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1.
Nat Cardiovasc Res ; 3(4): 431-440, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846711

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among people with type 2 diabetes1-5, most of whom are at moderate CVD risk6, yet there is limited evidence on the preferred choice of glucose-lowering medication for CVD risk reduction in this population. Here, we report the results of a retrospective cohort study where data for US adults with type 2 diabetes and moderate risk for CVD are used to compare the risks of experiencing a major adverse cardiovascular event with initiation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA; n = 44,188), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i; n = 47,094), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i; n = 84,315) and sulfonylureas (n = 210,679). Compared to DPP4i, GLP-1RA (hazard ratio (HR) 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.93) and SGLT2i (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.81-0.90) were associated with a lower risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event, whereas sulfonylureas were associated with a higher risk (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.16-1.22). Thus, GLP-1RA and SGLT2i may be the preferred glucose-lowering agents for cardiovascular risk reduction in patients at moderate baseline risk for CVD. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT05214573.

2.
Learn Health Syst ; 8(Suppl 1): e10418, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38883873

RESUMO

Introduction: Shared decision-making (SDM) is a method of care by which patients and clinicians work together to co-create a plan of care. Electronic health record (EHR) integration of SDM tools may increase adoption of SDM. We conducted a "lightweight" integration of a freely available electronic SDM tool, CV Prevention Choice, within the EHRs of three healthcare systems. Here, we report how the healthcare systems collaborated to achieve integration. Methods: This work was conducted as part of a stepped wedge randomized pragmatic trial. CV Prevention Choice was developed using guidelines for HTML5-based web applications. Healthcare systems integrated the tool in their EHR using documentation the study team developed and refined with lessons learned after each system integrated the electronic SDM tool into their EHR. CV Prevention Choice integration populates the tool with individual patient data locally without sending protected health information between the EHR and the web. Data abstraction and secure transfer systems were developed to manage data collection to assess tool implementation and effectiveness outcomes. Results: Time to integrate CV Prevention Choice in the EHR was 12.1 weeks for the first system, 10.4 weeks for the second, and 9.7 weeks for the third. One system required two 1-hour meetings with study team members and two healthcare systems required a single 1-hour meeting. Healthcare system information technology teams collaborated by sharing information and offering improvements to documentation. Challenges included tracking CV Prevention Choice use for reporting and capture of combination medications. Data abstraction required refinements to address differences in how each healthcare system captured data elements. Conclusion: Targeted documentation on tool features and resource mapping supported collaboration of IT teams across healthcare systems, enabling them to integrate a web-based SDM tool with little additional research team effort or oversight. Their collaboration helped overcome difficulties integrating the web application and address challenges to data harmonization for trial outcome analyses.

3.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e084937, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38803252

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Empowering people living with multimorbidity (multiple chronic conditions) to gain greater confidence in managing their health can enhance their quality of life. Education focused on self-management is a key tool for fostering patient empowerment and is mostly provided on an individual basis. Virtual communities of practice (VCoP) present a unique opportunity for online education in chronic condition self-management within a social context. This research aims to evaluate the effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of individualised, online self-management education compared with VCoP among middle-aged individuals living with multiple chronic conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: People aged 30-60, living with ≥2 chronic conditions and receiving care in primary care (PC) centres and outpatient hospital-based clinics in Madrid and Canary Islands will enrol in an 18-month parallel-design, blinded (intervention assessment and data analysts), pragmatic (adhering to the intention-to-treat principle), individually randomised trial. The trial will compare two 12-month web-based educational offers of identical content; one delivered individually (control) and the other with online social interaction (VCoP, intervention). Using repeated measures mixed linear models, with the patient as random effect and allocation groups and time per group as fixed effects, we will estimate between-arm differences in the change in Patient Activation Measure from baseline to 12 months (primary endpoint), including measurements at 6-month and 18-month follow-up. Other outcomes will include measures of depression and anxiety, treatment burden, quality of life. In addition to a process evaluation of the VCoP, we will conduct an economic evaluation estimating the relative cost-effectiveness of the VCoP from the perspectives of both the National Health System and the Community. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was approved by Clinical Research Ethics Committees of Gregorio Marañón University Hospital in Madrid/Nuestra Señora Candelaria University Hospital in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. The results will be disseminated through workshops, policy briefs, peer-reviewed publications and local/international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT06046326.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Multimorbidade , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/educação , Análise Custo-Benefício , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Espanha , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Comunidade de Prática
4.
Patient Educ Couns ; 125: 108285, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time is often perceived as a barrier to shared decision making in cancer care. It remains unclear how time functions as a barrier and how it could be most effectively utilized. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aimed to describe the role of time in patient involvement, and identify strategies to overcome time-related barriers. METHODS: Seven databases were searched for any publications on patient involvement in cancer treatment decisions, focusing on how time is used to involve patients, the association between time and patient involvement, and/or strategies to overcome time-related barriers. Reviewers worked independently and in duplicate to select publications and extract data. One coder thematically analyzed data, a second coder checked these analyses. RESULTS: The analysis of 26 eligible publications revealed four themes. Time was a resource 1) to process the diagnosis, 2) to obtain/process/consider information, 3) for patients and clinicians to spend together, and 4) for patient involvement in making decisions. DISCUSSION: Time is a resource throughout the treatment decision-making process, and generic strategies have been proposed to overcome time constraints. PRACTICE VALUE: Clinicians could co-create decision-making timelines with patients, spread decisions across several consultations, share written information with patients, and support healthcare redesigns that allocate the necessary time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Participação do Paciente , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Relações Médico-Paciente , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 22(5): 315-326, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708695

RESUMO

Purpose: The type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is disproportionately concentrated in low- and middle-income economies, particularly among rural populations. The purpose of the systematic review was to evaluate the inclusion of rurality and social determinants of health (SDOH) in documents for T2D primary prevention. Methods: This systematic review is reported following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. We searched 19 databases, from 2017-2023, for documents on rurality and T2D primary prevention. Furthermore, we searched online for documents from the 216 World Bank economies, categorized by high, upper-middle, lower-middle, and low income status. We extracted data on rurality and the ten World Health Organization SDOH. Two authors independently screened documents and extracted data. Findings: Based on 3318 documents (19 databases and online search), we selected 15 documents for data extraction. The 15 documents applied to 32 economies; 12 of 15 documents were from nongovernment sources, none was from low-income economies, and 10 of 15 documents did not define or describe rurality. Among the SDOH, income and social protection (SDOH 1) and social inclusion and nondiscrimination (SDOH 8) were mentioned in documents for 25 of 29 high-income economies, while food insecurity (SDOH 5) and housing, basic amenities, and the environment (SDOH 6) were mentioned in documents for 1 of 2 lower-middle-income economies. For U.S. documents, none of the authors was from institutions in noncore (most rural) counties. Conclusions: Overall, documents on T2D primary prevention had sparse inclusion of rurality and SDOH, with additional disparity based on economic status. Inclusion of rurality and/or SDOH may improve T2D primary prevention in rural populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Prevenção Primária , População Rural , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Med Decis Making ; 44(3): 346-356, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of shared decision making (SDM) in daily practice remains limited. Various patient characteristics have been suggested to potentially influence the extent to which clinicians involve patients in SDM. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between patient characteristics and the extent to which clinicians involve patients in SDM. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data pooled from 10 studies comparing the care of adult patients with (intervention) or without (control) a within-encounter SDM conversation tool. We included studies with audio(-visual) recordings of clinical encounters in which decisions about starting or reconsidering treatment were discussed. MAIN MEASURES: In the original studies, the Observing Patient Involvement in Decision Making 12-items (OPTION12 item) scale was used to code the extent to which clinicians involved patients in SDM in clinical encounters. We conducted multivariable analyses with patient characteristics (age, gender, race, education, marital status, number of daily medications, general health status, health literacy) as independent variables and OPTION12 as a dependent variable. RESULTS: We included data from 1,614 patients. The between-arm difference in OPTION12 scores was 7.7 of 100 points (P < 0.001). We found no association between any patient characteristics and the OPTION12 score except for education level (p = 0.030), an association that was very small (2.8 points between the least and most educated), contributed mostly by, and only significant in, control arms (6.5 points). Subanalyses of a stroke prevention trial showed a positive association between age and OPTION12 score (P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Most characteristics showed no association with the extent to which clinicians involved patients in SDM. Without an SDM conversation tool, clinicians devoted more efforts to involve patients with higher education, a difference not observed when the tool was used. HIGHLIGHTS: Most sociodemographic patient characteristics show no association with the extent to which clinicians involve patients in shared decision making.Clinicians devoted less effort to involve patients with lower education, a difference that was not observed when a shared decision-making conversation tool was used.SDM conversation tools can be useful for clinicians to better involve patients and ensure patients get involved equally regardless of educational background.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Comunicação , Participação do Paciente , Tomada de Decisões
7.
Ann Glob Health ; 90(1): 27, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618271

RESUMO

Patient-centered care (PCC) is a key domain of healthcare quality. Its importance is driven by evidence-based medicine, the predominance of chronic conditions requiring self-care, and the recognition of the priority of patient goals, values, priorities, and preferences in determining care plans. This article emphasizes the urgent need for Africa to develop PCC and a workforce committed to its implementation, as well as highlights an initiative by African medical students to champion PCC continent-wide. Embracing this transformative approach presents Africa with an unprecedented opportunity to improve care for each person. Through a comprehensive exploration of unique strategies and considerations in African health professions education, this viewpoint seeks to spark dialogue and inspire action towards a future where patient-centered care is the foundation of healthcare delivery in Africa.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , África , Instalações de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
8.
Patient Educ Couns ; 123: 108237, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the importance of unhurried conversations for providing careful and kind care, we sought to create, test, and validate the Unhurried Conversations Assessment Tool (UCAT) for assessing the unhurriedness of patient-clinician consultations. METHODS: In the first two phases, the unhurried conversation dimensions were identified and transformed into an assessment tool. In the third phase, two independent raters used UCAT to evaluate the unhurriedness of 100 randomly selected consultations from 184 videos recorded for a large research trial. UCAT's psychometric properties were evaluated using this data. RESULTS: UCAT demonstrates content validity based on the literature and expert review. EFA and reliability analyses confirm its construct validity and internal consistency. The seven formative dimensions account for 89.93% of the variance in unhurriedness, each displaying excellent internal consistency (α > 0.90). Inter-rater agreement for the overall assessment item was fair (ICC = 0.59), with individual dimension ICCs ranging from 0.26 (poor) to 0.95 (excellent). CONCLUSION: UCAT components comprehensively assess the unhurriedness of consultations. The tool exhibits content and construct validity and can be used reliably. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: UCAT's design and psychometric properties make it a practical and efficient tool. Clinicians can use it for self-evaluations and training to foster unhurried conversations.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Psicometria , Competência Clínica
9.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470228

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Endotracheal intubation is the third most common bedside procedure in U.S. hospitals. In over 40% of intubations preventable complications attributable to human factors occur. A better understanding of team dynamics during intubation may improve patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To explore team dynamics and safety-related actions during emergent endotracheal intubations in the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU), and to engage members of the care team in reflection for process improvement through a novel video-based team debriefing technique. METHODS: Video-reflexive ethnography involves in-situ video-recording and reflexive discussions with practitioners to scrutinize behaviors and to identify opportunities for improvement. In this study, real-time intubations were recorded in the ED and ICU at Mayo Clinic Rochester and facilitated video-reflexive sessions were conducted with the multidisciplinary procedural teams. Themes about team dynamics and safety-related action were identified inductively from transcriptions of recorded sessions. RESULTS: Between December 2022 and January 2023, eight video-reflexive sessions were conducted with a total of 78 participants. Multidisciplinary members included nurses (n=23), respiratory therapists (n=16), pharmacists (n=7), advanced practitioners (n=5), and physicians (n=26). Video-reflexive discussions identified major safety gaps and proposed several solutions related to the use of a multidisciplinary intubation checklist, standardized communication and team positioning, developing a culture of safety, and routinely debriefing after the procedure. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study may inform the development of a team supervision model for emergent endotracheal intubations. This approach could integrate key components such as a multidisciplinary intubation checklist, standardized communication and team positioning, a culture of safety, and debriefing as part of the procedure itself.

10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective shared decision-making (SDM) tools for use during clinical encounters are available, but, outside of study settings, little is known about clinician use of these tools in practice. OBJECTIVE: To describe real-world use of an SDM encounter tool for statin prescribing, Statin Choice, embedded into the workflow of an electronic health record. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Clinicians and their statin-eligible patients who had outpatient encounters between January 2020 and June 2021 in Cleveland Clinic Health System. MAIN MEASURES: Clinician use of Statin Choice was recorded within the Epic record system. We categorized each patient's 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk into low (< 5%), borderline (5-7.5%), intermediate (7.5-20%), and high (≥ 20%). Other patient factors included age, sex, insurance, and race. We used mixed effects logistic regression to assess the odds of using Statin Choice for statin-eligible patients, accounting for clustering by clinician and site. We generated a residual intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to characterize the impact of the clinician on Statin Choice use. KEY RESULTS: Statin Choice was used in 7% of 68,505 eligible patients. Of 1047 clinicians, 48% used Statin Choice with ≥ 1 patient, and these clinicians used it with a median 9% of their patients (interquartile range: 3-22%). In the mixed effects logistic regression model, patient age (adjusted OR per year: 1.04; 95%CI 1.03-1.04) and 10-year ASVCD risk (aOR for 5-7.5% versus < 5% risk: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.14-1.44) were associated with use of Statin Choice. Black versus White race was associated with a lower odds of Statin Choice use (aOR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.95), as was female versus male sex (aOR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.76-0.90). The model ICC demonstrated that 53% of the variation in use of Statin Choice was clinician-driven. CONCLUSIONS: Patient factors, including race and sex, were associated with clinician use of Statin Choice; half the variation in use was attributable to individual clinicians.

11.
Endocrine ; 83(2): 449-458, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37695453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We pilot-tested an encounter conversation aid to support shared decision making (SDM) between patients with thyroid nodules and their clinicians. OBJECTIVE: Characterize the clinician feedback after providing care to patients with thyroid nodules using a tool to promote SDM conversations during the clinical encounter, and evaluate how clinicians used the tool during the visit. METHODS: Mixed method study in two academic centers in the U.S., including adult patients presenting for evaluation of thyroid nodules and their clinicians. We thematically analyzed interviews with clinicians after they used the SDM tool in at least three visits to characterize their feedback. Additionally, investigators evaluated visits recordings to determine the extent to which clinicians engaged patients in the decision-making process (OPTION score, scale 0 to 100, higher levels indicating higher involvement), the tool's components used (fidelity), and encounter duration. Using a post-visit survey, we evaluated the extent to which clinicians felt the tool was easy to use, helpful, and supportive of the patient-clinician collaboration. RESULTS: Thirteen clinicians participated in the study and used the SDM tool in the care of 53 patients. Clinicians thought the tool was well-organized and beneficial to patients and clinicians. Clinicians noticed a change in their routine with the use of the conversation aid and suggested it needed to be more flexible to better support varying conversations. The median OPTION score was 34, the fidelity of use 75%, and the median visit duration 17 min. In most encounters, clinicians agreed or strongly agreed the tool was easy to use (86%), helpful (65%), and supported collaboration (62%). CONCLUSION: Clinicians were able to use a SDM tool in the care of patients with thyroid nodules. Although they wished it were more flexible, they found on the whole that its use in the clinical encounter was beneficial to patients and clinicians.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Adulto , Humanos , Retroalimentação , Participação do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomada de Decisões
12.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 40(1): e3, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38099431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Telemedicine may improve healthcare access and efficiency if it demands less clinician time than usual care. We sought to describe the degree to which telemedicine trials assess the effect of telemedicine on clinicians' time and to discuss how including the time needed to treat (TNT) in health technology assessment (HTA) could affect the design of telemedicine services and studies. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review by searching clinicaltrials.gov using the search term "telemedicine" and limiting results to randomized trials or observational studies registered between January 2012 and October 2023. We then reviewed trial registration data to determine if any of the outcomes assessed in the trials measured effect on clinicians' time. RESULTS: We found 113 studies and of these 78 studies of telemedicine met the inclusion criteria and were included. Nine (12 percent) of the 78 studies had some measure of clinician time as a primary outcome, and 11 (14 percent) as a secondary outcome. Four studies compared direct measures of TNT with telemedicine versus usual care, but no statistically significant difference was found. Of the sixteen studies including indirect measures of clinician time, thirteen found no significant effects, two found a statistically significant reduction, and one found a statistically significant increase. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review found that clinician time is not commonly measured in studies of telemedicine interventions. Attention to telemedicine's TNT in clinical studies and HTAs of telemedicine in practice may bring attention to the organization of clinical workflows and increase the value of telemedicine.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Telemedicina , Telemedicina/métodos , Tempo , Agendamento de Consultas
14.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1225777, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37794913

RESUMO

Introduction: Compared to stably housed peers, people experiencing homelessness (PEH) have lower rates of ideal glycemic control, and experience premature morbidity and mortality. High rates of behavioral health comorbidities and trauma add to access barriers driving poor outcomes. Limited evidence guides behavioral approaches to support the needs of PEH with diabetes. Lay coaching models can improve care for low-resource populations with diabetes, yet we found no evidence of programs specifically tailored to the needs of PEH. Methods: We used a multistep, iterative process following the ORBIT model to develop the Diabetes Homeless Medication Support (D-HOMES) program, a new lifestyle intervention for PEH with type 2 diabetes. We built a community-engaged research team who participated in all of the following steps of treatment development: (1) initial treatment conceptualization drawing from evidence-based programs, (2) qualitative interviews with affected people and multi-disciplinary housing and healthcare providers, and (3) an open trial of D-HOMES to evaluate acceptability (Client Satisfaction Questionnaire, exit interview) and treatment engagement (completion rate of up to 10 offered coaching sessions). Results: In step (1), the D-HOMES treatment manual drew from existing behavioral activation and lay health coach programs for diabetes as well as clinical resources from Health Care for the Homeless. Step (2) qualitative interviews (n = 26 patients, n = 21 providers) shaped counseling approaches, language and choices regarding interventionists, tools, and resources. PTSD symptoms were reported in 69% of patients. Step (3) trial participants (N = 10) overall found the program acceptable, however, we saw better program satisfaction and treatment engagement among more stably housed people. We developed adapted treatment materials for the target population and refined recruitment/retention strategies and trial procedures sensitive to prevalent discrimination and racism to better retain people of color and those with less stable housing. Discussion: The research team has used these findings to inform an NIH-funded randomized control pilot trial. We found synergy between community-engaged research and the ORBIT model of behavioral treatment development to develop a new intervention designed for PEH with type 2 diabetes and address health equity gaps in people who have experienced trauma. We conclude that more work and different approaches are needed to address the needs of participants with the least stable housing.

15.
BMJ Open Qual ; 12(4)2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective is to examine and synthesise the best available experimental evidence about the effect of ambulatory consultation duration on quality of healthcare. METHODS: We included experimental studies manipulating the length of outpatient clinical encounters between adult patients and clinicians (ie, therapists, pharmacists, nurses, physicians) to determine their effect on quality of care (ie, effectiveness, efficiency, timeliness, safety, equity, patient-centredness and patient satisfaction). INFORMATION SOURCES: Using controlled vocabulary and keywords, without restriction by language or year of publication, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus from inception until 15 May 2023. RISK OF BIAS: Cochrane Risk of Bias instrument. DATA SYNTHESIS: Narrative synthesis. RESULTS: 11 publications of 10 studies explored the relationship between encounter duration and quality. Most took place in the UK's general practice over two decades ago. Study findings based on very sparse and outdated evidence-which suggested that longer consultations improved indicators of patient-centred care, education about prevention and clinical referrals; and that consultation duration was inconsistently related to patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes-warrant low confidence due to limited protections against bias and indirect applicability to current practice. CONCLUSION: Experimental evidence for a minimal or optimal duration of an outpatient consultation is sparse and outdated. To develop evidence-based policies and practices about encounter length, randomised trials of different consultation lengths-in person and virtually, and with electronic health records-are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: OSF Registration DOI:10.17605/OSF.IO/EUDK8.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto , Humanos , Instalações de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
16.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0288116, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37384783

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Globally, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which include type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), are associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. Health disparities exacerbate the burden of NCDs. Notably, rural, compared with urban, populations face greater disparities in access to preventive care, management, and treatment of NCDs. However, there is sparse information and no known literature synthesis on the inclusion of rural populations in documents (i.e., guidelines, position statements, and advisories) pertaining to the prevention of T2D, hypertension, and CVD. To address this gap, we are conducting a systematic review to assess the inclusion of rural populations in documents on the primary prevention of T2D, hypertension, and CVD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched 19 databases including EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Scopus, from January 2017 through October 2022, on the primary prevention of T2D, hypertension, and CVD. We conducted separate Google® searches for each of the 216 World Bank economies. For primary screening, titles and/or abstracts were screened independently by two authors (databases) or one author (Google®). Documents meeting selection criteria will undergo full-text review (secondary screening) using predetermined criteria, and data extraction using a standardized form. The definition of rurality varies, and we will report the description provided in each document. We will also describe the social determinants of health (based on the World Health Organization) that may be associated with rurality. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: To our knowledge, this will be the first systematic review on the inclusion of rurality in documents on the primary prevention of T2D, hypertension, and CVD. Ethics approval is not required since we are not using patient-level data. Patients are not involved in the study design or analysis. We will present the results at conferences and in peer-reviewed publication(s). TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42022369815.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 43: e389516, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37339391

RESUMO

Shared decision making (SDM) is a method of care that is suitable for the care of patients with cancer. It involves a collaborative conversation seeking to respond sensibly to the problematic situation of the patient, cocreating a plan of care that makes sense intellectually, practically, and emotionally. Genetic testing to identify whether a patient has a hereditary cancer syndrome represents a prime example of the importance for SDM in oncology. SDM is important for genetic testing because not only results affect current cancer treatment, cancer surveillance, and care of relatives but also these tests generate both complex results and psychological concerns. SDM conversations should take place without interruptions, disruptions, or hurry and be supported, where available, by tools that assist in conveying the relevant evidence and in supporting plan development. Examples of these tools include treatment SDM encounter aids and the Genetics Adviser. Patients are expected to play a key role in making decisions and implementing plans of care, but several evolving challenges related to the unfettered access to information and expertise of varying trustworthiness and complexity in between interactions with clinicians can both support and complicate this role. SDM should result in a plan of care that is maximally responsive to the biology and biography of each patient, maximally supportive of each patient's goals and priorities, and minimally disruptive of their lives and loves.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Neoplasias , Humanos , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Oncologia
18.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 159: 92-105, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37217106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify, assess, and summarize the measures to assess burden of treatment in patients with multimorbidity (BoT-MMs) and their measurement properties. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: MEDLINE via PubMed was searched from inception until May 2021. Independent reviewers extracted data from studies in which BoT-MMs were developed, validated, or reported as used, including an assessment of their measurement properties (e.g., validity and reliability) using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments. RESULTS: Eight BoT-MMs were identified across 72 studies. Most studies were performed in English (68%), in high-income countries (90%), without noting urban-rural settings (90%). No BoT-MMs had both sufficient content validity and internal consistency; some measurement properties were either insufficient or uncertain (e.g., responsiveness). Other frequent limitations of BoT-MMs included absent recall time, presence of floor effects, and unclear rationale for categorizing and interpreting raw scores. CONCLUSION: The evidence needed for use of extant BoT-MMs in patients with multimorbidity remains insufficiently developed, including that of suitability for their development, measurement properties, interpretability of scores, and use in low-resource settings. This review summarizes this evidence and identifies issues needing attention for using BoT-MMs in research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Pacientes , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 28(3): 157-163, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36868578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the range of collaborative approaches to shared decision-making (SDM) observed in clinical encounters of patients with diabetes and their clinicians. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of videorecordings obtained in a randomised trial comparing usual diabetes primary care with or without using a within-encounter conversation SDM tool. SETTING: Using the purposeful SDM framework, we classified the forms of SDM observed in a random sample of 100 video-recorded clinical encounters of patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed the correlation between the extent to which each form of SDM was used and patient involvement (OPTION12-scale). RESULTS: We observed at least one instance of SDM in 86 of 100 encounters. In 31 (36%) of these 86 encounters, we found only one form of SDM, in 25 (29%) two forms, and in 30 (35%), we found ≥3 forms of SDM. In these encounters, 196 instances of SDM were identified, with weighing alternatives (n=64 of 196, 33%), negotiating conflicting desires (n=59, 30%) and problemsolving (n=70, 36%) being similarly prevalent and developing existential insight accounting for only 1% (n=3) of instances. Only the form of SDM focused on weighing alternatives was correlated with a higher OPTION12-score. More forms of SDM were used when medications were changed (2.4 SDM forms (SD 1.48) vs 1.8 (SD 1.46); p=0.050). CONCLUSIONS: After considering forms of SDM beyond weighing alternatives, SDM was present in most encounters. Clinicians and patients often used different forms of SDM within the same encounter. Recognising a range of SDM forms that clinicians and patients use to respond to problematic situations, as demonstrated in this study, opens new lines of research, education and practice that may advance patient-centred, evidence-based care.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Comunicação , Participação do Paciente , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 36(2): 277-288, 2023 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36948538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create a model based on patients' characteristics that can predict the number of burdens reported using the ICAN Discussion Aid, to target use of this tool to patients likeliest to benefit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six hundred thirty-five patients (aged ≥18 years) completed the ICAN Discussion Aid at a Scottsdale, Arizona, family medicine clinic. Patient characteristics were gathered from their health records. Regression trees with Poisson splitting criteria were used to model the data. RESULTS: Our model suggests the patients with the most burdens had major depressive disorder, with twice as many overall burdens (personal plus health care burdens) than patients without depression. Patients with depression who were younger than 38 years had the highest number of personal burdens. A body mass index (BMI) of 26 or greater was associated with increased health care burden versus a BMI below 26. CONCLUSION: The number of burdens a patient will report on the ICAN Discussion Aid can be approximated based on certain patient characteristics. Adults with major depression, a BMI of 26 or greater, and younger age may have greater reported burdens on ICAN, but this finding needs to be validated in independent samples.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Atenção à Saúde
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