Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5275, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071065

RESUMO

Lithium-rich disordered rocksalt cathodes display high capacities arising from redox chemistry on both transition-metal ions (TM-redox) and oxygen ions (O-redox), making them promising candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. However, the atomic-scale mechanisms governing O-redox behaviour in disordered structures are not fully understood. Here we show that, at high states of charge in the disordered rocksalt Li2MnO2F, transition metal migration is necessary for the formation of molecular O2 trapped in the bulk. Density functional theory calculations reveal that O2 is thermodynamically favoured over other oxidised O species, which is confirmed by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering data showing only O2 forms. When O-redox involves irreversible Mn migration, this mechanism results in a path-dependent voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge, commensurate with the hysteresis observed electrochemically. The implications are that irreversible transition metal migration should be suppressed to reduce the voltage hysteresis that afflicts O-redox disordered rocksalt cathodes.

2.
ACS Cent Sci ; 8(6): 845-852, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35756385

RESUMO

Mechanically diverse polymer gels are commonly integrated into biomedical devices, soft robots, and tissue engineering scaffolds to perform distinct yet coordinated functions in wet environments. Such multigel systems are prone to volume fluctuations and shape distortions due to differential swelling driven by osmotic solvent redistribution. Living systems evade these issues by varying proximal tissue stiffness at nearly equal water concentration. However, this feature is challenging to replicate with synthetic gels: any alteration of cross-link density affects both the gel's swellability and mechanical properties. In contrast to the conventional coupling of physical properties, we report a strategy to tune the gel modulus independent of swelling ratio by regulating network strand flexibility with brushlike polymers. Chemically identical gels were constructed with a broad elastic modulus range at a constant solvent fraction by utilizing multidimensional network architectures. The general design-by-architecture framework is universally applicable to both organogels and hydrogels and can be further adapted to different practical applications.

3.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 379(2211): 20190451, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628942

RESUMO

The ability of some solid materials to exhibit exceptionally high ionic conductivities has been known since the observations of Michael Faraday in the nineteenth century (Faraday M. 1838 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 90), yet a detailed understanding of the atomic-scale physics that gives rise to this behaviour remains an open scientific question. This theme issue collects articles from researchers working on this question of understanding fast-ion conduction in solid electrolytes. The issue opens with two perspectives, both of which discuss concepts that have been proposed as schema for understanding fast-ion conduction. The first perspective presents an overview of a series of experimental NMR studies, and uses this to frame discussion of the roles of ion-ion interactions, crystallographic disorder, low-dimensionality of crystal structures, and fast interfacial diffusion in nanocomposite materials. The second perspective reviews computational studies of halides, oxides, sulfides and hydroborates, focussing on the concept of frustration and how this can manifest in different forms in various fast-ion conductors. The issue also includes five primary research articles, each of which presents a detailed analysis of the factors that affect microscopic ion-diffusion in specific fast-ion conducting solid electrolytes, including oxide-ion conductors [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], lithium-ion conductors [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and the prototypical fluoride-ion conductor [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Understanding fast-ion conduction in solid electrolytes'.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(13): 135502, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623837

RESUMO

Polycrystalline solids can exhibit material properties that differ significantly from those of equivalent single-crystal samples, in part, because of a spontaneous redistribution of mobile point defects into so-called space-charge regions adjacent to grain boundaries. The general analytical form of these space-charge regions is known only in the dilute limit, where defect-defect correlations can be neglected. Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a three-dimensional Coulomb lattice gas, we show that grain boundary space-charge regions in nondilute solid electrolytes exhibit overscreening-damped oscillatory space-charge profiles-and underscreening-decay lengths that are longer than the corresponding Debye length and that increase with increasing defect-defect interaction strength. Overscreening and underscreening are known phenomena in concentrated liquid electrolytes, and the observation of functionally analogous behavior in solid electrolyte space-charge regions suggests that the same underlying physics drives behavior in both classes of systems. We therefore expect theoretical approaches developed to study nondilute liquid electrolytes to be equally applicable to future studies of solid electrolytes.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 60(10): 7217-7227, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956446

RESUMO

The effect of crystallizing solution chemistry on the chemistry of subsequently as-grown materials was investigated for Mo-substituted iron oxides prepared by thermally activated co-precipitation. In the presence of Mo ions, we find that varying the oxidation state of the iron precursor from Fe(II) to Fe(III) causes a progressive loss of atomic long-range order with the stabilization of 2-4 nm particles for the sample prepared with Fe(III). The oxidation state of the Fe precursor also affects the distribution of Fe and Mo cations within the spinel structure. Increasing the Fe precursor oxidation state gives decreased Fe-ion occupation and increased Mo-ion occupation of tetrahedral sites, as revealed by the extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The stabilization of Mo within tetrahedral sites appears to be unexpected, considering the octahedral preferred coordination number of Mo(VI). The analysis of the atomic structure of the sample prepared with Fe(III) indicates a local ordering of vacancies and that the occupation of tetrahedral sites by Mo induces a contraction of the interatomic distances within the polyhedra as compared to Fe atoms. Moreover, the occupancy of Mo into the thermodynamic site preference of a Mo dopant in Fe2O3 assessed by density functional theory calculations points to a stronger preference for Mo substitution at octahedral sites. Hence, we suggest that the synthetized compound is thermodynamically metastable, that is, kinetically trapped. Such a state is suggested to be a consequence of the tetrahedral site occupation by Mo ions. The population of these sites, known to be reactive sites enabling particle growth, is concomitant with the stabilization of very small particles. We confirmed our hypothesis by using a blank experiment without Mo ions, further supporting the impact of tetrahedral Mo ions on the growth of iron oxide nanoparticles. Our findings provide new insights into the relationships between the Fe-chemistry of the crystallizing solution and the structural features of the as-grown Mo-substituted Fe-oxide materials.

6.
Chem Mater ; 33(6): 2004-2018, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840894

RESUMO

The rational development of fast-ion-conducting solid electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries requires understanding the key structural and chemical principles that give some materials their exceptional ionic conductivities. For the lithium argyrodites Li6PS5X (X = Cl, Br, or I), the choice of the halide, X, strongly affects the ionic conductivity, giving room-temperature ionic conductivities for X = {Cl,Br} that are ×103 higher than for X = I. This variation has been attributed to differing degrees of S/X anion disorder. For X = {Cl,Br}, the S/X anions are substitutionally disordered, while for X = I, the anion substructure is fully ordered. To better understand the role of substitutional anion disorder in enabling fast lithium-ion transport, we have performed a first-principles molecular dynamics study of Li6PS5I and Li6PS5Cl with varying amounts of S/X anion-site disorder. By considering the S/X anions as a tetrahedrally close-packed substructure, we identify three partially occupied lithium sites that define a contiguous three-dimensional network of face-sharing tetrahedra. The active lithium-ion diffusion pathways within this network are found to depend on the S/X anion configuration. For anion-disordered systems, the active site-site pathways give a percolating three-dimensional diffusion network; whereas for anion-ordered systems, critical site-site pathways are inactive, giving a disconnected diffusion network with lithium motion restricted to local orbits around S positions. Analysis of the lithium substructure and dynamics in terms of the lithium coordination around each sulfur site highlights a mechanistic link between substitutional anion disorder and lithium disorder. In anion-ordered systems, the lithium ions are pseudo-ordered, with preferential 6-fold coordination of sulfur sites. Long-ranged lithium diffusion would disrupt this SLi6 pseudo-ordering, and is, therefore, disfavored. In anion-disordered systems, the pseudo-ordered 6-fold S-Li coordination is frustrated because of Li-Li Coulombic repulsion. Lithium positions become disordered, giving a range of S-Li coordination environments. Long-ranged lithium diffusion is now possible with no net change in S-Li coordination numbers. This gives rise to superionic lithium transport in the anion-disordered systems, effected by a concerted string-like diffusion mechanism.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(50): 21210-21219, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284622

RESUMO

Strategies to enhance ionic conductivities in solid electrolytes typically focus on the effects of modifying their crystal structures or of tuning mobile-ion stoichiometries. A less-explored approach is to modulate the chemical bonding interactions within a material to promote fast lithium-ion diffusion. Recently, the idea of a solid-electrolyte inductive effect has been proposed, whereby changes in bonding within the solid-electrolyte host framework modify the potential energy landscape for the mobile ions, resulting in an enhanced ionic conductivity. Direct evidence for a solid-electrolyte inductive effect, however, is lacking-in part because of the challenge of quantifying changes in local bonding interactions within a solid-electrolyte host framework. Here, we consider the evidence for a solid-electrolyte inductive effect in the archetypal superionic lithium-ion conductor Li10Ge1-xSnxP2S12. Substituting Ge for Sn weakens the {Ge,Sn}-S bonding interactions and increases the charge density associated with the S2- ions. This charge redistribution modifies the Li+ substructure causing Li+ ions to bind more strongly to the host framework S2- anions, which in turn modulates the Li+ ion potential energy surface, increasing local barriers for Li+ ion diffusion. Each of these effects is consistent with the predictions of the solid-electrolyte inductive effect model. Density functional theory calculations predict that this inductive effect occurs even in the absence of changes to the host framework geometry due to Ge → Sn substitution. These results provide direct evidence in support of a measurable solid-electrolyte inductive effect and demonstrate its application as a practical strategy for tuning ionic conductivities in superionic lithium-ion conductors.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(43): 19247-19253, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649793

RESUMO

Aluminium batteries constitute a safe and sustainable high-energy-density electrochemical energy-storage solution. Viable Al-ion batteries require suitable electrode materials that can readily intercalate high-charge Al3+ ions. Here, we investigate the Al3+ intercalation chemistry of anatase TiO2 and how chemical modifications influence the accommodation of Al3+ ions. We use fluoride- and hydroxide-doping to generate high concentrations of titanium vacancies. The coexistence of these hetero-anions and titanium vacancies leads to a complex insertion mechanism, attributed to three distinct types of host sites: native interstitial sites, single vacancy sites, and paired vacancy sites. We demonstrate that Al3+ induces a strong local distortion within the modified TiO2 structure, which affects the insertion properties of the neighbouring host sites. Overall, specific structural features induced by the intercalation of highly polarising Al3+ ions should be considered when designing new electrode materials for polyvalent batteries.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 59(15): 11009-11019, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673483

RESUMO

The lithium argyrodites Li6PS5X (X = Cl, Br, I) exhibit high lithium-ion conductivities, making them promising candidates for use in solid-state batteries. These solid electrolytes can show considerable substitutional X-/S2- anion disorder, typically correlated with higher lithium-ion conductivities. The atomic-scale effects of this anion site disorder within the host lattice-in particular how lattice disorder modulates the lithium substructure-are not well understood. Here, we characterize the lithium substructure in Li6PS5X as a function of temperature and anion site disorder, using Rietveld refinements against temperature-dependent neutron diffraction data. Analysis of these high-resolution diffraction data reveals an additional lithium position previously unreported for Li6PS5X argyrodites, suggesting that the lithium conduction pathway in these materials differs from the most common model proposed in earlier studies. An analysis of the Li+ positions and their radial distributions reveals that greater inhomogeneity of the local anionic charge, due to X-/S2- site disorder, is associated with more spatially diffuse lithium distributions. This observed coupling of site disorder and lithium distribution provides a possible explanation for the enhanced lithium transport in anion-disordered lithium argyrodites and highlights the complex interplay between the anion configuration and lithium substructure in this family of superionic conductors.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(2): 438-444, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875393

RESUMO

Metal oxides can act as insulators, semiconductors, or metals depending on their chemical composition and crystal structure. Metal oxide semiconductors, which support equilibrium populations of electron and hole charge carriers, have widespread applications including batteries, solar cells, and display technologies. It is often difficult to predict in advance whether these materials will exhibit localized or delocalized charge carriers upon oxidation or reduction. We combine data from first-principles calculations of the electronic structure and dielectric response of 214 metal oxides to predict the energetic driving force for carrier localization and transport. We assess descriptors based on the carrier effective mass, static polaron binding energy, and Fröhlich electron-phonon coupling. Numerical analysis allows us to assign p- and n-type transport of a metal oxide to three classes: (i) band transport with high mobility; (ii) small polaron transport with low mobility; and (iii) intermediate behavior. The results of this classification agree with observations regarding carrier dynamics and lifetimes and are used to predict 10 candidate p-type oxides.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(18): 5552-5556, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475830

RESUMO

LiCoO2 is the prototypical cathode in lithium-ion batteries. Its crystal structure consists of Li+ and CoO2- layers that alternate along the hexagonal ⟨0001⟩ axis. It is well established that the ionic and electronic conduction are anisotropic, but little is known regarding the heat transport. We analyze the phonon dispersion and lifetimes using anharmonic lattice dynamics based on quantum-chemical force constants. Around room temperature, the thermal conductivity in the hexagonal ab plane of the layered cathode is âˆ¼6 times higher than that along the c axis. An upper limit to the average thermal conductivity at T = 300 K of 38.5 W m-1 K-1 is set by short phonon lifetimes associated with anharmonic interactions within the octahedral face-sharing CoO2- network. Observations of conductivity <10 W m-1 K-1 can be understood by additional scattering channels including grain boundaries in polycrystalline samples. The impact on thermal processes in lithium-ion batteries is discussed.

12.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 52(Pt 3): 665-668, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236095

RESUMO

Classical molecular dynamics simulations are a common component of multi-modal analyses of scattering measurements, such as small-angle scattering and diffraction. Users of these experimental techniques often have no formal training in the theory and practice of molecular dynamics simulation, leading to the possibility of these simulations being treated as a 'black box' analysis technique. This article describes an open educational resource (OER) designed to introduce classical molecular dynamics to users of scattering methods. This resource is available as a series of interactive web pages, which can be easily accessed by students, and as an open-source software repository, which can be freely copied, modified and redistributed by educators. The topics covered in this OER include classical atomistic modelling, parameterizing interatomic potentials, molecular dynamics simulations, typical sources of error and some of the approaches to using simulations in the analysis of scattering data.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(1): 107-112, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565946

RESUMO

The properties of crystalline solids can be significantly modified by deliberately introducing point defects. Understanding these effects, however, requires understanding the changes in geometry and electronic structure of the host material. Here we report the effect of forming anion vacancies, via dehydroxylation, in a hexagonal tungsten-bronze-structured iron oxyfluoride, which has potential use as a lithium-ion battery cathode. Our combined pair distribution function and density functional theory analysis indicates that oxygen vacancy formation is accompanied by spontaneous rearrangement of fluorine anions and vacancies, producing dual pyramidal (FeF4)-O-(FeF4) structural units containing 5-fold-coordinated Fe atoms. The addition of lattice oxygen introduces new electronic states above the top of the valence band, with a corresponding reduction in the optical band gap from 4.05 to 2.05 eV. This band gap reduction relative to the FeF3 parent material is correlated with a significant improvement in lithium insertion capability relative to a defect-free compound.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(47): 16330-16339, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380843

RESUMO

Solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes are currently being discussed as a more reliable and safer future alternative to the current lithium-ion battery technology. To compete with state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, solid electrolytes with higher ionic conductivities are needed, especially if thick electrode configurations are to be used. In the search for optimized ionic conductors, the lithium argyrodites have attracted a lot of interest. Here, we systematically explore the influence of aliovalent substitution in Li6+ xP1- xGe xS5I using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction, as well as impedance spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. With increasing Ge content, an anion site disorder is induced and the activation barrier for ionic motion drops significantly, leading to the fastest lithium argyrodite so far with 5.4 ± 0.8 mS cm-1 in a cold-pressed state and 18.4 ± 2.7 mS cm-1 upon sintering. These high ionic conductivities allow for successful implementation within a thick-electrode solid-state battery that shows negligible capacity fade over 150 cycles. The observed changes in the activation barrier and changing site disorder provide an additional approach toward designing better performing solid electrolytes.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(72): 10080-10083, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128472

RESUMO

In anatase TiO2, substituting oxide anions with singly charged (F,OH) anions allows the controlled formation of cation vacancies, which act as reversible intercalation sites for Mg2+. We show that ion-transport (diffusion coefficients) and intercalation (reversible capacity) properties are controlled by two critical parameters: the vacancy concentration and the local anionic environment. Our results emphasise the complexity of this behaviour, and highlight the potential benefits of chemically controlling cationic-defects in electrode materials for rechargeable multivalent-ion batteries.

16.
Nat Mater ; 16(11): 1142-1148, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28920941

RESUMO

In contrast to monovalent lithium or sodium ions, the reversible insertion of multivalent ions such as Mg2+ and Al3+ into electrode materials remains an elusive goal. Here, we demonstrate a new strategy to achieve reversible Mg2+ and Al3+ insertion in anatase TiO2, achieved through aliovalent doping, to introduce a large number of titanium vacancies that act as intercalation sites. We present a broad range of experimental and theoretical characterizations that show a preferential insertion of multivalent ions into titanium vacancies, allowing a much greater capacity to be obtained compared to pure TiO2. This result highlights the possibility to use the chemistry of defects to unlock the electrochemical activity of known materials, providing a new strategy for the chemical design of materials for practical multivalent batteries.

17.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 12(1): 19, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28058655

RESUMO

The development of new exchange-correlation functionals within density functional theory means that increasingly accurate information is accessible at moderate computational cost. Recently, a newly developed self-consistent hybrid functional has been proposed (Skone et al., Phys. Rev. B 89:195112, 2014), which allows for a reliable and accurate calculation of material properties using a fully ab initio procedure. Here, we apply this new functional to wurtzite ZnO, rutile SnO2, and rocksalt MgO. We present calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties, which we compare to results obtained with the PBE and PBE0 functionals. For all semiconductors considered here, the self-consistent hybrid approach gives improved agreement with experimental structural data relative to the PBE0 hybrid functional for a moderate increase in computational cost, while avoiding the empiricism common to conventional hybrid functionals. The electronic properties are improved for ZnO and MgO, whereas for SnO2 the PBE0 hybrid functional gives the best agreement with experimental data.

18.
R Soc Open Sci ; 4(11): 170824, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29291073

RESUMO

Ionic transport in solid electrolytes can often be approximated as ions performing a sequence of hops between distinct lattice sites. If these hops are uncorrelated, quantitative relationships can be derived that connect microscopic hopping rates to macroscopic transport coefficients; i.e. tracer diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities. In real materials, hops are uncorrelated only in the dilute limit. At non-dilute concentrations, the relationships between hopping frequency, diffusion coefficient and ionic conductivity deviate from the random walk case, with this deviation quantified by single-particle and collective correlation factors, f and fI, respectively. These factors vary between materials, and depend on the concentration of mobile particles, the nature of the interactions, and the host lattice geometry. Here, we study these correlation effects for the garnet lattice using lattice-gas Monte Carlo simulations. We find that, for non-interacting particles (volume exclusion only), single-particle correlation effects are more significant than for any previously studied three-dimensional lattice. This is attributed to the presence of two-coordinate lattice sites, which causes correlation effects intermediate between typical three-dimensional and one-dimensional lattices. Including nearest-neighbour repulsion and on-site energies produces more complex single-particle correlations and introduces collective correlations. We predict particularly strong correlation effects at xLi=3 (from site energies) and xLi=6 (from nearest-neighbour repulsion), where xLi=9 corresponds to a fully occupied lithium sublattice. Both effects are consequences of ordering of the mobile particles. Using these simulation data, we consider tuning the mobile-ion stoichiometry to maximize the ionic conductivity, and show that the 'optimal' composition is highly sensitive to the precise nature and strength of the microscopic interactions. Finally, we discuss the practical implications of these results in the context of lithium garnets and other solid electrolytes.

19.
Adv Mater ; 29(2)2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859735

RESUMO

Freestanding, single-component dielectric actuators are designed based on bottlebrush elastomers that enable giant reversible strokes at relatively low electric fields and altogether avoid preactuation mechanical manipulation. This materials design platform allows for independent tuning of actuator rigidity and elasticity over broad ranges without changing chemical composition, which opens new opportunities in soft-matter robotics.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(13): 135901, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27081991

RESUMO

We have performed long time scale molecular dynamics simulations of the cubic and tetragonal phases of the solid lithium-ion electrolyte Li_{7}La_{3}Zr_{2}O_{12} (LLZO), using a first-principles parametrized interatomic potential. Collective lithium transport was analyzed by identifying dynamical excitations: persistent ion displacements over distances comparable to the separation between lithium sites, and stringlike clusters of ions that undergo cooperative motion. We find that dynamical excitations in c-LLZO (cubic) are frequent, with participating lithium numbers following an exponential distribution, mirroring the dynamics of fragile glasses. In contrast, excitations in t-LLZO (tetragonal) are both temporally and spatially sparse, consisting preferentially of highly concerted lithium motion around closed loops. This qualitative difference is explained as a consequence of lithium ordering in t-LLZO and provides a mechanistic basis for the much lower ionic conductivity of t-LLZO compared to c-LLZO.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...