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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 148: 109506, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508541

RESUMO

Paecilomyces variotii (a filamentous fungus), is a promising novel protein source in fish feeds due to its high nutritional value. Also, P. variotii has Microbial-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs) such as glucans and nucleic acids that could modulate the host's immune response. To understand the potential bioactive properties of this fungus in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), our study was conducted to evaluate the gene expression of immune-related biomarkers (e.g., cytokines, effector molecules and receptors) on primary cultures from salmon head kidney (HKLs) and spleen leukocytes (SLs) exposed to either UV inactivated or fractions from P. variotii with or without inactivated Moritella viscosa (a skin pathogen in salmonids). Moreover, the effect of the fermentation conditions and down-stream processing on the physical ultrastructure and cell wall glucan content of P. variotii was characterized. The results showed that drying had a significant effect on the cell wall ultrastructure of the fungi and the choice of fermentation has a significant effect on the quantity of ß-glucans in P. variotii. Furthermore, stimulating Atlantic salmon HKLs and SLs with P. variotii and its fractions induced gene expression related to pro-inflammatory (tnfα, il1ß) and antimicrobial response (cath2) in HKLs, while response in SLs was related to both pro-inflammatory and regulatory response (tnfα, il6 and il10). Similarly, the stimulation with inactivated M. viscosa alone led to an up-regulation of genes related to pro-inflammatory (tnfα, il1ß, il6) antimicrobial response (cath2), intra-cellular signalling and recognition of M. viscosa (sclra, sclrb) and a suppression of regulatory response (il10) in both HKLs and SLs. Interestingly, the co-stimulation of cells with P. variotii and M. viscosa induced immune homeostasis (il6, tgfß) and antimicrobial response (cath2) in SLs at 48h. Thus, P. variotii induces immune activation and cellular communication in Atlantic salmon HKLs and SLs and modulates M. viscosa induced pro-inflammatory responses in SLs. Taken together, the results from physical and chemical characterization of the fungi, along with the differential gene expression of key immune biomarkers, provides a theoretical basis for designing feeding trials and optimize diets with P. variotii as a functional novel feed ingredient for Atlantic salmon.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Byssochlamys , Doenças dos Peixes , Moritella , Salmo salar , Animais , Moritella/genética , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Biomarcadores
2.
Biology (Basel) ; 12(8)2023 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37626964

RESUMO

The immune response of Atlantic salmon to sea lice has been extensively studied, but we still do not know the mechanisms by which some fish become resistant and others do not. In this study, we estimated the heritabilities of three key proteins associated with the innate immunity and resistance of Salmo salar against the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. In particular, we quantified the abundance of 2 pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tnfα and Il-8, and an antioxidant enzyme, Nkef, in Atlantic salmon skin and gill tissue from 21 families and 268 individuals by indirect ELISA. This covers a wide parasite load range from low or resistant (mean sea lice ± SE = 8.7 ± 0.9) to high or susceptible (mean sea lice ± SE = 43.3 ± 2.0). Our results showed that susceptible fish had higher levels of Nkef and Tnfα than resistant fish in their gills and skin, although gill Il-8 was higher in resistant fish, while no significant differences were found in the skin. Furthermore, moderate to very high heritable genetic variation was estimated for Nkef (h2 skin: 0.96 ± 0.14 and gills: 0.97 ± 0.11) and Tnfα (h2 skin: 0.53 ± 0.17 and gills: 0.32 ± 0.14), but not for Il-8 (h2 skin: 0.22 ± 0.12 ns and gills: 0.09 ± 0.08 ns). This work provides evidence that Nkef and Tnfα protein expressions are highly heritable and related to resistance against sea lice in Atlantic salmon.

3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1125702, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36993984

RESUMO

Paraprobiotics (dead/inactivated probiotics) are promising candidates in functional feeds to promote growth performance, modulate intestinal microbiota and enhance immune response of fish. During industrial production, fish are exposed to several stressful conditions such as handling, sub-optimal nutrition and diseases that can lead to reduced growth, increased mortalities and large economical losses. Such problems can be mitigated by use of functional feeds, leading to more-sustainable aquaculture and improved animal welfare. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strain L-137 is a common bacterium found in fermented Southeast Asian dish made from fish and rice. The benefits of its heat-killed form (HK L-137) related to growth performance and immunomodulation have been studied in farmed fish such as Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and bighead catfish (Clarias macrocephalus). To study if such benefits can also be observed in salmonids, we worked both at in vitro level using an intestinal epithelium cell line from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; RTgutGC) stimulated with HK L-137 (Feed LP20™) and at in vivo level with pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed HK L-137 at different inclusion levels (20, 100 and 500 mg of Feed LP20™ kg-1 feed). In RTgutGC, the results showed that the barrier function of the cell monolayer was strengthened along with an increased production of IL-1ß and a decreased production of Anxa1, indicating a modulation of the immune response. Interestingly, a similar trend was detected at the in vivo level in distal intestine from fish fed the highest inclusion level of HK L-137. Here, a lower production of Anxa1 was also detected (after a 61-day feeding period) in addition to an increase of total plasma IgM in the same group. Furthermore, the RNA-seq analysis showed that HK L-137 was able to modulate the gene expression of pathways related to molecular function, biological process and cellular component in distal intestine, without compromising fish performance and gut microbiota. Taken together, our study has shown that HK L-137 can modulate physiological response of Atlantic salmon, making fish more robust against stressful conditions during production.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Ração Animal/análise , Imunidade , Imunomodulação
4.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101374

RESUMO

In Atlantic salmon, vaccines have failed to control and prevent Piscirickettsiosis, for reasons that remain elusive. In this study, we report the efficacy of two commercial vaccines developed with the Piscirickettsia salmonis isolates AL100005 and AL 20542 against another two genogroups which are considered highly and ubiquitously prevalent in Chile: LF-89 and EM-90. Two cohabitation trials were performed to mimic field conditions and vaccine performance: (1) post-smolt fish were challenged with a single infection of LF-89, (2) adults were coinfected with EM-90, and a low level coinfection of sea lice. In the first trial, the vaccine delayed smolt mortalities by two days; however, unvaccinated and vaccinated fish did not show significant differences in survival (unvaccinated: 60.3%, vaccinated: 56.7%; p = 0.28). In the second trial, mortality started three days later for vaccinated fish than unvaccinated fish. However, unvaccinated and vaccinated fish did not show significant differences in survival (unvaccinated: 64.6%, vaccinated: 60.2%, p = 0.58). Thus, we found no evidence that the evaluated vaccines confer effective protection against the genogroups LF-89 and EM-90 of P. salmonis with estimated relative survival proportions (RPSs) of -9% and -12%, respectively. More studies are necessary to evaluate whether pathogen heterogeneity is a key determinant of the lack of vaccine efficacy against P. salmonis.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565600

RESUMO

A variety of long-term stress conditions may exist in fish cultivation, some of which are so severe that fish can no longer reestablish homeostasis. In teleost fish, the brain and gastrointestinal tract integrate signals that include the perception of stress factors regulating physiological responses, such as social stress by fish population density, where peripheral and central signals, such as peptide hormones, are the main regulators. Therefore, we proposed in this study to analyze the effect of different stock densities (SD) in the gene expression of brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), together with the gastrointestinal peptide hormones leptin (Lep), vasointestinal peptide (VIP), and protachykinin-1 (Prk-1) in Salmo salar post-smolt. The coding sequence of S. salar VIP and Prk-1 precursors were firstly cloned and characterized. Then, the mRNA expression of these genes, together with the NPY, Lep, and CGRP genes, were evaluated in post-smolts kept at 11 Kg/m3, 20 Kg/m3, and 40 Kg/m3. At 14 days of culture, the brain CGRP and liver leptin mRNA levels increased three and tenfold in the post-smolt salmons kept at the highest SD, respectively. The high levels of leptin were kept during all the fish culture experiments. In addition, the highest expression of intestine VIP mRNA was obtained on Day 21 in the group of 40 Kg/m3 returning to baseline on Day 40. In terms of stress biochemical parameters, cortisol levels were increased in the 20 Kg/m3 and 40 Kg/m3 groups on Day 40 and were the highest in the 20 Kg/m3 group on Day 14. This study provides new insight into the gastrointestinal signals that could be affected by chronic stress induced by high stock density in fish farming. Thus, the expression of these peptide hormones could be used as molecular markers to improve production practices in fish aquaculture.

6.
Front Physiol ; 13: 836810, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418880

RESUMO

Stress related to salmon aquaculture practices (handling, sub-optimal nutrition, diseases, and environmental problems) may compromise fish welfare. This study describes the effects of two hydrolyzed Debaryomyces hansenii yeast-based products (LAN4 and LAN6) on physiological and immune responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr exposed to short hypoxia stress. A commercial-like diet (control diet: CD) and two experimental diets (CD supplemented with 0.1% of either component LAN4 or LAN6) were fed to fish for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding experiment, fish were exposed to 1-min hypoxia and samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h post-stress. Results showed that plasma cortisol reached a peak at 1 h post-stress in CD and LAN6 groups, whereas no significant increase in cortisol levels was detected in the LAN4 group. Moreover, the LAN6 group enhanced IL-10 responses to hypoxia, when compared to the control and LAN4 group. This suggests a regulation of immunosuppressive profiles in fish fed LAN4. Hypoxia stress increased TNFα in all groups, which indicates that fish may compensate for the short-term stress response, by modulating innate immune molecules. The apparent suppression of hypoxia responses in the LAN4 group coincided with the detection of differences in goblet cells size and Muc-like proteins production in DI; and upregulation (1 h post-stress) of pathways related to oxygen transport, hemoglobin complex, and glutathione transferase activity and the downregulation of fatty acid metabolism (6 h post-stress) in gills. To conclude, a 1-min hypoxia stress exposure affects the response to stress and immunity; and D. hansenii-based yeast products are promising components in functional aquafeeds for salmon due to their ability to counteract possible consequences of hypoxic stress.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708747, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489959

RESUMO

Aquaculture feeds have changed dramatically from being largely based on fishmeal (FM) towards increased use of plant protein sources, which could impact the fish's immune response. In order to characterize immunomodulatory properties of novel functional ingredients, this study used four diets, one based on FM, a challenging diet with 40% soybean meal (SBM), and two diets containing 40% SBM with 5% of Cyberlindnera jadinii yeast exposed to different down-stream processing conditions: heat-inactivated (ICJ) or autolysation (ACJ). The immunomodulatory effects of the diets were analyzed in the spleen of Atlantic salmon after 37 days of feeding, using a transcriptomic evaluation by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and the detection of specific immunological markers at the protein level through indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (indirect ELISA). The results showed that SBM (compared to FM) induced a down-regulation of pathways related to ion binding and transport, along with an increase at the protein level of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ). On the other hand, while ICJ (compared to FM-group) maintain the inflammatory response associated with SBM, with higher levels of TNFα and IFNγ, and with an upregulation of creatine kinase activity and phosphagen metabolic process, the inclusion of ACJ was able to modulate the response of Atlantic salmon compared to fish fed the SBM-diet by the activation of biological pathways related to endocytosis, Pattern recognition receptor (PPRs)-signal transduction and transporter activity. In addition, ACJ was also able to control the pro-inflammatory profile of SBM, increasing Interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels and decreasing TNFα production, triggering an immune response similar to that of fish fed an FM-based diet. Finally, we suggest that the spleen is a good candidate to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of functional ingredients in Atlantic salmon. Moreover, the inclusion of ACJ in fish diets, with the ability to control inflammatory processes, could be considered in the formulation of sustainable salmon feed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Candida , Salmo salar/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Animais , Ontologia Genética , Interferon gama/análise , Transcriptoma , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The communication between the brain and the immune system is a cornerstone in animal physiology. This interaction is mediated by immune factors acting in both health and pathogenesis, but it is unclear how these systems molecularly and mechanistically communicate under changing environmental conditions. Behavioural fever is a well-conserved immune response that promotes dramatic changes in gene expression patterns during ectotherms' thermoregulatory adaptation, including those orchestrating inflammation. However, the molecular regulators activating the inflammatory reflex in ectotherms remain unidentified. METHODS: We revisited behavioural fever by providing groups of fish a thermal gradient environment during infection. Our novel experimental setup created temperature ranges in which fish freely moved between different thermal gradients: (1) wide thermoregulatory range; T° = 6.4 °C; and (2) restricted thermoregulatory range; T° = 1.4 °C. The fish behaviour was investigated during 5-days post-viral infection. Blood, spleen, and brain samples were collected to determine plasmatic pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. To characterize genes' functioning during behavioural fever, we performed a transcriptomic profiling of the fish spleen. We also measured the activity of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and acetylcholine in brain and peripheral tissues. RESULTS: We describe the first set of the neural components that control inflammatory modulation during behavioural fever. We identified a neuro-immune crosstalk as a potential mechanism promoting the fine regulation of inflammation. The development of behavioural fever upon viral infection triggers a robust inflammatory response in vivo, establishing an activation threshold after infection in several organs, including the brain. Thus, temperature shifts strongly impact on neural tissue, specifically on the inflammatory reflex network activation. At the molecular level, behavioural fever causes a significant increase in cholinergic neurotransmitters and their receptors' activity and key anti-inflammatory factors such as cytokine Il10 and Tgfß in target tissues. CONCLUSION: These results reveal a cholinergic neuronal-based mechanism underlying anti-inflammatory responses under induced fever. We performed the first molecular characterization of the behavioural fever response and inflammatory reflex activation in mobile ectotherms, identifying the role of key regulators of these processes. These findings provide genetic entry points for functional studies of the neural-immune adaptation to infection and its protective relevance in ectotherm organisms.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Infecções por Birnaviridae/complicações , Febre/patologia , Imunidade , Vírus da Necrose Pancreática Infecciosa/fisiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Reflexo , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Febre/etiologia , Peixes , Inflamação/etiologia
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 666356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054836

RESUMO

Type II interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a pleiotropic cytokine capable of modulating the innate and adaptive immune responses which has been widely characterized in several teleost families. In fish, IFNγ stimulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines associated with the pro-inflammatory response and enhances the production of nitrogen and oxygen reactive species in phagocytic cells. This work studied the effect of IFNγ on the expression of cell-surface markers on splenocytes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In vitro results showed that subpopulations of mononuclear splenocytes cultured for 15 days were capable of increasing gene expression and protein availability of cell-surface markers such as CD80/86, CD83 and MHC II, after being stimulated with recombinant IFNγ. These results were observed for subpopulations with characteristics associated with monocytes (51%), and features that could be related to lymphocytes (46.3%). In addition, a decrease in the expression of zbtb46 was detected in IFNγ-stimulated splenocytes. Finally, the expression of IFNγ and cell-surface markers was assessed in Atlantic salmon under field conditions. In vivo results showed that the expression of ifnγ increased simultaneously with the up-regulation of cd80/86, cd83 and mhcii during a natural outbreak of Piscirickettsia salmonis. Overall, the results obtained in this study allow us to propose IFNγ as a candidate molecule to stimulate the phenotypic progression of a small population of immune cells, which will increase antigen presenting cells markers. Thereby, modulatory strategies using IFNγ may generate a robust and coordinated immune response in fish against pathogens that affect aquaculture.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-2/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Interferon gama/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Salmo salar/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Antígeno B7-2/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Piscirickettsia , Infecções por Piscirickettsiaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Piscirickettsiaceae/veterinária , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Antígeno CD83
11.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924548

RESUMO

In fish, the spleen is one of the major immune organs in the animal, and the splenocytes could play a key role in the activation and modulation of the immune response, both innate and adaptive. However, the crosstalk between different types of immune cells in the spleen has been poorly understood. In this work, an in vitro strategy is carried out to obtain and characterize mononuclear splenocytes from rainbow trout, using biomarkers associated with lymphocytes (CD4 and IgM) and antigen-presenting cells (CD83 and MHC II). Using these splenocytes, co-cultures of 24 and 48 h are used to determine the gene expression of master transcriptional factors that coordinate the polarization of T cells (t-bet, gata3, and foxp3). The results show a proportional upregulation of foxp3 (compared to t-bet and gata3) in co-cultures (at 24 h) of IFNγ-induced splenocytes with and without stimulation of Piscirickettsia salmonis proteins. In addition, foxp3 upregulation was established in co-cultures with IFNγ-induced cells and in cells only stimulated previously with P. salmonis proteins at 48 h of co-culture. These results show a potential communication between antigen-presenting-like cells and lymphocyte in the spleen, which could be induced towards a Treg phenotype.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4496, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627754

RESUMO

Yeasts are becoming popular as novel ingredients in fish feeds because of their potential to support better growth and concomitantly ensure good fish health. Here, three species of yeasts (Cyberlindnera jadinii, Blastobotrys adeninivorans and Wickerhamomyces anomalus), grown on wood sugars and hydrolysates of chicken were subjected to two down-stream processes, either direct heat-inactivation or autolysis, and the feed potential of the resulting yeast preparations was assessed through a feeding trial with Atlantic salmon fry. Histological examination of distal intestine based on widening of lamina propria, showed that autolyzed W. anomalus was effective in alleviating mild intestinal enteritis, while only limited effects were observed for other yeasts. Our results showed that the functionality of yeast in counteracting intestinal enteritis in Atlantic salmon was dependent on both the type of yeast and the down-stream processing method, and demonstrated that C. jadinii and W. anomalus have promising effects on gut health of Atlantic salmon.


Assuntos
Salmo salar/fisiologia , Leveduras/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Galinhas , Enterite/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494146

RESUMO

Ensuring salmon health and welfare is crucial to maximize production in recirculation aquaculture systems. Healthy and robust mucosal surfaces of the skin and intestine are essential to achieve this goal because they are the first immunological defenses and are constantly exposed to multistressor conditions, such as infectious diseases, suboptimal nutrition, and environmental and handling stress. In this work, Atlantic salmon, split from a single cohort, were subjected to acute hypoxia stress or 15-min crowding stress and observed over a 24-h recovery period. Samples were collected from fish at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-stress to analyze plasma-circulating markers of endocrine function (cortisol), oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase) and immune function (interleukin 10 (IL-10), annexin A1). In addition, mucosal barrier function parameters were measured in the skin mucus (Muc-like protein and lysozyme) and distal intestine (simple folds, goblet cell size and goblet cell area). The results showed that both acute stress models induced increases of circulating cortisol in plasma (1 h post-stress), which then returned to baseline values (initial control) at 24 h post-stress. Moreover, the hypoxia stress was mostly related to increased oxidative stress and IL-10 production, whereas the crowding stress was associated with a higher production of Muc-like protein and lysozyme in the skin mucus. Interestingly, in the distal intestine, smaller goblet cells were detected immediately and one hour after post-hypoxia stress, which could be related to rapid release of the cellular content to protect this organ. Finally, the correlation of different markers in the hypoxic stress model showed that the circulating levels of cortisol and IL-10 were directly proportional, while the availability of Muc-like proteins was inversely proportional to the size of the goblet cells. On the other hand, in the crowding stress model, a proportional relationship was established between plasma cortisol levels and skin mucus lysozyme. Our results suggest key differences in energy partitioning between the two acute stress models and support the need for further investigation into the interplay of multistressor conditions and strategies to modulate immunological aspects of mucosal surfaces.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Intestinos/imunologia , Mucosa/imunologia , Mucosa/metabolismo , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Animais , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/imunologia , Intestinos/citologia , Pele/metabolismo
14.
Cells ; 8(5)2019 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035565

RESUMO

Nucleated teleost red blood cells (RBCs) are known to express molecules from the major histocompatibility complex and peptide-generating processes such as autophagy and proteasomes, but the role of RBCs in antigen presentation of viruses have not been studied yet. In this study, RBCs exposed ex vivo to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were evaluated by means of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Genes and proteins related to antigen presentation molecules, proteasome degradation, and autophagy were up-regulated. VHSV induced accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in ex vivo VHSV-exposed RBCs and showed at the same time a decrease of proteasome activity. Furthermore, induction of autophagy was detected by evaluating LC3 protein levels. Sequestosome-1/p62 underwent degradation early after VHSV exposure, and it may be a link between ubiquitination and autophagy activation. Inhibition of autophagosome degradation with niclosamide resulted in intracellular detection of N protein of VHSV (NVHSV) and p62 accumulation. In addition, antigen presentation cell markers, such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I & II, CD83, and CD86, increased at the transcriptional and translational level in rainbow trout RBCs exposed to VHSV. In summary, we show that nucleated rainbow trout RBCs can degrade VHSV while displaying an antigen-presenting cell (APC)-like profile.


Assuntos
Apresentação de Antígeno/imunologia , Eritroblastos/imunologia , Eritroblastos/virologia , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/imunologia , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/virologia , Novirhabdovirus/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/virologia , Animais , Apresentação de Antígeno/genética , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/citologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/imunologia , Autofagossomos/virologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/imunologia , Antígeno B7-2/análise , Antígeno B7-2/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/análise , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/análise , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/análise , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/análise , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteômica , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Antígeno CD83
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 82: 279-285, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125708

RESUMO

Ferritins are ubiquitous proteins with a pivotal role in iron storage and homeostasis, and in host defense responses during infection by pathogens in several organisms, including mollusks. In this study, we characterized two ferritin homologues in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens, a species of economic importance for Chile, USA and Mexico. Two ferritin subunits (Hrfer1 and Hrfer2) were cloned. Hrfer1 cDNA is an 807 bp clone containing a 516 bp open reading frame (ORF) that corresponds to a novel ferritin subunit in H. rufescens. Hrfer2 cDNA is an 868 bp clone containing a 516 bp ORF that corresponds to a previously reported ferritin subunit, but in this study 5'- and 3'-UTR sequences were additionally found. We detected a putative Iron Responsive Element (IRE) in the 5'-UTR sequence, suggesting a posttranscriptional regulation of Hrfer2 translation by iron. The deduced protein sequences of both cDNAs possessed the motifs and domains required in functional ferritin subunits. Expression patterns of both ferritins in different tissues, during different developmental stages, and in response to bacterial (Vibrio splendidus) exposure were examined. Both Hrfer1 and Hrfer2 are most expressed in digestive gland and gonad. Hrfer1 mRNA levels increased about 34-fold along with larval developmental process, attaining the highest level in the creeping post-larvae. Exogenous feeding is initiated at the creeping larva stage; thus, the increase of Hrfer1 may suggest and immunity-related role upon exposure to bacteria. Highest Hrfer2 expression levels were detected at trochophore stage; which may be related with early shell formation. Upon challenge with, the bacteria an early mild induction of Hrfer2 (2 h post-challenge), followed by a stronger induction of Hrfer1 at 15 h post-challenge, was observed in haemocytes from adult abalones. While maximal upregulation of both genes in the whole individual occurred at 24 h post-challenge, in juveniles. A significant increase in ferritin protein levels from 6 h to 24 h post-challenge was also detected. Our results suggest an involvement of Hrfer1 and Hrfer2, and of ferritin proteins in the immune response of H. rufescens to bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Ferritinas/genética , Ferritinas/imunologia , Gastrópodes/genética , Gastrópodes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Ferritinas/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vibrio/fisiologia
16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1296, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922300

RESUMO

Iron is a trace element, essential to support life due to its inherent ability to exchange electrons with a variety of molecules. The use of iron as a cofactor in basic metabolic pathways is essential to both pathogenic microorganisms and their hosts. During evolution, the shared requirement of micro- and macro-organisms for this important nutrient has shaped the pathogen-host relationship. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNv) affects salmonids constituting a sanitary problem for this industry as it has an important impact on post-smolt survival. While immune modulation induced by IPNv infection has been widely characterized on Salmo salar, viral impact on iron host metabolism has not yet been elucidated. In the present work, we evaluate short-term effect of IPNv on several infected tissues from Salmo salar. We observed that IPNv displayed high tropism to headkidney, which directly correlates with a rise in oxidative stress and antiviral responses. Transcriptional profiling on headkidney showed a massive modulation of gene expression, from which biological pathways involved with iron metabolism were remarkable. Our findings suggest that IPNv infection increase oxidative stress on headkidney as a consequence of iron overload induced by a massive upregulation of genes involved in iron metabolism.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/etiologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Vírus da Necrose Pancreática Infecciosa/imunologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Sobrecarga de Ferro/patologia , Transcriptoma , Carga Viral
17.
Brain Behav Immun ; 71: 169-181, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574261

RESUMO

A fever, or increased body temperature, is a symptom of inflammation, which is a complex defence reaction of the organism to pathogenic infections. After pathogens enter the body, immune cells secrete a number of agents, the functions of which stimulate the body to develop a functional immune and fever response. In mammals it is known that PGE2 is the principal mediator of fever. The extent to which PGE2 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-1ß could be involved in the induction of behavioural fever in fish remains to be clarified. Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels have been implicated as transducers of thermal stimuli, including TRPV1 and TRPV2, which are activated by heat. Here we show that members of the TRP family, TRPV1 and TRPV4, may participate in the coordination of temperature sensing during the behavioural fever. To examine the behavioral fever mechanism in Salmo salar an infection with IPNV, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, was carried out by an immersion challenge with 10 × 105 PFU/mL-1 of IPNV. Behavioural fever impacted upon the expression levels of both TRPV1 and TRPV4 mRNAs after the viral challenge and revealed a juxtaposed regulation of TRPV channels. Our results suggest that an increase in the mRNA abundance of TRPV1 is tightly correlated with a significant elevation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2) in the Pre-Optic Area (POA) and cytokine release in plasma. Together, these data indicate that the reduction of TRPV4 expression during behavioural fever may contribute to the onset of behavioural fever influencing movement toward higher water temperatures. Our data also suggest an effect of TRPV channels in the regulation of behavioural fever through activation of EP3 receptors in the central nervous system by PGE2 induced by plasma-borne cytokines. These results highlight for first time in mobile ectotherms the key role of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TRPV channels in behavioural fever that likely involves a complex integration of prostaglandin induction, cytokine recognition and temperature sensing.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona/farmacologia , Febre/terapia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Febre/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Comportamento de Doença/fisiologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Salmo salar/imunologia , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/farmacologia , Sensação Térmica , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Biol Res ; 51(1): 8, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heat stress proteins are implicated in stabilizing and refolding denatured proteins in vertebrates and invertebrates. Members of the Hsp70 gene family comprise the cognate heat shock protein (Hsc70) and inducible heat shock protein (Hsp70). However, the cDNA sequence and the expression of Hsp70 in the Antarctic sea urchin are unknown. METHODS: We amplified and cloned a transcript sequence of 1991 bp from the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, experimentally exposed to heat stress (5  and 10 °C for 1, 24 and 48 h). RACE-PCR and qPCR were employed to determine Hsp70 gene expression, while western blot and ELISA methods were used to determine protein expression. RESULTS: The sequence obtained from S. neumayeri showed high identity with Hsp70 members. Several Hsp70 family features were identified in the deduced amino acid sequence and they indicate that the isolated Hsp70 is related to the cognate heat shock protein type. The corresponding 70 kDa protein, called Sn-Hsp70, was immune detected in the coelomocytes and the digestive tract of S. neumayeri using a monospecific polyclonal antibody. We showed that S. neumayeri do not respond to acute heat stress by up-regulation of Sn-Hsp70 at transcript and protein level. Furthermore, the Sn-Hsp70 protein expression was not induced in the digestive tract. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first molecular evidence that Sn-Hsp70 is expressed constitutively and is non-induced by heat stress in S. neumayeri.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima
19.
Biol. Res ; 51: 8, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888433

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Heat stress proteins are implicated in stabilizing and refolding denatured proteins in vertebrates and invertebrates. Members of the Hsp70 gene family comprise the cognate heat shock protein (Hsc70) and inducible heat shock protein (Hsp70). However, the cDNA sequence and the expression of Hsp70 in the Antarctic sea urchin are unknown. Methods: We amplified and cloned a transcript sequence of 1991 bp from the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, experimentally exposed to heat stress (5 and 10 °C for 1, 24 and 48 h). RACE-PCR and qPCR were employed to determine Hsp70 gene expression, while western blot and ELISA methods were used to determine protein expression. Results: The sequence obtained from S. neumayeri showed high identity with Hsp70 members. Several Hsp70 family features were identified in the deduced amino acid sequence and they indicate that the isolated Hsp70 is related to the cognate heat shock protein type. The corresponding 70 kDa protein, called Sn-Hsp70, was immune detected in the coelomocytes and the digestive tract of S. neumayeri using a monospecific polyclonal antibody. We showed that S. neumayeri do not respond to acute heat stress by up-regulation of Sn-Hsp70 at transcript and protein level. Furthermore, the Sn-Hsp70 protein expression was not induced in the digestive tract. Conclusions: Our results provide the first molecular evidence that Sn-Hsp70 is expressed constitutively and is noninduced by heat stress in S. neumayeri.


Assuntos
Animais , Ouriços-do-Mar/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Filogenia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Regiões Antárticas
20.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 51(1): 160-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25818364

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to characterize intestinal immune mechanisms involved in the response to ß-glucans in rainbow trout. Among the immune effectors regulated in response to immunostimulants, host defense peptides (HDPs) are abundantly expressed in epithelial linings, suggesting their important role in the mucosal immune response. Therefore, the immunomodulatory properties of expressed HDPs in the epithelial intestinal cells of rainbow trout in response to the ß-glucan, zymosan, were assessed. The results showed that zymosan increased the production of the HDP, cathelicidin, and the cytokine, IL-1ß, in the intestinal epithelial RTgutGC cell line at the transcript and protein levels. Thus, cathelicidin-2 variants were produced and were shown to (i) induce the production of IL-1ß in RTgutGC cells and (ii) display a synergic effect with zymosan in IL-1ß upregulation. Importantly, the colocalization of both rtCATH-2 and IL-1ß was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells of rainbow trout fed with a 0.3% zymosan-supplemented diet. We propose that trout cathelicidins are expressed by intestinal epithelial cells and exert immunomodulatory effects to improve the local intestinal immune response triggered by immunostimulants.


Assuntos
Catelicidinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Zimosan/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunomodulação , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima
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