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1.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300996

RESUMO

Recent advances in additive manufacturing, specifically direct ink writing (DIW) and ink-jetting, have enabled the production of elastomeric silicone parts with deterministic control over the structure, shape, and mechanical properties. These new technologies offer rapid prototyping advantages and find applications in various fields, including biomedical devices, prosthetics, metamaterials, and soft robotics. Stereolithography (SLA) is a complementary approach with the ability to print with finer features and potentially higher throughput. However, all high-performance silicone elastomers are composites of polysiloxane networks reinforced with particulate filler, and consequently, silicone resins tend to have high viscosities (gel- or paste-like), which complicates or completely inhibits the layer-by-layer recoating process central to most SLA technologies. Herein, the design and build of a digital light projection SLA printer suitable for handling high-viscosity resins is demonstrated. Further, a series of UV-curable silicone resins with thiol-ene crosslinking and reinforced by a combination of fumed silica and MQ resins are also described. The resulting silicone elastomers are shown to have tunable mechanical properties, with 100-350% elongation and ultimate tensile strength from 1 to 2.5 MPa. Three-dimensional printed features of 0.4 mm were achieved, and complexity is demonstrated by octet-truss lattices that display negative stiffness.

2.
Nature ; 595(7865): 58-65, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194019

RESUMO

The natural world provides many examples of multiphase transport and reaction processes that have been optimized by evolution. These phenomena take place at multiple length and time scales and typically include gas-liquid-solid interfaces and capillary phenomena in porous media1,2. Many biological and living systems have evolved to optimize fluidic transport. However, living things are exceptionally complex and very difficult to replicate3-5, and human-made microfluidic devices (which are typically planar and enclosed) are highly limited for multiphase process engineering6-8. Here we introduce the concept of cellular fluidics: a platform of unit-cell-based, three-dimensional structures-enabled by emerging 3D printing methods9,10-for the deterministic control of multiphase flow, transport and reaction processes. We show that flow in these structures can be 'programmed' through architected design of cell type, size and relative density. We demonstrate gas-liquid transport processes such as transpiration and absorption, using evaporative cooling and CO2 capture as examples. We design and demonstrate preferential liquid and gas transport pathways in three-dimensional cellular fluidic devices with capillary-driven and actively pumped liquid flow, and present examples of selective metallization of pre-programmed patterns. Our results show that the design and fabrication of architected cellular materials, coupled with analytical and numerical predictions of steady-state and dynamic behaviour of multiphase interfaces, provide deterministic control of fluidic transport in three dimensions. Cellular fluidics may transform the design space for spatial and temporal control of multiphase transport and reaction processes.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Absorção Fisico-Química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Gases/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal , Gravação de Videodisco , Água/metabolismo
3.
Adv Mater ; 32(47): e2003376, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002275

RESUMO

Volumetric additive manufacturing (VAM) forms complete 3D objects in a single photocuring operation without layering defects, enabling 3D printed polymer parts with mechanical properties similar to their bulk material counterparts. This study presents the first report of VAM-printed thiol-ene resins. With well-ordered molecular networks, thiol-ene chemistry accesses polymer materials with a wide range of mechanical properties, moving VAM beyond the limitations of commonly used acrylate formulations. Since free-radical thiol-ene polymerization is not inhibited by oxygen, the nonlinear threshold response required in VAM is introduced by incorporating 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) as a radical scavenger. Tuning of the reaction kinetics is accomplished by balancing inhibitor and initiator content. Coupling this with quantitative measurements of the absorbed volumetric optical dose allows control of polymer conversion and gelation during printing. Importantly, this work thereby establishes the first comprehensive framework for spatial-temporal control over volumetric energy distribution, demonstrating structures 3D printed in thiol-ene resin by means of tomographic volumetric VAM. Mechanical characterization of this thiol-ene system, with varied ratios of isocyanurate and triethylene glycol monomers, reveals highly tunable mechanical response far more versatile than identical acrylate-based resins. This broadens the range of materials and properties available for VAM, taking another step toward high-performance printed polymers.

4.
Sci Adv ; 4(12): eaau6419, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539147

RESUMO

Typically, mechanical metamaterial properties are programmed and set when the architecture is designed and constructed, and do not change in response to shifting environmental conditions or application requirements. We present a new class of architected materials called field responsive mechanical metamaterials (FRMMs) that exhibit dynamic control and on-the-fly tunability enabled by careful design and selection of both material composition and architecture. To demonstrate the FRMM concept, we print complex structures composed of polymeric tubes infilled with magnetorheological fluid suspensions. Modulating remotely applied magnetic fields results in rapid, reversible, and sizable changes of the effective stiffness of our metamaterial motifs.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(74): 10463-10466, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156229

RESUMO

Compared to tedious, multi-step treatments for electroless gold plating of traditional thermoplastics, this communication describes a simpler three-step procedure for 3D printed crosslinked polyacrylate substrates. This allows for the synthesis of ultralight gold foam microlattice materials with great potential for architecture-sensitive applications in future energy, catalysis, and sensing.

7.
Nat Mater ; 15(10): 1100-6, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27429209

RESUMO

Materials with three-dimensional micro- and nanoarchitectures exhibit many beneficial mechanical, energy conversion and optical properties. However, these three-dimensional microarchitectures are significantly limited by their scalability. Efforts have only been successful only in demonstrating overall structure sizes of hundreds of micrometres, or contain size-scale gaps of several orders of magnitude. This results in degraded mechanical properties at the macroscale. Here we demonstrate hierarchical metamaterials with disparate three-dimensional features spanning seven orders of magnitude, from nanometres to centimetres. At the macroscale they achieve high tensile elasticity (>20%) not found in their brittle-like metallic constituents, and a near-constant specific strength. Creation of these materials is enabled by a high-resolution, large-area additive manufacturing technique with scalability not achievable by two-photon polymerization or traditional stereolithography. With overall part sizes approaching tens of centimetres, these unique nanostructured metamaterials might find use in a broad array of applications.

8.
Opt Express ; 21(1): 196-203, 2013 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23388911

RESUMO

We demonstrate temporal imaging for the measurement and characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms and events. The system measures single-shot 200 ps frames at a rate of 104 MHz, where each frame is time magnified by a factor of -42.4x. Impulse response tests show that the system enables 783 fs resolution when placed at the front end of a 20 GHz oscilloscope. Modulated pulse trains characterize the system's impulse response, jitter, and frame-to-frame variation.

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