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1.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 8(6): 1109-1117, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684739

RESUMO

Large pulses of tree mortality have ushered in a major reorganization of Europe's forest ecosystems. To initiate a robust next generation of trees, the species that are planted today need to be climatically suitable throughout the entire twenty-first century. Here we developed species distribution models for 69 European tree species based on occurrence data from 238,080 plot locations to investigate the option space for current forest management in Europe. We show that the average pool of tree species continuously suitable throughout the century is smaller than that under current and end-of-century climate conditions, creating a tree species bottleneck for current management. If the need for continuous climate suitability throughout the lifespan of a tree planted today is considered, climate change shrinks the tree species pool available to management by between 33% and 49% of its current values (40% and 54% of potential end-of-century values), under moderate (Representative Concentration Pathway 2.6) and severe (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) climate change, respectively. This bottleneck could have strong negative impacts on timber production, carbon storage and biodiversity conservation, as only 3.18, 3.53 and 2.56 species of high potential for providing these functions remain suitable throughout the century on average per square kilometre in Europe. Our results indicate that the option space for silviculture is narrowing substantially because of climate change and that an important adaptation strategy in forestry-creating mixed forests-might be curtailed by widespread losses of climatically suitable tree species.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Árvores , Europa (Continente) , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Agricultura Florestal , Modelos Biológicos
2.
Arthropod Plant Interact ; 18(2): 327-338, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510828

RESUMO

Agricultural intensification is a major threat to farmland biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Semi-natural habitats are integral to the preservation of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services, however, the extent in which they contribute to specific services is largely unclear. We studied predation rates of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods, and pollination success within old permanent grasslands, newly established grasslands and arable fields near and far from new grasslands. We evaluated whether grassland restoration can enhance pollination and biological control in crop fields. For this purpose, we established new grassland strips within cereal fields, which directly bordered existing permanent grasslands. We evaluated if the distance to these old and new grasslands affects the delivery of the two ecosystem services within crop fields. We found significantly higher seed numbers and seed weight in sentinel plants placed in old grasslands, new grasslands and nearby arable fields compared to distant arable fields. We also found significantly decreasing seed numbers and seed weight in sentinel plants placed in distant arable fields with increasing distance from old grasslands, while pollination success was not affected by distance in nearby arable fields. Contrary, we did not find any significant effects of new grasslands on biological control. Our study showed that 3 years after establishing grasslands arable fields benefited from the proximity of flower-rich new grasslands through increased pollination success though not regarding biological control. This indicates that, on a short term, establishing new grasslands can support beneficial arthropods in providing ecosystem services such as pollination. Predators, in contrast, might take longer to establish effective populations that denote higher predation rates. Our study provides a baseline for future long-term studies to better evaluate pollination and pest control patterns within arable fields. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11829-023-10034-5.

3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2090, 2023 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37045818

RESUMO

While the regional distribution of non-native species is increasingly well documented for some taxa, global analyses of non-native species in local assemblages are still missing. Here, we use a worldwide collection of assemblages from five taxa - ants, birds, mammals, spiders and vascular plants - to assess whether the incidence, frequency and proportions of naturalised non-native species depend on type and intensity of land use. In plants, assemblages of primary vegetation are least invaded. In the other taxa, primary vegetation is among the least invaded land-use types, but one or several other types have equally low levels of occurrence, frequency and proportions of non-native species. High land use intensity is associated with higher non-native incidence and frequency in primary vegetation, while intensity effects are inconsistent for other land-use types. These findings highlight the potential dual role of unused primary vegetation in preserving native biodiversity and in conferring resistance against biological invasions.


Assuntos
Formigas , Ecossistema , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Incidência , Biodiversidade , Mamíferos
4.
Sustain Sci ; 18(2): 771-789, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37012996

RESUMO

The extent and impacts of biological invasions on biodiversity are largely shaped by an array of socio-economic and environmental factors, which exhibit high variation among countries. Yet, a global analysis of how these factors vary across countries is currently lacking. Here, we investigate how five broad, country-specific socio-economic and environmental indices (Governance, Trade, Environmental Performance, Lifestyle and Education, Innovation) explain country-level (1) established alien species (EAS) richness of eight taxonomic groups, and (2) proactive or reactive capacity to prevent and manage biological invasions and their impacts. These indices underpin many aspects of the invasion process, including the introduction, establishment, spread and management of alien species. They are also general enough to enable a global comparison across countries, and are therefore essential for defining future scenarios for biological invasions. Models including Trade, Governance, Lifestyle and Education, or a combination of these, best explained EAS richness across taxonomic groups and national proactive or reactive capacity. Historical (1996 or averaged over 1996-2015) levels of Governance and Trade better explained both EAS richness and the capacity of countries to manage invasions than more recent (2015) levels, revealing a historical legacy with important implications for the future of biological invasions. Using Governance and Trade to define a two-dimensional socio-economic space in which the position of a country captures its capacity to address issues of biological invasions, we identified four main clusters of countries in 2015. Most countries had an increase in Trade over the past 25 years, but trajectories were more geographically heterogeneous for Governance. Declines in levels of Governance are concerning as they may be responsible for larger levels of invasions in the future. By identifying the factors influencing EAS richness and the regions most susceptible to changes in these factors, our results provide novel insights to integrate biological invasions into scenarios of biodiversity change to better inform decision-making for policy and the management of biological invasions. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11625-022-01166-3.

5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 203, 2023 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37076814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic climate change leads to increasing temperatures and altered precipitation and snowmelt patterns, especially in alpine ecosystems. To understand species' responses to climate change, assessment of genetic structure and diversity is crucial as the basis for the evaluation of migration patterns, genetic adaptation potential as well as the identification of adaptive alleles. RESULTS: We studied genetic structure, diversity and genome-environment associations of two snowbed species endemic to the Eastern Alps with a large elevational range, Achillea clusiana Tausch and Campanula pulla L. Genotyping-by-sequencing was employed to assemble loci de novo, call variants and perform population genetic analyses. Populations of either species were distinguishable by mountain, and to some extent by elevation. We found evidence for gene flow between elevations. Results of genome-environment associations suggested similar selective pressures acting on both species, emanating mainly from precipitation and exposition rather than temperature. CONCLUSIONS: Given their genetic structure and amount of gene flow among populations the two study species are suitable to serve as a model for genetic monitoring of climate change adaptation along an elevation gradient. Consequences of climate change will predominantly manifest via changes in precipitation and, thus, duration of snow cover in the snowbeds and indirectly via shrub encroachment accompanied by increasing shading of snowbeds at lower range margins. Assembling genomes of the study species and studying larger sample sizes and time series will be necessary to functionally characterize and validate the herein identified genomic loci putatively involved in adaptive processes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fluxo Gênico , Temperatura , Genômica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Mudança Climática
6.
Glob Ecol Biogeogr ; 32(7): 1046-1058, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504871

RESUMO

Aim: Our knowledge of Pleistocene refugia and post-glacial recolonization routes of forest understorey plants is still very limited. The geographical ranges of these species are often rather narrow and show highly idiosyncratic, often fragmented patterns indicating either narrow and species-specific ecological tolerances or strong dispersal limitations. However, the relative roles of these factors are inherently difficult to disentangle. Location: Central and south-eastern Europe. Time period: 17,100 BP - present. Major taxa studied: Five understorey herbs of European beech forests: Aposeris foetida, Cardamine trifolia, Euphorbia carniolica, Hacquetia epipactis and Helleborus niger. Methods: We used spatio-temporally explicit modelling to reconstruct the post-glacial range dynamics of the five forest understorey herbs. We varied niche requirements, demographic rates and dispersal abilities across plausible ranges and simulated the spread of species from potential Pleistocene refugia identified by phylogeographical analyses. Then we identified the parameter settings allowing for the most accurate reconstruction of their current geographical ranges. Results: We found a largely homogenous pattern of optimal parameter settings among species. Broad ecological niches had to be combined with very low but non-zero rates of long-distance dispersal via chance events and low rates of seed dispersal over moderate distances by standard dispersal vectors. However, long-distance dispersal events, although rare, led to high variation among replicated simulation runs. Main conclusions: Small and fragmented ranges of many forest understorey species are best explained by a combination of broad ecological niches and rare medium- and long-distance dispersal events. Stochasticity is thus an important determinant of current species ranges, explaining the idiosyncratic distribution patterns of the study species despite strong similarities in refugia, ecological tolerances and dispersal abilities.

7.
Glob Ecol Biogeogr ; 32(6): 855-866, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504954

RESUMO

Aim: Land use is the most pervasive driver of biodiversity loss. Predicting its impact on species richness (SR) is often based on indicators of habitat loss. However, the degradation of habitats, especially through land-use intensification, also affects species. Here, we evaluate whether an integrative metric of land-use intensity, the human appropriation of net primary production, is correlated with the decline of SR in used landscapes across the globe. Location: Global. Time period: Present. Major taxa studied: Birds, mammals and amphibians. Methods: Based on species range maps (spatial resolution: 20 km × 20 km) and an area-of-habitat approach, we calibrated a "species-energy model" by correlating the SR of three groups of vertebrates with net primary production and biogeographical covariables in "wilderness" areas (i.e., those where available energy is assumed to be still at pristine levels). We used this model to project the difference between pristine SR and the SR corresponding to the energy remaining in used landscapes (i.e., SR loss expected owing to human energy extraction outside wilderness areas). We validated the projected species loss by comparison with the realized and impending loss reconstructed from habitat conversion and documented by national Red Lists. Results: Species-energy models largely explained landscape-scale variation of mapped SR in wilderness areas (adjusted R 2-values: 0.79-0.93). Model-based projections of SR loss were lower, on average, than reconstructed and documented ones, but the spatial patterns were correlated significantly, with stronger correlation in mammals (Pearson's r = 0.68) than in amphibians (r = 0.60) and birds (r = 0.57). Main conclusions: Our results suggest that the human appropriation of net primary production is a useful indicator of heterotrophic species loss in used landscapes, hence we recommend its inclusion in models based on species-area relationships to improve predictions of land-use-driven biodiversity loss.

8.
Glob Ecol Biogeogr ; 32(9): 1535-1548, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505836

RESUMO

Aim: The breadth of ecological niches and dispersal abilities have long been discussed as important determinants of species' range sizes. However, studies directly comparing the relative effects of both factors are rare, taxonomically biased and revealed inconsistent results. Location: Europe. Time Period: Cenozoic. Major Taxa: Butterflies, Lepidoptera. Methods: We relate climate, diet and habitat niche breadth and two indicators of dispersal ability, wingspan and a dispersal tendency index, to the global range size of 369 European-centred butterfly species. The relative effects of these five predictors and their variation across the butterfly phylogeny were assessed by means of phylogenetic generalized least squares models and phylogenetically weighted regressions respectively. Results: Climate niche breadth was the most important single predictor, followed by habitat and diet niche breadth, while dispersal tendency and wingspan showed no relation to species' range size. All predictors together explained 59% of the variation in butterfly range size. However, the effects of each predictor varied considerably across families and genera. Main Conclusions: Range sizes of European-centred butterflies are strongly correlated with ecological niche breadth but apparently independent of dispersal ability. The magnitude of range size-niche breadth relationships is not stationary across the phylogeny and is often negatively correlated across the different dimensions of the ecological niche. This variation limits the generalizability of range size-trait relationships across broad taxonomic groups.

9.
J Biogeogr ; 49(10): 1739-1752, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245965

RESUMO

Aim: Species' ecological traits influence their spatial genetic patterns. Bedrock preference strongly shapes the phylogeography of alpine plants, but its interactions with other ecological traits have rarely been disentangled. Here, we explore whether dispersal ability and degree of habitat specialization account for divergent postglacial expansion patterns of high-elevation plants in spite of similar bedrock preference. Location: The Pyrenees, southwestern Europe. Taxon: Cirsium glabrum (Asteraceae), Salix pyrenaica (Salicaceae) and Silene borderei (Caryophyllaceae). Methods: Phylogenetic, genetic structure and demographic modelling analyses based on restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data from a range-wide populational sampling were conducted. Occurrence data and environmental variables were used to construct species distribution models, which were projected under current and Last Glacial Maximum conditions, and were combined with RADseq data to reconstruct the postglacial history of the study species. The degree of habitat specialization of each species was estimated based on the plant communities within which they occur, and their climatic niche breadth. Results: Salix pyrenaica, which occupies a broad range of habitats, shows a high level of range filling, a blurred genetic structure and an admixture cline between the two main genetic groups, congruent with rapid postglacial expansion. The microsite specialists C. glabrum and S. borderei exhibit a strong genetic structure and low levels of range filling, indicative of slow postglacial expansion. The good disperser C. glabrum shows higher levels of admixture between genetic groups and weaker population differentiation than the poor disperser S. borderei. Main Conclusions: Factors other than bedrock preference have a strong impact on the postglacial range dynamics of high-elevation species. Habitat specialization plays an important role, allowing species occupying a broad range of habitats to more rapidly expand their ranges after environmental change. The effect of dispersal ability is lower than expected for the study species.

10.
Restor Ecol ; 30(8): e13641, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36589388

RESUMO

Establishment of semi-natural grasslands offers a valuable approach to the conservation of threatened grassland biodiversity. We established new grassland strips on former crop fields adjacent to old semi-natural grasslands and monitored the development of plant, carabid, spider, and wild bee communities over 3 years. The studied plant and arthropods communities were significantly different between newly established grassland strips and old grassland. Our results suggest that restoring plant and arthropod communities takes longer than 3 years to become similar to old semi-natural grasslands.

11.
Ecol Evol ; 11(12): 8319-8331, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188889

RESUMO

Ongoing intensification and fragmentation of European agricultural landscapes dramatically reduce biodiversity and associated functions. Enhancing perennial noncrop areas holds great potential to support ecosystem services such as ant-mediated pest control.To study the potential of newly established grassland strips to enhance ant diversity and associated functions, we used hand collection data and predation experiments to investigate differences in (a) ant community composition and (b) biocontrol-related functional traits, and (c) natural pest control across habitats in cereal fields, old grasslands, and new grassland transects of three years of age.Ant species diversity was similar between new and old grasslands, but significantly higher in new grasslands than in surrounding cereal fields. Contrary, ant community composition of new grasslands was more similar to cereal fields and distinct from the species pool of old grasslands. The functional trait space covered by the ant communities showed the same distribution between old and new grasslands. Pest control did not differ significantly between habitat types and therefore could not be linked to the prevalence of functional ant traits related to biocontrol services in new grasslands.Our findings not only show trends of convergence between old and new grasslands, but also indicate that enhancing ant diversity through new grasslands takes longer than three years to provide comparable biodiversity and functionality. Synthesis and applications: Newly established grasslands can increase ant species richness and abundance and provide a consistent amount of biocontrol services in agroecosystems. However, three years after their establishment, new grasslands were still dominated by common agrobiont ant species and lacked habitat specialists present in old grasslands, which require a constant supply of food resources and long colony establishment times. New grasslands represent a promising measure for enhancing agricultural landscapes but must be preserved in the longer term to promote biodiversity and resilience of associated ecosystem services.

12.
Ecol Evol ; 10(14): 7306-7319, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760530

RESUMO

The geographic distribution of sexual-apomictic taxa (i.e., comprising individuals usually reproducing either sexually or asexually via seeds) is traditionally thought to be driven by their ecological preferences and colonization histories. Where sexuals and apomicts get into contact with each other, competitive and reproductive interactions can interfere with these factors, an aspect which hitherto received little attention in biogeographic studies. We disentangled and quantified the relative effects of the three factors on the distribution of tetraploid sexuals in Potentilla puberula in a latitudinal transect through the Eastern European Alps, in which they are codistributed with penta-, hepta-, and octoploid apomictic conspecifics. Effects were explored by means of binomial generalized linear regression models combining a single with a multiple predictor approach. Postglacial colonization history was inferred from population genetic variation (AFLPs and cpDNA) and quantified using a cost distance metric. The study was based on 235 populations, which were purely sexual, purely apomictic, or of mixed reproductive mode. The occurrence of apomicts explained most of the variation in the distribution of sexuals (31%). Specifically, the presence of sexual tetraploids was negatively related to the presence of each of the three apomictic cytotypes. Effects of ecological preferences were substantial too (7% and 12% of the total variation explained by ecological preferences alone, or jointly with apomicts' occurrence, respectively). In contrast, colonization history had negligible effects on the occurrence of sexuals. Taken together, our results highlight the potentially high impact of reproductive interactions on the geographic distribution of sexual and apomictic conspecifics and that resultant mutual exclusion interrelates to ecological differentiation, a situation potentially promoting their local coexistence.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3201, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581263

RESUMO

Humans cultivate thousands of economic plants (i.e. plants with economic value) outside their native ranges. To analyze how this contributes to naturalization success, we combine global databases on economic uses and naturalization success of the world's seed plants. Here we show that naturalization likelihood is 18 times higher for economic than non-economic plants. Naturalization success is highest for plants grown as animal food or for environmental uses (e.g. ornamentals), and increases with number of uses. Taxa from the Northern Hemisphere are disproportionately over-represented among economic plants, and economic plants from Asia have the greatest naturalization success. In regional naturalized floras, the percentage of economic plants exceeds the global percentage and increases towards the equator. Phylogenetic patterns in the naturalized flora partly result from phylogenetic patterns in the plants we cultivate. Our study illustrates that accounting for the intentional introduction of economic plants is key to unravelling drivers of plant naturalization.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Espécies Introduzidas/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Agricultura/economia , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Geografia , Filogenia , Plantas/classificação , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(4): 2336-2352, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994267

RESUMO

Climate and land-use change jointly affect the future of biodiversity. Yet, biodiversity scenarios have so far concentrated on climatic effects because forecasts of land use are rarely available at appropriate spatial and thematic scales. Agent-based models (ABMs) represent a potentially powerful but little explored tool for establishing thematically and spatially fine-grained land-use scenarios. Here, we use an ABM parameterized for 1,329 agents, mostly farmers, in a Central European model region, and simulate the changes to land-use patterns resulting from their response to three scenarios of changing socio-economic conditions and three scenarios of climate change until the mid of the century. Subsequently, we use species distribution models to, first, analyse relationships between the realized niches of 832 plant species and climatic gradients or land-use types, respectively, and, second, to project consequent changes in potential regional ranges of these species as triggered by changes in both the altered land-use patterns and the changing climate. We find that both drivers determine the realized niches of the studied plants, with land use having a stronger effect than any single climatic variable in the model. Nevertheless, the plants' future distributions appear much more responsive to climate than to land-use changes because alternative future socio-economic backgrounds have only modest impact on land-use decisions in the model region. However, relative effects of climate and land-use changes on biodiversity may differ drastically in other regions, especially where landscapes are still dominated by natural or semi-natural habitat. We conclude that agent-based modelling of land use is able to provide scenarios at scales relevant to individual species distribution and suggest that coupling ABMs with models of species' range change should be intensified to provide more realistic biodiversity forecasts.

15.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(1)2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396661

RESUMO

Deadwood is a biodiversity hotspot and habitat for numerous highly endangered species. Buxbaumia viridis has been assessed as a flagship species for deadwood-rich forests and is subject to monitoring under the Habitats Directive, yet we lack a solid understanding of the factors controlling its distribution. The study aimed to specify the climate and habitat preferences of Buxbaumia viridis and identify the best predictor variables. We collected presence-absence data of the species at 201 sites between 2016 and 2020. Study sites cover three biogeographic regions (Pannonian, Continental, and Alpine). They also represent a deadwood gradient ranging from managed forests to natural forest reserves and virgin forests. Our results suggest that desiccation and deadwood amount are the best predictor variables. The amount of deadwood at the colonized sites ranged from 1 m3/ha to 288 m3/ha, with a median of 70 m3/ha. The maximum desiccation, i.e., consecutive days without rain and at least 20 °C was 9.6 days at colonized sites. The results of logistic regression models suggest that desiccation limits Buxbaumia viridis occurrence on deadwood in the drier continental parts of eastern Austria. Derived details on climate and habitat requirements of Buxbaumia viridis can specify management and conservation. They clearly show how strongly the species is dependent on climate, which can counteract deadwood measures.

16.
AoB Plants ; 11(5): plz051, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636882

RESUMO

Biological invasions are a defining feature of the Anthropocene, but the factors that determine the spatially uneven distribution of alien plant species are still poorly understood. Here, we present the first global analysis of the effects of biogeographic factors, the physical environment and socio-economy on the richness of naturalized and invasive alien plants. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models and variation partitioning to disentangle the relative importance of individual factors, and, more broadly, of biogeography, physical environment and socio-economy. As measures of the magnitude of permanent anthropogenic additions to the regional species pool and of species with negative environmental impacts, we calculated the relative richness of naturalized (= RRN) and invasive (= RRI) alien plant species numbers adjusted for the number of native species in 838 terrestrial regions. Socio-economic factors (per-capita gross domestic product (GDP), population density, proportion of agricultural land) were more important in explaining RRI (~50 % of the explained variation) than RRN (~40 %). Warm-temperate and (sub)tropical regions have higher RRN than tropical or cooler regions. We found that socio-economic pressures are more relevant for invasive than for naturalized species richness. The expectation that the southern hemisphere is more invaded than the northern hemisphere was confirmed only for RRN on islands, but not for mainland regions nor for RRI. On average, islands have ~6-fold RRN, and >3-fold RRI compared to mainland regions. Eighty-two islands (=26 % of all islands) harbour more naturalized alien than native plants. Our findings challenge the widely held expectation that socio-economic pressures are more relevant for plant naturalization than for invasive plants. To meet international biodiversity targets and halt the detrimental consequences of plant invasions, it is essential to disrupt the connection between socio-economic development and plant invasions by improving pathway management, early detection and rapid response.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4293, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541105

RESUMO

Mountain plant species shift their elevational ranges in response to climate change. However, to what degree these shifts lag behind current climate change, and to what extent delayed extinctions and colonizations contribute to these shifts, are under debate. Here, we calculate extinction debt and colonization credit of 135 species from the European Alps by comparing species distribution models with 1576 re-surveyed plots. We find extinction debt in 60% and colonization credit in 38% of the species, and at least one of the two in 93%. This suggests that the realized niche of very few of the 135 species fully tracks climate change. As expected, extinction debts occur below and colonization credits occur above the optimum elevation of species. Colonization credits are more frequent in warmth-demanding species from lower elevations with lower dispersal capability, and extinction debts are more frequent in cold-adapted species from the highest elevations. Local extinctions hence appear to be already pending for those species which have the least opportunity to escape climate warming.

18.
Ecology ; 100(1): e02542, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341991

RESUMO

This dataset provides the Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database, version 1.2. GloNAF represents a data compendium on the occurrence and identity of naturalized alien vascular plant taxa across geographic regions (e.g. countries, states, provinces, districts, islands) around the globe. The dataset includes 13,939 taxa and covers 1,029 regions (including 381 islands). The dataset is based on 210 data sources. For each taxon-by-region combination, we provide information on whether the taxon is considered to be naturalized in the specific region (i.e. has established self-sustaining populations in the wild). Non-native taxa are marked as "alien", when it is not clear whether they are naturalized. To facilitate alignment with other plant databases, we provide for each taxon the name as given in the original data source and the standardized taxon and family names used by The Plant List Version 1.1 (http://www.theplantlist.org/). We provide an ESRI shapefile including polygons for each region and information on whether it is an island or a mainland region, the country and the Taxonomic Databases Working Group (TDWG) regions it is part of (TDWG levels 1-4). We also provide several variables that can be used to filter the data according to quality and completeness of alien taxon lists, which vary among the combinations of regions and data sources. A previous version of the GloNAF dataset (version 1.1) has already been used in several studies on, for example, historical spatial flows of taxa between continents and geographical patterns and determinants of naturalization across different taxonomic groups. We intend the updated and expanded GloNAF version presented here to be a global resource useful for studying plant invasions and changes in biodiversity from regional to global scales. We release these data into the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero license waiver (https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/cc0/). When you use the data in your publication, we request that you cite this data paper. If GloNAF is a major part of the data analyzed in your study, you should consider inviting the GloNAF core team (see Metadata S1: Originators in the Overall project description) as collaborators. If you plan to use the GloNAF dataset, we encourage you to contact the GloNAF core team to check whether there have been recent updates of the dataset, and whether similar analyses are already ongoing.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(37): 9270-9275, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158167

RESUMO

One of the best-known general patterns in island biogeography is the species-isolation relationship (SIR), a decrease in the number of native species with increasing island isolation that is linked to lower rates of natural dispersal and colonization on remote oceanic islands. However, during recent centuries, the anthropogenic introduction of alien species has increasingly gained importance and altered the composition and richness of island species pools. We analyzed a large dataset for alien and native plants, ants, reptiles, mammals, and birds on 257 (sub) tropical islands, and showed that, except for birds, the number of naturalized alien species increases with isolation for all taxa, a pattern that is opposite to the negative SIR of native species. We argue that the reversal of the SIR for alien species is driven by an increase in island invasibility due to reduced diversity and increased ecological naiveté of native biota on the more remote islands.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Ilhas , Modelos Biológicos , Clima Tropical
20.
Ecol Lett ; 21(9): 1380-1389, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974602

RESUMO

Determining the factors associated with the naturalization of alien species is a central theme in ecology. Here, we tested the usefulness of a metric for quantifying Grime's seminal concept of adaptive strategies - competitors, stress-tolerators and ruderals (CSR) - to explain plant naturalizations worldwide. Using a global dataset of 3004 vascular plant species, and accounting for phylogenetic relatedness and species' native biomes, we assessed the associations between calculated C-, S- and R-scores and naturalization success for species exhibiting different life forms. Across different plant life forms, C-scores were positively and S-scores negatively associated with both the probability of naturalization and the number of regions where the species has naturalized. R-scores had positive effects on the probability of naturalization. These effects of the scores were, however, weak to absent for tree species. Our findings demonstrate the utility of CSR-score calculation to broadly represent, and potentially explain, the naturalization success of plant species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plantas , Ecologia , Filogenia
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