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1.
Extremophiles ; 26(3): 34, 2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372831

RESUMO

Virus capsid proteins have various applications in diverse fields such as biotechnology, electronics, and medicine. In this study, the major capsid protein of bacilliform clavavitus APBV1, which infects the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix, was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene product was expressed as a histidine-tagged protein in E. coli and purified to homogeneity using single-step nickel affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant protein self-assembled to form bacilliform virus-like particles at room temperature. The particles exhibited tolerance against high concentrations of organic solvents and protein denaturants. In addition, we succeeded in fabricating functional nanoparticles with amine functional groups on the surface of ORF6-81 nanoparticles. These robust protein nanoparticles can potentially be used as a scaffold in nanotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Aeropyrum , Nanoestruturas , Aeropyrum/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Archaea/metabolismo
2.
Arch Virol ; 166(11): 3239-3244, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417873

RESUMO

In this article, we - the Bacterial Viruses Subcommittee and the Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) - summarise the results of our activities for the period March 2020 - March 2021. We report the division of the former Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee in two separate Subcommittees, welcome new members, a new Subcommittee Chair and Vice Chair, and give an overview of the new taxa that were proposed in 2020, approved by the Executive Committee and ratified by vote in 2021. In particular, a new realm, three orders, 15 families, 31 subfamilies, 734 genera and 1845 species were newly created or redefined (moved/promoted).


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/classificação , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Archaea/virologia , Bactérias/virologia
4.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809046

RESUMO

Searching for life in the Universe depends on unambiguously distinguishing biological features from background signals, which could take the form of chemical, morphological, or spectral signatures. The discovery and direct measurement of organic compounds unambiguously indicative of extraterrestrial (ET) life is a major goal of Solar System exploration. Biology processes matter and energy differently from abiological systems, and materials produced by biological systems may become enriched in planetary environments where biology is operative. However, ET biology might be composed of different components than terrestrial life. As ET sample return is difficult, in situ methods for identifying biology will be useful. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a potentially versatile life detection technique, which will be used to analyze numerous Solar System environments in the near future. We show here that simple algorithmic analysis of MS data from abiotic synthesis (natural and synthetic), microbial cells, and thermally processed biological materials (lab-grown organisms and petroleum) easily identifies relational organic compound distributions that distinguish pristine and aged biological and abiological materials, which likely can be attributed to the types of compounds these processes produce, as well as how they are formed and decompose. To our knowledge this is the first comprehensive demonstration of the utility of this analytical technique for the detection of biology. This method is independent of the detection of particular masses or molecular species samples may contain. This suggests a general method to agnostically detect evidence of biology using MS given a sufficiently strong signal in which the majority of the material in a sample has either a biological or abiological origin. Such metrics are also likely to be useful for studies of possible emergent living phenomena, and paleobiological samples.

5.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(8): 3033-3045, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822172

RESUMO

Accurate determination of the evolutionary relationships between genes is a foundational challenge in biology. Homology-evolutionary relatedness-is in many cases readily determined based on sequence similarity analysis. By contrast, whether or not two genes directly descended from a common ancestor by a speciation event (orthologs) or duplication event (paralogs) is more challenging, yet provides critical information on the history of a gene. Since 2009, this task has been the focus of the Quest for Orthologs (QFO) Consortium. The sixth QFO meeting took place in Okazaki, Japan in conjunction with the 67th National Institute for Basic Biology conference. Here, we report recent advances, applications, and oncoming challenges that were discussed during the conference. Steady progress has been made toward standardization and scalability of new and existing tools. A feature of the conference was the presentation of a panel of accessible tools for phylogenetic profiling and several developments to bring orthology beyond the gene unit-from domains to networks. This meeting brought into light several challenges to come: leveraging orthology computations to get the most of the incoming avalanche of genomic data, integrating orthology from domain to biological network levels, building better gene models, and adapting orthology approaches to the broad evolutionary and genomic diversity recognized in different forms of life and viruses.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Genômica/tendências , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos
6.
ACS Omega ; 5(48): 31192-31198, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324828

RESUMO

The hydrogen storage properties and crystal structures of YMgNi4-based alloys, which were synthesized from (2 - x)YNi2 and xMgNi2 (0.6 ≤ x ≤ 1.2), were investigated by pressure-composition-temperature measurements and powder neutron diffraction at a deuterium gas pressure to understand the hydrogen absorption and desorption reactions viewed from atomic arrangements around H atoms. Reducing the amounts of MgNi2, which was utilized as a Mg source in YMgNi4-based alloys, has been observed to lower the hydrogen absorption and desorption pressures and increase the hydrogen storage capacities. However, the reversible hydrogen capacity attained a maximum value of 1.2 mass % at x = 0.8 because of the formation of a thermodynamically stable hydride in which hydrogen was not released at x = 0.6. In the case of x = 0.6, the presence of excessive Y atoms around the H atoms in the hydrogen-absorbed phase would lead to the formation of a hydride with stronger interaction between Y and H because of the affinity between them. Moreover, the presence of small amounts of D atoms with short interatomic D-D distances (1.6 and 1.9 Å) in the deuterium-absorbed phase (Y0.81Mg1.19Ni4.00D3.35 and Y1.06Mg0.94Ni4.00D3.86) at <5 MPa and 323 K was proposed by the crystal structural investigations. The D atoms with short D-D interatomic distances were located in the same local atomic arrangements of D atoms in a deuterium-absorbed phase, which were formed at a higher-pressure range, and had higher hydrogen storage capacities than the deuterium-absorbed phases in this study.

7.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 45(10): 3081-3091, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925493

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine whether MRCP using a combination of compressed sensing and sensitivity encoding with navigator-triggered and breath-hold techniques (NT C-SENSE and BH C-SENSE, respectively) have comparable image quality to that of navigator-triggered MRCP using only sensitivity encoding (NT SENSE) at 1.5-T. METHODS: Fifty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study between July and October 2018 and underwent the three 3D MRCP sequences each. The acquisition time and relative duct-to-periductal contrast ratios (RC values) of each bile duct segment were obtained. Visualization of the bile and main pancreatic ducts, background suppression, artifacts, and overall image quality were scored on 5-point scales. Mean and median differences in RC values and qualitative scores of NT C-SENSE and BH C-SENSE relative to NT SENSE were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Acquisition time of NT SENSE, NT C-SENSE, and BH C-SENSE were 348, 143 (mean for both), and 18 s (for all participants), respectively. The RC value of each bile duct segment was inferior, but the lower limits of the 95% CIs of the mean differences were ≥ - 0.10, for both NT C-SENSE and BH C-SENSE. The visualization score of the intrahepatic duct in BH C-SENSE was inferior to that in NT SENSE (lower 95% CI limit, - 1.5). In both NT C-SENSE and BH C-SENSE, the 95% CIs of the median differences in the other qualitative scores were from - 1.0 to 0.0. CONCLUSION: NT C-SENSE and BH C-SENSE have comparable image quality to NT SENSE at 1.5-T.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética , Pancreatopatias , Suspensão da Respiração , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
J Gen Virol ; 101(3): 240-241, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961791

RESUMO

The family Spiraviridae includes viruses that replicate in hyperthermophilic archaea from the genus Aeropyrum. The non-enveloped, hollow, cylindrical virions are formed from a coiling fibre that consists of two intertwining halves of a single circular nucleoprotein filament. A short appendage protrudes from each end of the cylindrical virion. The genome is circular, positive-sense, single-stranded DNA of 24 893 nucleotides. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the family Spiraviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/spiraviridae.


Assuntos
Aeropyrum/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírion/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral , Nucleoproteínas , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Replicação Viral
9.
J Gen Virol ; 100(9): 1267-1268, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271351

RESUMO

The family Clavaviridae includes viruses that replicate in hyperthermophilic archaea from the genus Aeropyrum. The non-enveloped rigid virions are rod-shaped, with dimensions of about 143×16 nm, and have terminal cap structures, one of which is pointed and carries short fibres, while the other is rounded. The virion displays helical symmetry and is constructed from a single major α-helical protein, which is heavily glycosylated, and several minor capsid proteins. The 5278 bp, circular, double-stranded DNA genome of Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus 1 is packed inside the virion as a left-handed superhelix. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Clavaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/clavaviridae.


Assuntos
Aeropyrum/virologia , Genoma Viral , Vírus não Classificados/classificação , Vírus não Classificados/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
10.
J Virol ; 93(8)2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728258

RESUMO

Recent discoveries of new large DNA viruses reveal high diversity in their morphologies, genetic repertoires, and replication strategies. Here, we report the novel features of medusavirus, a large DNA virus newly isolated from hot spring water in Japan. Medusavirus, with a diameter of 260 nm, shows a T=277 icosahedral capsid with unique spherical-headed spikes on its surface. It has a 381-kb genome encoding 461 putative proteins, 86 of which have their closest homologs in Acanthamoeba, whereas 279 (61%) are orphan genes. The virus lacks the genes encoding DNA topoisomerase II and RNA polymerase, showing that DNA replication takes place in the host nucleus, whereas the progeny virions are assembled in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the medusavirus genome harbored genes for all five types of histones (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) and one DNA polymerase, which are phylogenetically placed at the root of the eukaryotic clades. In contrast, the host amoeba encoded many medusavirus homologs, including the major capsid protein. These facts strongly suggested that amoebae are indeed the most promising natural hosts of medusavirus, and that lateral gene transfers have taken place repeatedly and bidirectionally between the virus and its host since the early stage of their coevolution. Medusavirus reflects the traces of direct evolutionary interactions between the virus and eukaryotic hosts, which may be caused by sharing the DNA replication compartment and by evolutionarily long lasting virus-host relationships. Based on its unique morphological characteristics and phylogenomic relationships with other known large DNA viruses, we propose that medusavirus represents a new family, MedusaviridaeIMPORTANCE We have isolated a new nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) from hot spring water in Japan, named medusavirus. This new NCLDV is phylogenetically placed at the root of the eukaryotic clades based on the phylogenies of several key genes, including that encoding DNA polymerase, and its genome surprisingly encodes the full set of histone homologs. Furthermore, its laboratory host, Acanthamoeba castellanii, encodes many medusavirus homologs in its genome, including the major capsid protein, suggesting that the amoeba is the genuine natural host from ancient times of this newly described virus and that lateral gene transfers have repeatedly occurred between the virus and amoeba. These results suggest that medusavirus is a unique NCLDV preserving ancient footprints of evolutionary interactions with its hosts, thus providing clues to elucidate the evolution of NCLDVs, eukaryotes, and virus-host interaction. Based on the dissimilarities with other known NCLDVs, we propose that medusavirus represents a new viral family, Medusaviridae.


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA , Genoma Viral , Fontes Termais/virologia , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Microbiologia da Água , Acanthamoeba/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Gen Virol ; 100(2): 135-136, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540248

RESUMO

Tristromaviridae is a family of viruses with linear, double-stranded DNA genomes of 16-18 kbp. The flexible, filamentous virions (400±20 nm×30±3 nm) consist of an envelope and an inner core constructed from two structural units: a rod-shaped helical nucleocapsid and a nucleocapsid-encompassing matrix protein layer. Tristromaviruses are lytic and infect hyperthermophilic archaea of the order Thermoproteales. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the Tristromaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/tristromaviridae.


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA/classificação , DNA Viral/genética , Thermoproteales/virologia , Vírion/ultraestrutura , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/ultraestrutura
12.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 75, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467725

RESUMO

Previous studies on marine environmental virology have primarily focused on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses; however, it has recently been suggested that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are more abundant in marine ecosystems. In this study, we performed a quantitative viral community DNA analysis to estimate the relative abundance and composition of both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses in offshore upper bathyal sediment from Tohoku, Japan (water depth = 500 m). The estimated dsDNA viral abundance ranged from 3 × 106 to 5 × 106 genome copies per cm3 sediment, showing values similar to the range of fluorescence-based direct virus counts. In contrast, the estimated ssDNA viral abundance ranged from 1 × 108 to 3 × 109 genome copies per cm3 sediment, thus providing an estimation that the ssDNA viral populations represent 96.3-99.8% of the benthic total DNA viral assemblages. In the ssDNA viral metagenome, most of the identified viral sequences were associated with ssDNA viral families such as Circoviridae and Microviridae. The principle components analysis of the ssDNA viral sequence components from the sedimentary ssDNA viral metagenomic libraries found that the different depth viral communities at the study site all exhibited similar profiles compared with deep-sea sediment ones at other reference sites. Our results suggested that deep-sea benthic ssDNA viruses have been significantly underestimated by conventional direct virus counts and that their contributions to deep-sea benthic microbial mortality and geochemical cycles should be further addressed by such a new quantitative approach.

13.
J Gen Virol ; 99(3): 290-291, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458561

RESUMO

Guttaviridae is a family of enveloped viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea. The virions are ovoid or droplet-shaped, with a diameter of 55-80 nm and a length of 75-130 nm. The genome is a circular dsDNA molecule of around 14-20 kbp. The droplet-shaped morphology is unprecedented among viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes and represents a group of archaea-specific virion morphotypes. The family includes two genera, Alphaguttavirus and Betaguttavirus, each with a single species. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Guttaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/guttaviridae.


Assuntos
Archaea/virologia , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Guttaviridae/classificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriófagos/ultraestrutura , Genoma Viral , Guttaviridae/genética , Guttaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Guttaviridae/ultraestrutura , Vírion/classificação , Vírion/genética , Vírion/isolamento & purificação , Vírion/ultraestrutura , Replicação Viral
14.
Astrobiology ; 18(2): 207-223, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319335

RESUMO

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on modern Earth. They are highly diverse both in structure and genomic sequence, play critical roles in evolution, strongly influence terran biogeochemistry, and are believed to have played important roles in the origin and evolution of life. However, there is yet very little focus on viruses in astrobiology. Viruses arguably have coexisted with cellular life-forms since the earliest stages of life, may have been directly involved therein, and have profoundly influenced cellular evolution. Viruses are the only entities on modern Earth to use either RNA or DNA in both single- and double-stranded forms for their genetic material and thus may provide a model for the putative RNA-protein world. With this review, we hope to inspire integration of virus research into astrobiology and also point out pressing unanswered questions in astrovirology, particularly regarding the detection of virus biosignatures and whether viruses could be spread extraterrestrially. We present basic virology principles, an inclusive definition of viruses, review current virology research pertinent to astrobiology, and propose ideas for future astrovirology research foci. Key Words: Astrobiology-Virology-Biosignatures-Origin of life-Roadmap. Astrobiology 18, 207-223.


Assuntos
Exobiologia/métodos , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planetas , Virologia/métodos , Vírus , Exobiologia/história , História do Século XXI , Virologia/história
15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1436, 2017 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127347

RESUMO

Archaeal viruses have evolved to infect hosts often thriving in extreme conditions such as high temperatures. However, there is a paucity of information on archaeal virion structures, genome packaging, and determinants of temperature resistance. The rod-shaped virus APBV1 (Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus 1) is among the most thermostable viruses known; it infects a hyperthermophile Aeropyrum pernix, which grows optimally at 90 °C. Here we report the structure of APBV1, determined by cryo-electron microscopy at near-atomic resolution. Tight packing of the major virion glycoprotein (VP1) is ensured by extended hydrophobic interfaces, and likely contributes to the extreme thermostability of the helical capsid. The double-stranded DNA is tightly packed in the capsid as a left-handed superhelix and held in place by the interactions with positively charged residues of VP1. The assembly is closed by specific capping structures at either end, which we propose to play a role in DNA packing and delivery.


Assuntos
Aeropyrum/virologia , Vírus de Archaea/genética , Vírus de Archaea/fisiologia , Genoma Viral , Vírus de Archaea/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA Super-Helicoidal/química , DNA Super-Helicoidal/genética , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Glicosilação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imageamento Tridimensional , Modelos Moleculares , Subunidades Proteicas , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Montagem de Vírus/genética
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(9): 2478-83, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26884161

RESUMO

Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea. Here, we describe a filamentous hyperthermophilic archaeal virus, Pyrobaculum filamentous virus 1 (PFV1), with a type of virion organization not previously observed in DNA viruses. The PFV1 virion, 400 ± 20 × 32 ± 3 nm, contains an envelope and an inner core consisting of two structural units: a rod-shaped helical nucleocapsid formed of two 14-kDa major virion proteins and a nucleocapsid-encompassing protein sheath composed of a single major virion protein of 18 kDa. The virion organization of PFV1 is superficially similar to that of negative-sense RNA viruses of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus. The linear dsDNA of PFV1 carries 17,714 bp, including 60-bp-long terminal inverted repeats, and contains 39 predicted ORFs, most of which do not show similarities to sequences in public databases. PFV1 is a lytic virus that completely disrupts the host cell membrane at the end of the infection cycle.


Assuntos
Archaea/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/ultraestrutura , Genoma Viral , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(33): 13386-91, 2012 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22826255

RESUMO

Known viruses build their particles using a restricted number of redundant structural solutions. Here, we describe the Aeropyrum coil-shaped virus (ACV), of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix, with a virion architecture not previously observed in the viral world. The nonenveloped, hollow, cylindrical virion is formed from a coiling fiber, which consists of two intertwining halves of a single circular nucleoprotein. The virus ACV is also exceptional for its genomic properties. It is the only virus with a single-stranded (ss) DNA genome among the known hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses. Moreover, the size of its circular genome, 24,893 nt, is double that of the largest known ssDNA genome, suggesting an efficient solution for keeping ssDNA intact at 90-95 °C, the optimal temperature range of A. pernix growth. The genome content of ACV is in line with its unique morphology and confirms that ACV is not closely related to any known virus.


Assuntos
Aeropyrum/virologia , Vírus de Archaea/genética , Vírus de DNA/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírion/ultraestrutura , Vírus de Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de Archaea/ultraestrutura , Sequência de Bases , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de DNA/ultraestrutura , DNA Circular/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Modelos Biológicos , Dados de Sequência Molecular
18.
J Virol Methods ; 185(1): 149-51, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22659067

RESUMO

Determining the nature of the viral genome is one of the first steps in characterization of any new virus. However, in the case of viruses with a single-stranded genome, it is not always simple to identify its orientation. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and simple PCR-based method is described to identify the strand orientation of single-stranded viral genomes. This method has been tested on the single-stranded DNA viruses, M13 and phiX174.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago M13/genética , Bacteriófago phi X 174/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Genética Microbiana/métodos , Genoma Viral , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Virologia/métodos
19.
Pediatr Int ; 54(4): 501-3, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22621411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Canadian Paediatric Triage and Acuity Scale (P-CTAS) is used and modified at hospitals as a triage tool for pediatric patients before they are seen in emergency rooms. Pediatric surgery patients account for very few of the many patients in emergency departments, but they should be triaged as emergency or urgent because they might be candidates for surgery. Problems with and improvements for triaging pediatric surgery patients using the P-CTAS were studied. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated all patients <16 years old who visited the emergency department of Kyorin University Hospital during an approximately 4 year period between 1 May 2005, and 11 February 2009. Pediatric surgery patients were divided into two groups to evaluate the efficiency of P-CTAS triage. Patients who needed emergency treatment were in group A, and the others were in group B. RESULTS: Most group A patients were level I, II, or III (97%, 111/114). In contrast, 60% (71/119) of group B patients were level IV or greater. Some problems with and suggestions for the P-CTAS were identified. Many patients with trauma were under 1 year of age, and many with a foreign body were under 2 years of age. Age categories should be added for patients with trauma or foreign body aspiration. Patients with abdominal pain, and without anal bleeding or vomiting who are >2 years old are triaged as level IV and they accounted for 12% of patients with possible intussusception in this study. A category of 'possible intussusception' should be made for level II. Most patients with acute scrotum, whether operated on or not, were level III. 'Red or purple color of scrotal skin' and/or 'within 6 h from onset' could be added to level II for patients with acute scrotum. CONCLUSIONS: P-CTAS worked well for pediatric surgery patients, and it needs to be modified and improved for such patients based on these results.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Triagem/normas , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Triagem/métodos
20.
J Bacteriol ; 193(19): 5412-9, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21784945

RESUMO

By in silico analysis, we have identified two putative proviruses in the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix, and under special conditions of A. pernix growth, we were able to induce their replication. Both viruses were isolated and characterized. Negatively stained virions of one virus appeared as pleomorphic spindle-shaped particles, 180 to 210 nm by 40 to 55 nm, with tails of heterogeneous lengths in the range of 0 to 300 nm. This virus was named Aeropyrum pernix spindle-shaped virus 1 (APSV1). Negatively stained virions of the other virus appeared as slightly irregular oval particles with one pointed end, while in cryo-electron micrographs, the virions had a regular oval shape and uniform size (70 by 55 nm). The virus was named Aeropyrum pernix ovoid virus 1 (APOV1). Both viruses have circular, double-stranded DNA genomes of 38,049 bp for APSV1 and 13,769 bp for APOV1. Similarities to proteins of other archaeal viruses were limited to the integrase and Dna1-like protein. We propose to classify APOV1 into the family Guttaviridae.


Assuntos
Aeropyrum/genética , Aeropyrum/virologia , Provírus/genética , Aeropyrum/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Arqueais/genética , Vírus de Archaea/genética , Vírus de Archaea/ultraestrutura , Genoma Arqueal/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Provírus/ultraestrutura , Vírion/genética
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