haze rich with particulate matter. The human health risks from wildfire smoke are well known, but its effects on wildlife inhabiting these ecosystems are poorly understood. In 2015, peatland fires on Borneo created a thick haze of smoke that blanketed the region. We studied its effects on the long call vocalizations of four adult male Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in a peat swamp forest. During the period of heavy smoke, orangutans called less often and showed reduced vocal quality-lower pitch, increased harshness and perturbations, and more nonlinear phenomena-similar to changes in human smokers. Most of these changes persisted for two months after the smoke had cleared and likely signal changes in health. Our work contributes valuable information to support non-invasive acoustic monitoring of this Critically Endangered primate.

4.
iScience ; 24(11): 103304, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820602

RESUMO

Whether nonhuman species can change their communicative repertoire in response to socio-ecological environments has critical implications for communicative innovativeness prior to the emergence of human language, with its unparalleled productivity. Here, we use a comparative sample of wild and zoo-housed orangutans of two species (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus) to assess the effect of the wild-captive contrast on repertoires of gestures and facial expressions. We find that repertoires on both the individual and population levels are larger in captive than in wild settings, regardless of species, age class, or sampling effort. In the more sociable Sumatran species, dominant use of signals toward single outcomes was also higher in captive settings. We thus conclude that orangutans exposed to more sociable and terrestrial conditions evince behavioral plasticity, in that they produce additional innate or innovated signals that are highly functionally specific. These findings suggest a latent capacity for innovativeness in these apes' communicative repertoires.

5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 917, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34316012

RESUMO

From early infancy, human face-to-face communication is multimodal, comprising a plethora of interlinked communicative and sensory modalities. Although there is also growing evidence for this in nonhuman primates, previous research rarely disentangled production from perception of signals. Consequently, the functions of integrating articulators (i.e. production organs involved in multicomponent acts) and sensory channels (i.e. modalities involved in multisensory acts) remain poorly understood. Here, we studied close-range social interactions within and beyond mother-infant pairs of Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans living in wild and captive settings, to examine use of and responses to multicomponent and multisensory communication. From the perspective of production, results showed that multicomponent acts were used more than the respective unicomponent acts when the presumed goal did not match the dominant outcome for a specific communicative act, and were more common among non-mother-infant dyads and Sumatran orang-utans. From the perception perspective, we found that multisensory acts were more effective than the respective unisensory acts, and were used more in wild compared to captive populations. We argue that multisensory acts primarily facilitate effectiveness, whereas multicomponent acts become relevant when interaction outcomes are less predictable. These different functions underscore the importance of distinguishing between production and perception in studies of communication.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Pongo abelii/psicologia , Pongo pygmaeus/psicologia , Animais , Bornéu , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino
6.
Oecologia ; 196(3): 707-721, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143262

RESUMO

Understanding of animal responses to dynamic resource landscapes is based largely on research on temperate species with small body sizes and fast life histories. We studied a large, tropical mammal with an extremely slow life history, the Western Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), across a heterogeneous natural landscape encompassing seven distinct forest types. Our goals were to characterize fluctuations in abundance, test hypotheses regarding the relationship between dispersion dynamics and resource availability, and evaluate how movement patterns are influenced by abiotic conditions. We surveyed abundance in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, for 99 consecutive months and simultaneously recorded weather data and assessed fruit availability. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical distance sampling model to estimate population dispersion and assess the roles of fruit availability, rainfall, and temperature in driving movement patterns across this heterogeneous landscape. Orangutan abundance varied dramatically over space and time. Each forest type was important in sustaining more than 40% of the total orangutans on site during at least one month, as animals moved to track asynchronies in fruiting phenology. We conclude that landscape-level movements buffer orangutans against fruit scarcity, peat swamps are crucial fallback habitats, and orangutans' use of high elevation forests is strongly dependent on abiotic conditions. Our results show that orangutans can periodically occupy putative-sink habitats and be virtually absent for extended periods from habitats that are vitally important in sustaining their population, highlighting the need for long-term studies and potential risks in interpreting occurrence or abundance measures as indicators of habitat importance.


Assuntos
Pongo pygmaeus , Pongo , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Indonésia
7.
Evol Hum Sci ; 3: e39, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37588526

RESUMO

In human infants, exploratory object manipulation is a major vehicle for cognitive stimulation as well as an important way to learn about objects and basic physical concepts in general. The development of human infants' exploratory object manipulation follows distinct developmental patterns. So far, the degree of evolutionary continuity of this developmental process remains unclear. We investigated the development of exploratory object manipulations in wild orangutans. Our data included 3200 exploration events collected on 13 immatures between the ages of 0.5 and 13 years, at the Suaq Balimbing monitoring station in Indonesia. Our results identify several parallels between the development of exploratory behaviour in humans and orangutans: on top of a highly similar overall age trajectory, we found an increase in variability of the actions used, an increase in the number of body parts involved in each event, and an overall decrease of mouthing of the objects. All in all, our results show that orangutans progress through a developmental sequence of different aspects of exploration behaviour. In combination with previous findings from captivity, our results also provide evidence that exploratory object manipulations reflect cognitive development and might function as a means of cognitive stimulation not just in humans but across the great apes.

8.
Biol Lett ; 15(7): 20190209, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311488

RESUMO

The communicative function of primates' self-directed behaviours like scratching has gained increasing attention in recent years, but their intentional use is still debated. Here, we addressed this issue by exploring the communicative function of 'loud scratches' in wild Sumatran orangutans. Building on previous studies in chimpanzees, we examined the prediction that audio-visual loud scratches are used communicatively in mother-infant travel coordination. Specifically, we examined whether individual, social and scratch features affected the use of pre-move scratches, markers of intentional signal use and approach responses. We analysed a total of 1457 scratching bouts, produced by 17 individuals (including four mothers and their dependent offspring) observed during 305 h of focal follows. Overall, we found that scratching bouts preceded departure mainly when these were produced by mothers and showed features of exaggeration. If the scratching individual was a mother, associates were more likely to be visually attentive during pre-move scratches than in other contexts. Approach or follow responses to scratches by individuals in association were predicted by context, the relationship with the scratcher (i.e. offspring) and the associate's attentional state. We conclude that orangutan mothers use loud scratches as communicative strategies to coordinate joint travel with their infants.


Assuntos
Pongo abelii , Animais , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Mães , Pan troglodytes , Pongo pygmaeus
9.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0130291, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26154061

RESUMO

For orangutans, the largest predominantly arboreal primates, discontinuous canopy presents a particular challenge. The shortest gaps between trees lie between thin peripheral branches, which offer the least stability to large animals. The affordances of the forest canopy experienced by orangutans of different ages however, must vary substantially as adult males are an order of magnitude larger in size than infants during the early stages of locomotor independence. Orangutans have developed a diverse range of locomotor behaviour to cross gaps between trees, which vary in their physical and cognitive demands. The aims of this study were to examine the ontogeny of orangutan gap crossing behaviours and to determine which factors influence the distance orangutans crossed. A non-invasive photographic technique was used to quantify forearm length as a measure of body size. We also recorded locomotor behaviour, support use and the distance crossed between trees. Our results suggest that gap crossing varies with both physical and cognitive development. More complex locomotor behaviours, which utilized compliant trunks and lianas, were used to cross the largest gaps, but these peaked in frequency much earlier than expected, between the ages of 4 and 5 years old, which probably reflects play behaviour to perfect locomotor techniques. Smaller individuals also crossed disproportionately large gaps relative to their size, by using support deformation. Our results suggest that orangutans acquire the full repertoire of gap crossing techniques, including the more cognitively demanding ones, before weaning, but adjust the frequency of the use of these techniques to their increasing body size.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cognição , Feminino , Antebraço/fisiologia , Locomoção , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Fotografação , Árvores
10.
Am J Primatol ; 77(7): 767-76, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25773926

RESUMO

The long call is an important vocal communication signal in the widely dispersed, semi-solitary orangutan. Long calls affect individuals' ranging behavior and mediate social relationships and regulate encounters between dispersed individuals in a dense rainforest. The aim of this study was to test the utility of an Acoustic Location System (ALS) for recording and triangulating the loud calls of free-living primates. We developed and validated a data extraction protocol for an ALS used to record wild orangutan males' long calls at the Tuanan field site (Central Kalimantan). We installed an ALS in a grid of 300 ha, containing 20 SM2+ recorders placed in a regular lattice at 500 m intervals, to monitor the distribution of calling males in the area. The validated system had the following main features: (i) a user-trained software algorithm (Song Scope) that reliably recognized orangutan long calls from sound files at distances up to 700 m from the nearest recorder, resulting in a total area of approximately 900 ha that could be monitored continuously; (ii) acoustic location of calling males up to 200 m outside the microphone grid, which meant that within an area of approximately 450 ha, call locations could be calculated through triangulation. The mean accuracy was 58 m, an error that is modest relative to orangutan mobility and average inter-individual distances. We conclude that an ALS is a highly effective method for detecting long-distance calls of wild primates and triangulating their position. In combination with conventional individual focal follow data, an ALS can greatly improve our knowledge of orangutans' social organization, and is readily adaptable for studying other highly vocal animals.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal , Algoritmos , Animais , Indonésia , Masculino , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
11.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 140(4): 716-26, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19890870

RESUMO

Periodic episodes of food scarcity may highlight the adaptive value of certain anatomical traits, particularly those that facilitate the acquisition and digestion of exigent fallback foods. To better understand the selective pressures that favored the distinctive dental and locomotor morphologies of gibbons and orangutans, we examined the foraging and ranging behavior of sympatric Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii during an episode of low fruit availability at Tuanan, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. We found that Hylobates ranged 0.5 km day(-1) or 33% farther than did Pongo, but the overall daily ranging of both species did not vary as fruit availability decreased by as much as 50%. Among gibbons, we observed dietary switching to fallback foods; in particular, there was a progressively greater reliance on figs, liana products, and unripe fruit. Orangutans relied heavily on unripe fruit and fracture-resistant bark and pith tissues. Despite these divergent fallback patterns, the stiffness of fruit mesocarp consumed by Hylobates and Pongo did not differ. We discuss canine and molar functional morphology with respect to dietary mechanics. Next, to contextualize these results, we discuss our findings with respect to forest structure. The rain forests of Southeast Asia have been described as having open, discontinuous canopies. Such a structure may inform our understanding of the ranging behavior and distinctive locomotion of apes in the region, namely richochetal brachiation and quadrumanous clambering. Our approach of integrating behavioral ecology with physical measures of food may be a powerful tool for understanding the functional adaptations of primates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Hylobates/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Dente Canino/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Hylobates/anatomia & histologia , Indonésia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Pongo pygmaeus/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 78(4): 215-26, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17495479

RESUMO

Flanged male orang-utans emit loud vocalizations called long calls. In this study, we examined the correlates of variation in long-calling rates among flanged male Sumatran orang-utans, as well as the ranging responses of adult females and flanged males to these long calls. Males that gave calls more often were more likely to approach calls by others. Results bolster a female attraction function of long calls. Flanged males did not significantly avoid or approach long calls. However, males called more when alone than when guarding a female mate, and adult females significantly approached long calls, especially those of the dominant male, and did so regardless of their reproductive state, allowing them to remain within earshot of calling males. The possible selective advantages of this response include avoidance of harassment and infanticide by males. These findings confirm the existence of some form of social organization above the mother-infant unit.


Assuntos
Pongo pygmaeus/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
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