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1.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e081037, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a causative virus for the common cold worldwide and can result in hospitalisations and even death in patients with high-risk conditions and older adults. However, the relationship between RSV or other incidental respiratory infections and acute exacerbations of underlying conditions has not been well investigated. The primary objective of this study is to estimate RSV prevalence, risk factors for adverse outcomes or hospitalisation and their effect on the hospital course of patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted from emergency departments. Furthermore, we evaluate the prevalence of other respiratory viruses associated with respiratory symptoms. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We are conducting a multicentre prospective cohort study in Japan. We plan to enrol 3000 consecutive patients admitted from emergency departments with acute respiratory symptoms or signs from 1 July 2023 to 30 June 2024. A nasopharyngeal swab is obtained within 24 hours of admission and the prevalence of RSV and other respiratory viruses is measured using the FilmArray Respiratory 2.1 panel. Paired serum samples are collected from patients with suspected lower respiratory infections to measure RSV antibodies at admission and 30 days later. Information on patients' hospital course is retrieved from the electronic medical records at discharge, death or 30 days after admission. Furthermore, information on readmission to the hospital and all-cause mortality is collected 180 days after admission. We assess the differences in clinical outcomes between patients with RSV or other respiratory viruses and those without, adjusting for baseline characteristics. Clinical outcomes include in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay, disease progression, laboratory tests and management of respiratory symptoms or underlying conditions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards of participating hospitals. Our study reports will be published in academic journals as well as international meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05913700.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Idoso , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Hospitais Comunitários , Hospitalização , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
2.
Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl ; 6(1): 100314, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482100

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the associations of baseline skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) with adverse events and rehabilitation outcomes in patients admitted for rehabilitation. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Participants: The subjects were 409 patients (mean age, 79 years; men, 167 [41%]) undergoing rehabilitation because of neurologic disease, musculoskeletal disorders, or hospital-associated deconditioning. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the definition of sarcopenia by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia: those with low SMI (<7.0 kg/m2 in men and <5.7 kg/m2 in women) and those with high SMI (≥7.0 kg/m2 in men and ≥5.7 kg/m2 in women). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes were adverse events including death and acute illness requiring transfer to other hospitals for specialized treatments. The secondary outcomes were rehabilitation outcomes including the efficiency scores (changes in functional independence measure [FIM] score divided by length of stay) of FIM for motor function (FIM-M) and FIM for cognitive function (FIM-C). Results: Of the 409 patients, 299 (73%) had a low SMI. The adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the low SMI group relative to the high SMI group for adverse events was 2.79 (1.06-7.34). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in FIM-M efficiency scores [mean ± SD, low SMI group: 0.4 (0.58) vs high SMI group: 0.47 (0.54), P=.3] and FIM-C efficiency scores [mean ± SD, 0.05 (0.14) vs 0.06 (0.2), P=.4]. Multiple linear regression models did not show significant associations between the low SMI group and FIM-M efficiency or FIM-C efficiency scores (ß=0.064, P=.3; ß=-0.05, P=.4, respectively). Conclusion: Low baseline SMI was significantly associated with adverse events but not with rehabilitation outcomes in patients undergoing rehabilitation.

3.
J Cardiol ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to mitral annular velocity (E/e') is a prognostic factor in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, data are lacking on long-term outcomes and longitudinal changes in E/e' in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in the reperfusion era. METHODS: This is a pre-specified echocardiographic substudy of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of beta-blockers in STEMI patients with LVEF ≥40 % after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to E/e' at discharge: ≤14 (normal E/e' group) or > 14 (high E/e' group). The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure hospitalization. We also assessed longitudinal changes in E/e' and conducted a landmark analysis using E/e' at 1 year after STEMI. RESULTS: There were 173 and 38 patients in the normal and high E/e' groups, respectively. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, the primary outcome occurred in 19 patients (11.0 %) and 10 patients (26.3 %) in the normal and high E/e' groups, respectively. The cumulative incidence of the primary outcome was higher in the high E/e' group than in the normal E/e' group (21.9 % vs. 7.1 % at 3 years; log-rank p = 0.013). E/e' in the high E/e' group decreased over time (p < 0.001), but remained higher than in the normal E/e' group at 1 year after STEMI (13.7 ±â€¯5.3 vs. 8.6 ±â€¯2.3, p < 0.001). E/e' > 14 at 1 year was also associated with poor outcomes (log-rank p = 0.008). A sensitivity analysis using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models yielded consistent results. CONCLUSION: High E/e' at discharge is associated with poor long-term outcomes in STEMI patients with preserved LVEF after primary PCI, which may be explained by persistent high E/e' late after STEMI.

4.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 57(4): 622-629, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556577

RESUMO

Although low-dose direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are recommended for patients at high risk of bleeding complications, it remains unclear whether the dose reduction in real-world setting is also appropriate in patients after large-vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. This study hypothesized that patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and LVO receiving low-dose DOACs have an increased risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic events. The study aimed to assess 1 year morbidity and mortality in patients treated with standard-dose and low-dose apixaban after LVO stroke. A post hoc analysis was performed using the acute LVO registry data, which enrolled patients with AF and LVO who received apixaban within 14 days of stroke onset. The incidences of ischemic events (ischemic stroke, acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction, and systemic embolism), major bleeding events, and death from any cause were compared between patients receiving standard- and low-dose apixaban. Of 643 patients diagnosed with LVO, 307 (47.7%) received low-dose apixaban. After adjustment for clinically relevant variables, no significant differences were observed in the incidence of ischemic events (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-6.02), major bleeding events (aHR: 1.17, 95% CI 0.50-2.73), and death from any cause (aHR: 1.95, 95% CI 0.78-4.89) between patients receiving standard- and low-dose apixaban. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of ischemic events, major bleeding events, or death from any cause between patients with AF and LVO receiving standard- and low-dose apixaban.

5.
Circ J ; 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with appropriately selected low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) can be treated at home, although it has been controversial whether applies to patients with cancer, who are considered not to be at low risk.Methods and Results: The current predetermined companion report from the ONCO PE trial evaluated the 3-month clinical outcomes of patients with home treatment and those with in-hospital treatment. The ONCO PE trial was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial among 32 institutions in Japan investigating the optimal duration of rivaroxaban treatment in cancer-associated PE patients with a score of 1 using the simplified version of the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI). Among 178 study patients, there were 66 (37%) in the home treatment group and 112 (63%) in the in-hospital treatment group. The primary endpoint of a composite of PE-related death, recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding occurred in 3 patients (4.6% [0.0-9.6%]) in the home treatment group and in 2 patients (1.8% [0.0-4.3%]) in the in-hospital treatment group. In the home treatment group, there were no cases of PE-related death or recurrent VTE, but major bleeding occurred in 3 patients (4.6% [0.0-9.6%]), and 2 patients (3.0% [0.0-7.2%]) required hospitalization due to bleeding events. CONCLUSIONS: Active cancer patients with PE of sPESI score=1 could be potential candidates for home treatment.

6.
Thromb Res ; 236: 191-200, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited data on the safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in fragile patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the COMMAND VTE Registry-2 enrolling patients with acute symptomatic VTE. The study population consisted of 3928 patients receiving DOACs, who were divided into fragile (2136 patients) and non-fragile groups (1792 patients). Fragility was defined as patients of age ≥ 75 years, creatinine clearance level ≤ 50 ml/min, and/or body weight ≤ 50 kg. RESULTS: The fragile group significantly more often received reduced doses of DOACs compared to the non-fragile group (51 % and 19 %, P < 0.001). The cumulative 5-year incidence of major bleeding was numerically higher in the fragile group than the non-fragile group (15.0 % and 11.1 %, P = 0.052), even with no significant excess risk after adjusting for confounders (HR 1.03, 95%CI 0.81-1.31, P = 0.78). The cumulative 5-year incidence of clinically relevant bleeding was significantly higher in the fragile group than the non-fragile group (28.6 % and 19.6 %, P < 0.001), even after adjusting for confounders (HR 1.28, 95%CI 1.08-1.53, P = 0.005). There was no significant difference in cumulative 5-year incidence of recurrent VTE between the groups (9.6 % and 8.9 %, P = 0.68), which was consistent after adjusting for confounders (HR 1.13, 95%CI 0.84-1.51, P = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Among VTE patients receiving DOACs, fragile patients were associated with a numerically higher rate of major bleeding and a significantly increased risk of clinically relevant bleeding, but not an increased risk of recurrent VTE.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Idoso , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Recidiva , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros
7.
Digestion ; 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537624

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-curative endoscopic resection of T1 colorectal cancers (CRC) carries a substantial risk of recurrence. However, previous studies have reported a significant proportion of cases in which the deep margin of endoscopic resection was positive for cancer due to the technical difficulties of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). With the advancement of endoscopic technology and techniques resulting in the reduction of positive resection margins, it is important to reassess the long-term prognosis and major risk factors for recurrence in cases of negative deep margins. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with T1 CRC who underwent endoscopic resection between January 2006 and December 2021 with negative deep margins. Histological findings of the resected specimens were analyzed to determine the risk factors associated with the primary outcomes of this study, including recurrence and cancer-related deaths. RESULTS: The median age of the 190 patients was 70 years, of which 63% were male, and endoscopic treatment was performed in 64% by endoscopic mucosal resection and 36% by ESD. Eighty two patients were in the curative resection (CR) group and 108 were in the non-curative resection (NCR) group, wherein the latter comprised 79 patients who underwent additional surgery (AS) and 29 patients who did not receive AS. Five-year recurrence-free survival rates were 98.4% (95% CI 89.3-99.8) for CR, 98.3% (95% CI 88.8-99.8) for NCR with AS, and 73.7% (95% CI 46.5-88.5) for NCR without AS. Lymphatic invasion and budding grade 2/3 were the major risk factors for recurrence, with hazard ratios of 40.7 (p<0.001) and 23.1 (p=0.007), respectively. Of the patients in the NCR group without AS, the five-year recurrence-free rate was 85.6% (95% CI 52.5-96.3) if there were no major risk factors (i.e. no lymphatic invasion or budding grade 2/3) (n=21), whereas the prognosis was poor in the presence of one or more of the major risk factors, with a median recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival of 2.5 and 3.1 years, respectively (n=8). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: In endoscopically resected T1 CRC with negative deep margins, lymphatic invasion or budding grade 2/3 may indicate a higher risk of recurrence when followed up without additional surgery.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452771

RESUMO

AIM: The incidence of factors associated with emergency cesarean section (ECS) in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have not been well investigated. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with GDM between 2011 and 2020 at a tertiary care hospital in Japan. Clinical data, vital signs, and laboratory results of the patients were collected from electronic medical records. We constructed a multivariate logistic regression model to identify the clinical characteristics associated with ECS. RESULTS: We included 1189 patients diagnosed with GDM, the mean maternal age was 33 years, and 507 (42.6%) patients were aged ≥35 years. In total, 114 patients underwent ECS (9.6%). The previous assisted reproductive technology (ART) use (odds ratio [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.93), previous artificial abortion (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.13-3.33), high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11), and late diagnosis of GDM (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.003-1.05) were independently associated with ECS. CONCLUSIONS: One of every 10 GDM patients required ECS. Previous ART use, previous artificial abortion, high pre-pregnancy BMI, and late diagnosis of GDM were risk factors for ECS in GDM patients.

9.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 33(1): e2015, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study validated the Japanese version of the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Rating Scale-5 (ADHD-RS-5) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale. We extended the ADHD-RS-5 by adding the oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder subscales to compare the two rating scales psychometrically. METHODS: We examined the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and criterion validity of the two rating scales in 135 Japanese outpatients aged 6-18 years. RESULTS: The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were good for all the subscales of the two rating scales except for the conduct disorder subscale of the ADHD-RS-5 extended. Good construct validity was revealed by expected correlational patterns between subscales from the two rating scales and the Children Behavior Checklist. The criterion validity was good for all the subscales of the two rating scales rated by parents, while teacher-ratings revealed substantially lower predictive ability for all the subscales. Agreement between parent- and teacher-ratings of the two rating scales was generally moderate and using predictive ratings alone of both ratings showed the best predictive ability among the integration methods examined. CONCLUSION: The two rating scales have sound psychometric properties and will aid in screening and severity assessment of externalizing disorders in Japanese clinical settings.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Japão , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
10.
Thromb Res ; 235: 107-115, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial ONCO DVT compared 3-month and 12-month edoxaban treatment regimens for isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and suggested potential benefits of prolonged edoxaban treatment in terms of thrombotic risk. However, the risk-benefit balance of prolonged edoxaban treatment in patients with renal function remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety and efficacy of 3-month and 12-month edoxaban treatment regimens in patients with cancer-associated isolated distal DVT and different renal functions. METHODS: This pre-specified subgroup analysis of the ONCO DVT study included 601 patients divided into subgroups according to renal function using a 50 mL/min creatinine clearance (Ccr) cutoff. The primary endpoint was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE-related death at 12 months and the major secondary endpoint was major bleeding at 12 months. RESULTS: Among the 601 patients, 131 (21.8 %) comprised the renal dysfunction subgroup. The primary endpoint occurred in 6 (9.7 %) and 1 (1.4 %) patients in the 3-month and 12-month edoxaban groups in the renal dysfunction subgroup, respectively, and in 16 (6.6 %) and 2 (0.9 %) patients in the no renal dysfunction subgroup, respectively. The major secondary endpoint occurred in 9 (14.5 %) and 7 (10.1 %) patients in the 12-month and 3-month edoxaban groups in the renal dysfunction subgroup, and in 13 (5.3 %) and 21 (9.3 %) patients in the no renal dysfunction subgroup, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A 12-month edoxaban regiment was superior to a 3-month treatment in terms of thrombotic risk irrespective of renal function. A higher bleeding risk was not identified in patients with renal dysfunction who received prolonged edoxaban treatment.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Neoplasias , Piridinas , Tiazóis , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Rim
11.
Hellenic J Cardiol ; 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction (ED), a well-established risk marker of cardiovascular events, is associated with heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Its relationship with cardiovascular events in patients with HF undergoing AF ablation remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the association between ED and the outcomes after AF ablation in patients with HF. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients with HF who underwent an endothelial function assessment using the peripheral vascular reactive hyperemia index (RHI) before first-time AF ablation. We defined AF recurrence according to the following types: the conventional form (AF≥30 seconds) and persistent form (requiring cardioversion). An RHI<2.1 indicated ED. Those with and without ED were compared in terms of the 3-year incidence of AF recurrence and cardiovascular events after AF ablation. RESULTS: Among 421 patients with HF (69 ± 9 years and 38% females), 343 (81.5%) had ED. Although the incidence of the conventional form of AF recurrence was similar between the groups, that of the persistent form was significantly higher in the ED group (25.7% vs. 15.3%, log-rank P = 0.028). The ED group also had a significantly higher rate of cardiovascular events (14.8% vs. 3.6%, log-rank P = 0.028). Pre-procedural ED was identified as an independent predictor of a persistent form of AF recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-5.07, P = 0.037) and that of cardiovascular events (adjusted HR 4.21, 95% CI 1.02-17.5, P = 0.048), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The endothelial function assessment enabled the risk stratification of clinically problematic outcomes after AF ablation in patients with HF.

12.
Circ J ; 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is reported to have a high risk of late recurrence (LR). However, the relationship between early recurrence (ER) within a 90-day blanking period after CA in AF patients and LR in HD patients remains unclear.Methods and Results: Of the 5,010 patients in the Kansai Plus Atrial Fibrillation Registry, 5,009 were included in the present study. Of these patients, 4,942 were not on HD (non-HD group) and 67 were on HD (HD group). HD was an independent risk factor for LR after the initial CA (adjusted hazard ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.2; P=0.01). In patients with ER, the rate of sinus rhythm maintenance at 3 years after the initial CA was significantly lower in the HD than non-HD group (11.4% vs. 35.4%, respectively; log-rank P=0.004). However, in patients without ER, there was no significant difference in the rate of sinus rhythm maintenance at 3 years between the HD and non-HD groups (67.7% vs. 74.5%, respectively; log-rank P=0.62). CONCLUSIONS: ER in HD patients was a strong risk factor for LR. However, even HD patients could expect a good outcome without ER after the initial CA.

13.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been still limited data on the transition of management strategies and clinical outcomes after introduction of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the real-world clinical practice. METHODS: Using the 2 series of multicenter COMMAND VTE registries in Japan enrolling consecutive patients with acute symptomatic VTE, we compared 695 patients with cancer-associated VTE in the Registry-1 of the warfarin era and 1507 patients in the Registry-2 of the DOAC era. RESULTS: Regarding oral anticoagulation therapy, 576 patients (82.9 %) in the Registry-1 received warfarin, whereas 1119 patients (79.6 %) in the Registry-2 received DOACs. The cumulative 3-year incidence of discontinuation of anticoagulation was not significantly different between the 2 registries (56.7 % vs. 62.7 %, P = 0.11). The cumulative 5-year incidence of recurrent VTE was significantly lower in the Registry-2 than in the Registry-1 (17.7 % vs. 10.1 %, P < 0.001). The cumulative 5-year incidence of major bleeding was significantly lower in the Registry-2 than in the Registry-1 (26.6 % vs. 20.4 %, P = 0.045). The proportion of gastrointestinal bleeding numerically increased from the Registry-1 to the Registry-2 (46.7 % and 49.5 %), whereas that of intracranial bleeding numerically decreased from the Registry-1 to the Registry-2 (17.1 % and 14.1 %). CONCLUSIONS: In the current historical comparison of cancer-associated VTE between the 2 large real-world registries, there was a striking change in the treatment strategies with decreased risks of recurrent VTE and major bleeding in the DOAC era compared with those in the warfarin era, while there seemed to be unmet needs of DOAC-related gastrointestinal bleeding. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm UNIQUE IDENTIFIER: UMIN000044816.

14.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233578

RESUMO

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) includes myocardial infarction (MI) and unstable angina (UA). MI is defined by elevated necrosis markers, preferably high-sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTn). However, it takes hours for cTn to become elevated after coronary occlusion; therefore, difficulties are associated with diagnosing early post-onset MI or UA. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the diagnostic ability of serum nardilysin (NRDC) for the early detection of ACS. This study consisted of two sequential cohorts, the Phase I cohort, 435 patients presenting to the emergency room (ER) with chest pain, and the Phase II cohort, 486 patients with chest pain who underwent coronary angiography. The final diagnosis was ACS in 155 out of 435 patients (35.6%) in the phase I and 418 out of 486 (86.0%) in the phase II cohort. Among 680 patients who presented within 24 h of onset, 466 patients (68.5%) were diagnosed with ACS. Serum NRDC levels were significantly higher in patients with ACS than in those without ACS. The sensitivity of NRDC in patients who presented within 6 h after the onset was higher than that of hsTnI, and the AUC of NRDC within 1 h of the onset was higher than that of hsTnI (0.718 versus 0.633). Among hsTnI-negative patients (300 of 680 patients: 44.1%), 136 of whom (45.3%) were diagnosed with ACS, the sensitivity and the NPV of NRDC were 73.5 and 65.7%, respectively. When measured in combination with hsTnI, NRDC plays auxiliary roles in the early diagnosis of ACS.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High bleeding risk (HBR) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtypes are critical in determining bleeding and cardiovascular event risk after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: In 4476 ACS patients enrolled in the STOPDAPT-3, where the no-aspirin and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) strategies after PCI were randomly compared, the pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted based on HBR/non-HBR and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)/non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). The co-primary bleeding endpoint was BARC type 3 or 5, and the co-primary cardiovascular endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, or ischemic stroke at 1 month. RESULTS: Irrespective of the subgroups, the effect of no-aspirin compared with DAPT was not significant for the bleeding endpoint (HBR [N = 1803]: 7.27% and 7.91%, HR 0.91, 95%CI 0.65-1.28; non-HBR [N = 2673]: 3.40% and 3.65%, HR 0.93, 95%CI 0.62-1.39; Pinteraction = 0.94; STEMI [N = 2553]: 6.58% and 6.56%, HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74-1.35; NSTE-ACS [N = 1923]: 2.94% and 3.64%, HR 0.80, 95%CI 0.49-1.32; Pinteraction = 0.45), and for the cardiovascular endpoint (HBR: 7.87% and 5.75%, HR 1.39, 95%CI 0.97-1.99; non-HBR: 2.56% and 2.67%, HR 0.96, 95%CI 0.60-1.53; Pinteraction = 0.22; STEMI: 6.07% and 5.46%, HR 1.11, 95%CI 0.81-1.54; NSTE-ACS: 3.03% and 1.71%, HR 1.78, 95%CI 0.97-3.27; Pinteraction = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS undergoing PCI, the no-aspirin strategy compared to the DAPT strategy failed to reduce major bleeding events irrespective of HBR and ACS subtypes. The numerical excess risk of the no-aspirin strategy relative to the DAPT strategy for cardiovascular events was observed in patients with HBR and in patients with NSTE-ACS.

16.
Case Rep Ophthalmol ; 15(1): 8-14, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38179148

RESUMO

Hexokinase 1 (HK1) gene is the cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) 79. To date, only E874K mutation has been reported as the causative mutation in patients with nonsyndromic RP. As a Caucasian RP case with a pathological variant of HK1 exhibiting pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) phenotype was recently reported, we reviewed RP79 cases in our Japanese RP cohort. Consequently, 2 Japanese patients, who were diagnosed with RP79 by genetic tests in our RP cohort, were included in this study. Patient 1 was a 60-year-old woman. Fundus examination revealed symmetrical donut-shaped retinal degeneration, with pigment deposition avoiding the macula. Moreover, degeneration extended in a peripheral direction along the vessels like a starfish, and degeneration was observed around the veins and arteries. Patient 2 was a 75-year-old man. Fundus examination revealed symmetric macula-avoiding donut-shaped retinal degeneration, with paravenous protruding degeneration along the blood vessels like in case 1. Both Japanese cases, which belonged to two separate families, had the same HK1 pathogenic mutation, with a phenotype of PPRCA. Furthermore, atrophy along retinal arteries was noted. Reviewing previous nonsyndromic RP79 cases revealed symptoms that are believed to be those of PPRCA. Ultra-widefield fundus imaging, especially ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence, has been useful in detecting PPRCA. If these devices become widely available, more cases may be discovered in the future because PPRCA can be used as a clue to suspect RP79, and Sanger sequencing may be used to identify pathogenic mutations in HK1 at a lower cost and more easily than using whole-exome sequencing.

17.
Thromb Res ; 234: 86-93, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on real-world management strategies and clinical outcomes of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) era. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the status of cancer-associated VTE in the DOAC era. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study among 31 centers in Japan between 2015 and 2020 enrolled 5197 consecutive patients with acute symptomatic VTE, who were divided into 1507 patients (29 %) with active cancer and 3690 patients (71 %) without. RESULTS: The cumulative 3-year rate of anticoagulation discontinuation was significantly higher in patients with active cancer than in those without (62.7 % vs. 59.1 %, P < 0.001). The cumulative 5-year incidence of recurrent VTE was higher in patients with active cancer than in those without (10.1 % vs. 9.1 %, P = 0.01), however, after adjusting for the confounders and competing risk of mortality, the excess risk of the active cancer group relative to the no active cancer group was no longer significant (HR: 0.95, 95 % CI: 0.73-1.24). The cumulative 5-year incidence of major bleeding was much higher in the active cancer group (20.4 % vs. 11.6 %, P < 0.001). Even after adjusting for the confounders and competing risk of mortality, the risk of the active cancer group relative to the no active cancer group remained significant (HR: 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.11-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: The current large real-world registry revealed that the risk of major bleeding was still higher in patients with active cancer than in those without, leading to the frequent anticoagulation discontinuation, which has been still a huge challenge to overcome in the DOAC era.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva
19.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 105(3): 539-545, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the association between anemia and recovery of physical disability in patients with functional impairment. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A convalescent rehabilitation ward. PARTICIPANTS: The subjects were patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation due to neurologic disease, musculoskeletal disorders, or hospital-associated deconditioning. Patients were classified into 3 groups (no anemia; mild anemia [men: hemoglobin of 11.0-12.9 g/dL; women: hemoglobin of 11.0-11.9 g/dL]; and moderate/severe anemia [hemoglobin < 11.0 g/dL]) based on hemoglobin levels. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The study outcomes were functional independence measures for motor function (FIM-M) score at discharge, changes in the FIM-M score between hospital admission and discharge, length of stay, and FIM-M efficiency score (change in FIM-M score divided by length of stay). A linear regression model was constructed to explore the association of anemia with the FIM-M efficiency score. As a subgroup analysis, we constructed a linear regression model to explore the association of anemia with the FIM-M efficiency score in patients with or without stroke. RESULTS: Of 376 consecutive patients with a mean age of 80 years, 258 (69%) had mild or moderate/severe anemia. There were no significant differences between the 3 groups in the FIM-M score at discharge, changes in the FIM-M score, length of stay, and FIM-M efficiency score. A multiple linear regression model showed that the FIM-M efficiency score was not associated with anemia (mild anemia group: ß=-0.02, P=.8; moderate/severe anemia group: ß=-0.005, P=.9). In the subgroup analysis of patients with or without stroke, the multiple regression model also showed no significant association between anemia and FIM-M efficiency score in each group. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia on admission was common among patients in a convalescent rehabilitation ward but was not associated with improvement of FIM-M after rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Anemia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Hemoglobinas
20.
Circulation ; 149(8): 585-600, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37994553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding rates on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) within 1 month after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain high in clinical practice, particularly in patients with acute coronary syndrome or high bleeding risk. Aspirin-free strategy might result in lower bleeding early after PCI without increasing cardiovascular events, but its efficacy and safety have not yet been proven in randomized trials. METHODS: We randomly assigned 6002 patients with acute coronary syndrome or high bleeding risk just before PCI either to prasugrel (3.75 mg/day) monotherapy or to DAPT with aspirin (81-100 mg/day) and prasugrel (3.75 mg/day) after loading of 20 mg of prasugrel in both groups. The coprimary end points were major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3 or 5) for superiority and cardiovascular events (a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, or ischemic stroke) for noninferiority with a relative 50% margin. RESULTS: The full analysis set population consisted of 5966 patients (no-aspirin group, 2984 patients; DAPT group, 2982 patients; age, 71.6±11.7 years; men, 76.6%; acute coronary syndrome, 75.0%). Within 7 days before randomization, aspirin alone, aspirin with P2Y12 inhibitor, oral anticoagulants, and intravenous heparin infusion were given in 21.3%, 6.4%, 8.9%, and 24.5%, respectively. Adherence to the protocol-specified antiplatelet therapy was 88% in both groups at 1 month. At 1 month, the no-aspirin group was not superior to the DAPT group for the coprimary bleeding end point (4.47% and 4.71%; hazard ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.75-1.20]; Psuperiority=0.66). The no-aspirin group was noninferior to the DAPT group for the coprimary cardiovascular end point (4.12% and 3.69%; hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.87-1.45]; Pnoninferiority=0.01). There was no difference in net adverse clinical outcomes and each component of coprimary cardiovascular end point. There was an excess of any unplanned coronary revascularization (1.05% and 0.57%; hazard ratio, 1.83 [95%CI, 1.01-3.30]) and subacute definite or probable stent thrombosis (0.58% and 0.17%; hazard ratio, 3.40 [95% CI, 1.26-9.23]) in the no-aspirin group compared with the DAPT group. CONCLUSIONS: The aspirin-free strategy using low-dose prasugrel compared with the DAPT strategy failed to attest superiority for major bleeding within 1 month after PCI but was noninferior for cardiovascular events within 1 month after PCI. However, the aspirin-free strategy was associated with a signal suggesting an excess of coronary events. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04609111.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Aspirina/análogos & derivados , Nitratos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Trombose , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Stents , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
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