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1.
J Vis Exp ; (203)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345222

RESUMO

Understanding why speakers modify their co-speech hand gestures when speaking to interlocutors provides valuable insight into how these gestures contribute to interpersonal communication in face-to-face and virtual contexts. The current protocols manipulate the visibility of speakers and their interlocutors in tandem in a face-to-face context to examine the impact of visibility on gesture production when communication is challenging. In these protocols, speakers complete tasks such as teaching words from an unfamiliar second language or recounting the events of cartoon vignettes to an interlocutor who is either another participant or a confederate. When performing these tasks, speakers are visible or non-visible to their interlocutor, and the speaker is visible or non-visible to the participant. In the word learning task, speakers and interlocutors visible to one another produce more representational gestures, which convey meaning via handshape and motion, and deictic (pointing) gestures than speakers and interlocutors who are not visible to one another. In the narrative retelling protocol, adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) produced more gestures when speaking to visible interlocutors than non-visible interlocutors. A major strength of the current protocol is its flexibility in terms of the tasks, populations, and gestures examined, and the current protocol can be implemented in videoconferencing as well as face-to-face contexts. Thus, the current protocol has the potential to advance the understanding of gesture production by elucidating its role in interpersonal communication in populations with communication challenges.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Gestos , Adolescente , Humanos , Comunicação , Fala , Narração , Aprendizagem Verbal
2.
Autism ; 28(1): 239-253, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37982401

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Preschool teachers can play a critical role in early detection of autism. Equipping preschool teachers with prerequisite knowledge and skills would allow them to identify children with probable autism and referral to diagnostic services. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an educational module (EMiASD) that prepared preschool teachers to identify autism symptoms. The sample included 144 preschool teachers, of which 120 were stratified and randomly assigned to an intervention arm receiving training in EMiASD (n = 60) or a comparison arm receiving standard training (n = 60) using a parallel mixed-methods design. Responses to open-ended questions about video case studies revealed improvement in the identification of autism symptoms in preschool teachers in the intervention arm, in contrast to preschool teachers in the comparison arm. Moreover, significant changes in knowledge, belief, and self-efficacy about autism favoured EMiASD. Overall, these results demonstrate the influence of EMiASD in the Yemeni cultural context.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Escolaridade , Professores Escolares , Autoeficácia , Gravação de Videoteipe
3.
Brain Lang ; 246: 105327, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37804717

RESUMO

This study employed the N400 event-related potential (ERP) to investigate how observing different types of gestures at learning affects the subsequent processing of L2 Mandarin words differing in lexical tone by L1 English speakers. The effects of pitch gestures conveying lexical tones (e.g., upwards diagonal movements for rising tone), semantic gestures conveying word meanings (e.g., waving goodbye for to wave), and no gesture were compared. In a lexical tone discrimination task, larger N400s for Mandarin target words mismatching vs. matching Mandarin prime words in lexical tone were observed for words learned with pitch gesture. In a meaning discrimination task, larger N400s for English target words mismatching vs. matching Mandarin prime words in meaning were observed for words learned with pitch and semantic gesture. These findings provide the first neural evidence that observing gestures during L2 word learning enhances subsequent phonological and semantic processing of learned L2 words.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Semântica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Eletroencefalografia , Gestos , Aprendizagem
6.
Educ Technol Res Dev ; 71(2): 767-792, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406105

RESUMO

Most education systems were severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and as a result, learning shifted from face-to-face to online in higher education institutions. This unprecedented shift in the learning environment caused substantial challenges for students. The situation was more severe in developing nations such as Bangladesh, which lacked available resources and knowledge of online education to support their students. Recent studies suggest that students resisted online learning in various developing nations. To support online learning in developing nations, this study develops the Acceptance of Online Learning (AOL) scale comprised of both institutional and student-related factors. To validate the AOL scale, the study collected data from 441 students across 30 higher education institutions in Bangladesh to determine the factors explaining students' acceptance of online learning using AOL measurements. The results showed that institutional factors, such as technological sufficiency, instructor efficiency, and technical assistance play significant roles in students' acceptance of online learning in developing nations. These findings will help education policymakers and administrators in developing nations to assess the needs of students with respect to online learning, and the AOL scale will assist in the evaluation of students' acceptance of online learning in these nations.

7.
Rural Spec Educ Q ; 42(2): 105-118, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602929

RESUMO

This position paper explores the needs of rural families of children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to COVID-19, literature portrays elevated stress in families of individuals with ASD and health and socioeconomic disparities for rural and underserved populations. These disparities were exacerbated due to COVID-19 and subsequent lockdowns and economic turmoil. Academic and adaptive skills training were particularly impacted due to school closures, with parents tasked with taking some responsibility for training these skills. Our goals for this article focus on special considerations for rural families regarding (a) neurobiological and developmental impacts of stressful experiences like COVID-19, (b) delineation of the impacts on individuals with ASD and other comorbid and related conditions, and (c) education and intervention needs during these times. Finally, we offer suggestions for future care during pandemic events, including recommendations for improving service delivery under such conditions.

8.
Front Psychol ; 13: 870152, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664143

RESUMO

We examined L2 learners' interpretation of pitch accent cues in discourse memory and how these effects vary with proficiency and working memory (WM). One hundred sixty-eight L1-Chinese participants learning L2-English listened to recorded discourses containing pairs of contrastive alternatives and then took a later recognition memory test. Their language proficiency and WM were measured through standard tests and the participants were categorized into low, medium, advanced, and high advanced language proficiency groups. We analyzed recognition memory task performance using signal detection theory to tease apart response bias (an overall tendency to affirm memory probes) from sensitivity (the ability to discern whether a specific probe statement is true). The results showed a benefit of contrastive L + H* pitch accents in rejecting probes referring to items unmentioned in a discourse, but not contrastive alternatives themselves. More proficient participants also showed more accurate memory for the discourses overall, as well as a reduced overall bias to affirm the presented statements as true. Meanwhile, that the benefit of L + H* accents in rejecting either contrast probes or unmentioned probes was modulated for people with greater working memory. Participants with higher WM were quite sure that it did not exist in the memory trace as this part of discourse wasn't mentioned. The results support a contrast-uncertainty hypothesis, in which comprehenders recall the contrast set but fail to distinguish which is the correct item. Further, these effects were influenced by proficiency and by working memory, suggesting they reflect incomplete mapping between pitch accent and discourse representation.

9.
Front Psychol ; 13: 890962, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719574

RESUMO

This study investigated gesture-speech integration (GSI) among adolescents who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and those with typical hearing. Thirty-eight adolescents (19 with hearing loss) performed a Stroop-like task in which they watched 120 short video clips of gestures and actions twice at random. Participants were asked to press one button if the visual content of the speaker's movements was related to a written word and to press another button if it was unrelated to a written word while accuracy rates and response times were recorded. We found stronger GSI effects among DHH participants than hearing participants. The semantic congruency effect was significantly larger in DHH participants than in hearing participants, and results of our experiments indicated a significantly larger gender congruency effect in DHH participants as compared to hearing participants. Results of this study shed light on GSI among DHH individuals and suggest future avenues for research examining the impact of gesture on language processing and communication in this population.

10.
J Child Lang ; : 1-26, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403579

RESUMO

Young children often make pragmatic assumptions when learning new words. For example, they assume that a speaker who uses different words intends to refer to different things - the so-called principle of contrast. We used a standard disambiguation task to explore whether children's assumptions about contrast depend on how much words differ. Three- to 6-year-olds heard pairs of words that differed in terms of the number, position, and types of phonological contrasts. Results indicate that children were less likely to disambiguate words differing by one phoneme than words differing by two or more phonemes, particularly when those one-phoneme differences were located at the beginning or end of the words (as in fim/vim). Overall, the findings suggest that children's pragmatic assumptions about two contrasting words depend not only on if words differ, but also on how they differ.

11.
Cognition ; 222: 105014, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033864

RESUMO

In the contexts of language learning and music processing, hand gestures conveying acoustic information visually influence perception of speech and non-speech sounds (Connell et al., 2013; Morett & Chang, 2015). Currently, it is unclear whether this effect is due to these gestures' use of the human body to highlight relevant features of language (embodiment) or the cross-modal mapping between the visual motion trajectories of these gestures and corresponding auditory features (conceptual metaphor). To address this question, we examined identification of the pitch contours of lexical tones and non-speech analogs learned with pitch gesture, comparable dot motion, or no motion. Critically, pitch gesture and dot motion were either congruent or incongruent with the vertical conceptual metaphor of pitch. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that identification accuracy increased for tones learned with congruent pitch gesture and dot motion, whereas it remained stable or decreased for tones learned with incongruent pitch gesture and dot motion. These findings provide the first evidence that both embodied and non-embodied visual stimuli congruent with the vertical conceptual metaphor of pitch enhance lexical and non-speech tone learning. Thus, they illuminate the influences of conceptual metaphor and embodiment on lexical and non-speech auditory perception, providing insight into how they can be leveraged to enhance language learning and music processing.


Assuntos
Música , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Metáfora , Percepção da Altura Sonora , Fala
12.
Front Psychol ; 12: 745300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777137

RESUMO

Handwriting serves to link auditory and motor routines with visual word processing, which is a hallmark of successful reading. The current study aims to explore the effect of multisensory integration as a pathway to neural specialization for print among typical and dyslexic readers across writing systems. We identified 9-10-year-old dyslexic Chinese children (n = 24) and their typically developing counterparts (n = 24) on whom we conducted both behavioral and electroencephalogram (EEG) experiments. We designed four learning conditions: Handwriting Chinese (HC), Viewing Chinese (VC), Drawing followed by Character Recognition in Chinese (D-C), and Drawing followed by Word Recognition in English (D-E). In both handwriting and drawing conditions, we also designed curved vs. straight-line stimuli. Both behavioral and EEG results showed that handwriting straight line strokes facilitated visual word recognition in Chinese compared to handwriting curved lines. Handwriting conditions resulted in a lateralization of the N170 in typical readers, but not the dyslexic readers. Interestingly, drawing curved lines facilitate word recognition in English among dyslexic readers. Taken together, the results of the study suggest benefits of handwriting on the neural processing and behavioral performance in response to Chinese character recognition and curved-line drawing effects on English word recognition among dyslexic readers. But the lack of handwriting effects in dyslexic readers suggest that students who have deficits in reading may also be missing the link between multisensory integration and word recognition in the visual word form areas. The current study results have implications for maintaining handwriting practices to promote perception and motor integration for visual word form area development for normal readers and suggest that drawing practices might benefit Chinese dyslexic readers in reading English.

13.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 47(9): 1494-1526, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539164

RESUMO

Cues to prominence such as beat gesture and contrastive pitch accent play an important role in constraining what is remembered. However, it is currently unclear how beat gesture affects online discourse processing alone and in combination with contrastive accenting. Using an adaptation of the visual world eye-tracking paradigm, we orthogonally manipulated the presence of these cues and their felicity (match) with contrast within local (sentence-level) and global (experiment-level) referential contexts. In Experiment 1, in which beat gesture and contrastive accenting were always globally felicitous with the context of filler referring expressions, beat gesture increased anticipation of both target and competitor referents of locally infelicitous critical referring expressions differing in color and shape, whereas contrastive accenting hindered resolution of these expressions. In Experiment 2, in which beat gesture and contrastive accenting were always globally infelicitous with the context of filler referring expressions, beat gesture increased anticipation of both target and competitor referents of locally felicitous critical referring expressions contrasting in color, whereas contrastive accenting did not affect their interpretation. Taken together, these findings indicate that local and global felicity of cues to prominence with contrast affects their interpretation during online spoken discourse processing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Gestos , Percepção da Fala , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Idioma , Rememoração Mental
14.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(1): 159-175, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400552

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the social and cognitive underpinnings of miscommunication during an interactive listening task. Method An eye and computer mouse-tracking visual-world paradigm was used to investigate how a listener's cognitive effort (local and global) and decision-making processes were affected by a speaker's use of ambiguity that led to a miscommunication. Results Experiments 1 and 2 found that an environmental cue that made a miscommunication more or less salient impacted listener language processing effort (eye-tracking). Experiment 2 also indicated that listeners may develop different processing heuristics dependent upon the speaker's use of ambiguity that led to a miscommunication, exerting a significant impact on cognition and decision making. We also found that perspective-taking effort and decision-making complexity metrics (computer mouse tracking) predict language processing effort, indicating that instances of miscommunication produced cognitive consequences of indecision, thinking, and cognitive pull. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that listeners behave both reciprocally and adaptively when miscommunications occur, but the way they respond is largely dependent upon the type of ambiguity and how often it is produced by the speaker.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Percepção Auditiva , Cognição , Idioma
15.
Front Psychol ; 11: 575991, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192884

RESUMO

This research examined whether the semantic relationships between representational gestures and their lexical affiliates are evaluated similarly when lexical affiliates are conveyed via speech and text. In two studies, adult native English speakers rated the similarity of the meanings of representational gesture-word pairs presented via speech and text. Gesture-word pairs in each modality consisted of gestures and words matching in meaning (semantically-congruent pairs) as well as gestures and words mismatching in meaning (semantically-incongruent pairs). The results revealed that ratings differed by semantic congruency but not language modality. These findings provide the first evidence that semantic relationships between representational gestures and their lexical affiliates are evaluated similarly regardless of language modality. Moreover, this research provides an open normed database of semantically-congruent and semantically-incongruent gesture-word pairs in both text and speech that will be useful for future research investigating gesture-language integration.

16.
Cogn Sci ; 44(10): e12912, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073404

RESUMO

We investigated how two cues to contrast-beat gesture and contrastive pitch accenting-affect comprehenders' cognitive load during processing of spoken referring expressions. In two visual-world experiments, we orthogonally manipulated the presence of these cues and their felicity, or fit, with the local (sentence-level) referential context in critical referring expressions while comprehenders' task-evoked pupillary responses (TEPRs) were examined. In Experiment 1, beat gesture and contrastive accenting always matched the referential context of filler referring expressions and were therefore relatively felicitous on the global (experiment) level, whereas in Experiment 2, beat gesture and contrastive accenting never fit the referential context of filler referring expressions and were therefore infelicitous on the global level. The results revealed that both beat gesture and contrastive accenting increased comprehenders' cognitive load. For beat gesture, this increase in cognitive load was driven by both local and global infelicity. For contrastive accenting, this increase in cognitive load was unaffected when cues were globally felicitous but exacerbated when cues were globally infelicitous. Together, these results suggest that comprehenders' cognitive resources are taxed by processing infelicitous use of beat gesture and contrastive accenting to convey contrast on both the local and global levels.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Sinais (Psicologia) , Gestos , Percepção da Altura Sonora , Percepção da Fala , Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Brain Res ; 1747: 147059, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818527

RESUMO

This study examines how across-trial (average) and trial-by-trial (variability in) amplitude and latency of the N400 event-related potential (ERP) reflect temporal integration of pitch accent and beat gesture. Thirty native English speakers viewed videos of a talker producing sentences with beat gesture co-occurring with a pitch accented focus word (synchronous), beat gesture co-occurring with the onset of a subsequent non-focused word (asynchronous), or the absence of beat gesture (no beat). Across trials, increased amplitude and earlier latency were observed when beat gesture was temporally asynchronous with pitch accenting than when it was temporally synchronous with pitch accenting or absent. Moreover, temporal asynchrony of beat gesture relative to pitch accent increased trial-by-trial variability of N400 amplitude and latency and influenced the relationship between across-trial and trial-by-trial N400 latency. These results indicate that across-trial and trial-by-trial amplitude and latency of the N400 ERP reflect temporal integration of beat gesture and pitch accent during language comprehension, supporting extension of the integrated systems hypothesis of gesture-speech processing and neural noise theories to focus processing in typical adult populations.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Psychol ; 11: 618449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519642

RESUMO

The emerging discipline of educational neuroscience stands at a crossroads between those who see great promise in integrating neuroscience and education and those who see the disciplinary divide as insurmountable. However, such tension is at least partly due to the hitherto predominance of philosophy and theory over the establishment of concrete mechanisms and agents of change. If educational neuroscience is to move forward and emerge as a distinct discipline in its own right, the traditional boundaries and methods must be bridged, and an infrastructure must be in place that allows for collaborative and productive exchange. In the present paper, we argue that school psychologists have the potential to fulfill this need and represent important agents of change in establishing better connections between research and practice. More specifically, we use the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) (2020) Domains of Practice to highlight several areas where school psychology can actively support forging connections between neuroscience and educational practice. School psychologists represent untapped potential in their knowledge, skillset, and placement to serve a vital role in building the bridge between neuroscience and education.

19.
Lang Speech ; 63(2): 221-241, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859898

RESUMO

This study examined how bilingualism in an atonal language, in addition to a tonal language, influences lexical and non-lexical tone perception and word learning during childhood. Forty children aged 5;3-7;2, bilingual either in English and Mandarin or English and another atonal language, were tested on Mandarin lexical tone discrimination, level-pitch sine-wave tone discrimination, and learning of novel words differing minimally in Mandarin lexical tone. Mandarin-English bilingual children discriminated between and learned novel words differing minimally in Mandarin lexical tone more accurately than their atonal-English bilingual peers. However, Mandarin-English and atonal-English bilingual children discriminated between level-pitch sine-wave tones with similar accuracy. Moreover, atonal-English bilingual children showed a tendency to perceive differing Mandarin lexical and level-pitch sine-wave tones as identical, whereas their Mandarin-English peers showed no such tendency. These results indicate that bilingualism in a tonal language in addition to an atonal language-but not bilingualism in two atonal languages-allows for continued sensitivity to lexical tone beyond infancy. Moreover, they suggest that although tonal-atonal bilingualism does not enhance sensitivity to differences in pitch between sine-wave tones beyond infancy any more effectively than atonal-atonal bilingualism, it protects against the development of biases to perceive differing lexical and non-lexical tones as identical. Together, the results indicate that, beyond infancy, tonal-atonal bilinguals process lexical tones using different cognitive mechanisms than atonal-atonal bilinguals, but that both groups process level-pitch non-lexical tone using the same cognitive mechanisms.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Altura Sonora , Percepção da Fala , Percepção do Timbre , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
20.
Mem Cognit ; 47(8): 1515-1530, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215010

RESUMO

Cues to emphasis, such as beat gesture and contrastive pitch accenting, play an important role in constraining what comprehenders remember from a discourse. One possibility is that these cues are used in a purely bottom-up manner in which additional attention is devoted to emphasized material. Another possibility is that comprehenders use top-down expectations of what cues might be expected in the current communicative context, such that the absence of an expected cue may serve as an indicator that material is unimportant. We independently manipulated two cues conveying emphasis - beat gesture and contrastive pitch accenting - to examine how they affected memory for information in a discourse. When beat gesture was present in some cases (Experiment 1), contrastive pitch accenting facilitated memory when beat gesture was present but not when beat gesture was absent. By contrast, when beat gesture was never present (Experiment 2), contrastive pitch accenting facilitated memory even though stimuli were identical to those in which beat gesture was absent in Experiment 1. Together, these results indicate that which cues could be produced affects interpretation even when these cues are absent, indicating that top-down expectations influence cue integration, consistent with emerging data-explanation views of language processing.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Gestos , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto Jovem
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