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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7074, 2024 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528132

RESUMO

The actual prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Malaysia is unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of DKD and its associated risk factors among T2D patients in Malaysia. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted using the year 2022 clinical audit dataset from the National Diabetes Registry. DKD was defined as albuminuria, a decreased glomerular filtration rate, or both. Among 80,360 patients, 62.2% were female, 68.4% were Malay, and the mean age was 61.4 years. A total of 56.7% (95% CI 56.4-57.1%) of patients were found to have DKD. Increasing age, male sex, Malay ethnicity, longer duration of diabetes, overweight, obesity, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic foot ulcer, nontraumatic lower-extremity amputation, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, insulin, higher numbers of antihypertensive agents, antiplatelet agents, poorer HbA1c control, higher systolic blood pressure, non-achievement of triglyceride target, and non-attainment of HDL-cholesterol goal were independent risk factors associated with DKD. Clinicians, program managers, and health policymakers should target modifiable factors to manage DKD and prevent its progression to end-stage kidney disease in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e16906, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361766

RESUMO

Background: School teachers may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), potentially affecting their work productivity. However, limited data exists on the impact of CVD on teachers' productivity in Malaysia. Our objectives were to assess work productivity loss (absenteeism and presenteeism) as well as to determine the associated annual monetary loss among school teachers who experienced incident CVD in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We adopted a nested case-control design within a cohort of school teachers. Working teachers from six states of Peninsular Malaysia, and had experienced incident CVD before a right-censored date (31st December 2021) were defined as cases. Incident CVD was operationally defined as the development of non-fatal acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke, congestive cardiac failure, deep vein thrombosis or peripheral arterial disease before the censored date. Controls were working teachers who did not acquire an incident CVD before the similar right-censored date. All controls were randomly selected, with a ratio of one case to four controls, from among the working teachers in one of the states in Peninsular Malaysia. We used a shortened version of the Malay-validated World Health Organization-Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) to estimate the workplace productivity effect among teachers with incident CVD (cases). The same questionnaire was distributed to teachers in a single state of Peninsular Malaysia who did not experience incident CVD (controls). Absenteeism, presenteeism and annual monetary loss were computed based on the scoring rules in the WHO-HPQ. Analysis of covariance was performed with covariate adjustment using propensity scores. The bootstrapping method was applied to obtain better estimates of marginal mean differences, along with standard errors (SE) and appropriate effect sizes. Results: We recruited 48 cases (baseline mean age = 42.4 years old, 54.2% females) and 192 randomly selected controls (baseline mean age = 36.2 years old, 99.0% females). The majority of the cases had ACS (73.9%). No significant difference was observed in absenteeism between cases and controls. The mean self-rated job performance score was lower for cases (7.63, SE = 0.21) compared to controls (8.60, SE = 0.10). Marginal mean scores of absolute presenteeism among cases (76.30) were lower (p < 0.05, eta squared = 0.075) than controls (85.97). The marginal mean annual cost of presenteeism was higher in cases (MYR 21,237.52) compared to controls (MYR 12,089.74) (p < 0.05, eta squared = 0.082). Conclusion: Absolute presenteeism was lower among school teachers who experienced incident CVD and the annual cost of presenteeism was substantial. Implementing supportive work strategies in school settings is recommended to increase absolute presenteeism, which can lead to a reduction in the annual cost of presenteeism among teachers experiencing incident CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Desempenho Profissional , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Malásia/epidemiologia , Professores Escolares , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles
3.
PeerJ ; 12: e16778, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38274329

RESUMO

Background: Teachers are responsible for educating future generations and therefore play an important role in a country's education system. Teachers constitute about 2.6% of all employees in Malaysia, making it one of the largest workforces in the country. While health and well-being are crucial to ensuring teachers' work performance, reports on non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian teachers are scarce. Hence, this study focused on the prevalence of T2DM, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and underlying lifestyle factors associated with these outcomes among Malaysian teachers. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study from the CLUSTer cohort. There were 14144 teachers from the Peninsular Malaysia included in this study. The teachers' sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics were described using a weighted complex analysis. A matched age group comparison was carried out between teachers and the Malaysian general population on T2DM, undiagnosed DM, and IFG status. Next, the researchers examined the association of lifestyle factors with T2DM and IFG using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of T2DM, undiagnosed DM, and IFG among the Malaysian teachers were 4.1%, 5.1%, and 5.6%, respectively. The proportions of teachers with T2DM (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) and the IFG increased linearly with age. Teachers had a lower weighted prevalence of T2DM (known and undiagnosed) than the general population. However, teachers were more inclined to have IFG than the general population, particularly those aged 45 years and older. Among all lifestyle indicators, only waist circumference (aOR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.20) was found to be associated with T2DM, whereas waist circumference (aOR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.15) and physical activity [moderately active = (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.98); highly active = (aOR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.80)] were associated with IFG. Conclusions: Modifiable lifestyle factors such as abdominal obesity and physical activity were associated with T2DM and IFG. Intervention programs targeting these factors could help reduce future treatment costs and increase productivity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Glicemia , Estilo de Vida , Jejum
4.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0292390, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37972052

RESUMO

Mobile diet apps assist in tracking nutritional intake and managing healthy eating diets. Effective diet apps incorporate specific population-tailored behavior change strategies (BCS) for user engagement and adherence to healthy diets. Malaysians have their unique behaviors and customs surrounding food and diet. This study aims to explore the perceptions, views, and experiences of healthy Malaysian adults with diet monitoring apps, by focusing on the BCS that engages users to use diet mobile apps and adhere to a healthy diet. A qualitative approach utilizing semi-structured in-depth interviews was conducted using a topic guide based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and trigger materials. Twenty interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Five themes emerged from the data, which are; instilling self-awareness, closed online group support, shaping knowledge, personalization, and user-friendly design. Influence by one's social circle and attractiveness of app features may initiate users' interest and help them engage with mobile diet apps, but the app's ability to raise awareness of progress and impart useful knowledge help them adhere and comply to a healthier diet in the long run. The results from this study may help improve the behavior change strategy features of mobile diet apps for Malaysian adults.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Humanos , Adulto , Dieta , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Alimentos
5.
Nutr Res ; 118: 41-51, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37562156

RESUMO

Diet is a modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that specific dietary patterns would increase/decrease pancreatic cancer risk. We evaluated the association of dietary patterns with pancreatic cancer risk in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Dietary patterns were assessed at enrollment using: (1) self-reported practice of vegan/vegetarian dietary habits, (2) diet quality indices (World Health Organization Healthy Diet Indicator and Mediterranean Diet Score), and (3) principal component analysis-derived dietary patterns. The association of dietary patterns with pancreatic cancer incidence was quantified using Cox regression survival analysis. Over a median follow-up of 19 years of 35,365 respondents, there were 136 incident cases of pancreatic cancer. No association between dietary habits/quality and pancreatic cancer incidence was evident after adjustments (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): self-reported omnivores vs vegan/vegetarian dietary habit: 1.13 (0.73-1.76); per-unit increase in World Health Organization Healthy Diet Indicator scores: 0.99 (0.91-1.09); per-unit increase in Mediterranean Diet Score: 0.92 (0.83-1.02). Similarly, no association of principal component analysis-derived dietary patterns with pancreatic cancer risk was evident ("prudent:" 1.02 [0.94-1.10]; ``meat-based:'' 1.00 [0.92-1.09]; ``fast-food, sugar-sweetened beverages, and carbohydrate-rich snacks:'' 0.96 [0.86-1.07]; ``cereal and dairy-rich:'' 1.04 [0.94-1.16], and ``low-diversity and lowfat:'' 1.00 [0.89-1.13]). In this prospective cohort of women, several major dietary patterns were of poor quality. There was no evidence of a prospective association between any of the dietary patterns explored and pancreatic cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Dieta , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia
6.
Digit Health ; 9: 20552076221149320, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36644664

RESUMO

Background: Diet monitoring has been linked with improved eating habits and positive health outcomes such as prevention of obesity. However, this is often unsustainable as traditional methods place a high burden on both participants and researchers through pen and paper recordings and manual nutrient coding respectively. The digitisation of dietary monitoring has greatly reduced these barriers. This paper proposes a diet application with a novel food recognition feature with a usability study conducted in the real world. Methods: This study describes the development of a mobile diet application (MyDietCam) targeted at healthy Malaysian adults. Focus group discussions (FGD) were carried out among dietitians and potential users to determine ideal features in a diet application. Thirty participants were recruited from a local university to log their meals through MyDietCam for six days and submit the Malay mHealth Application Usability Questionnaire (M-MAUQ) at the end of the study. Results: The findings from the FGD led to the implementation of the main features: individualised recommendations, food logging through food recognition to reduce steps for data entry and provide detailed nutrient analyses through visuals. An average overall usability score of 5.13 out of a maximum of seven was reported from the M-MAUQ which is considered acceptable. Conclusion: The development of a local (Malaysian) mobile diet application with acceptable usability may be helpful in sustaining the diet monitoring habit to improve health outcomes. Future work should focus on improving the issues raised before testing the effectiveness of the application for improving health outcomes.

7.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 69(6): 463-470, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171819

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) poses increased risks for non-communicable diseases, increasing all-cause mortality, disability, and healthcare costs. Beta-carotene as the major carotenoid is identified to play an important role in the pathophysiology of MetS. The present study aimed to investigate the association between serum beta-carotene levels with metabolic syndrome and metabolic risk factors among a cohort of teachers in Peninsular Malaysia. This cross-sectional study investigated a sub-sample of 645 serum samples which were randomly selected for beta-carotene determination. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and metabolic risk factors were measured following standard protocols. There were equal proportions of males and females, with majority Malays (69%) followed by the Chinese (24%) and Indians (6.5%). The prevalence of MetS was 24.8% with abnormal waist circumference and high blood pressure as the most commonly reported metabolic risk factors. The median serum beta-carotene was 5.15 (5.07) µmol/L. Serum beta-carotene in the lowest quartile (Q1) was found to be significantly associated with MetS (OR: 5.81; 95% CI: 2.96, 11.38) and metabolic risk factors, namely triglycerides (OR: 6.38; 95% CI: 3.04, 13.35), fasting blood sugar (OR: 3.32; 95% CI: 1.48, 7.43), HDL-cholesterol (OR: 2.88; 95% CI: 1.58, 5.26) and waist circumference (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.73, 5.01), after adjusted for potential confounders. In summary, participants with lower serum beta-carotene had higher odds for MetS and the above-mentioned metabolic risk factors.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , beta Caroteno , Malásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos , Prevalência , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
PeerJ ; 10: e13816, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317122

RESUMO

Background: Patients with diabetes have increased risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and their LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) has to be treated to target to prevent complications. We aim to determine the LDL-C trend and its predictors among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Malaysia. Methods: This was a retrospective open cohort study from 2013 to 2017 among T2D patients in public primary health care clinics in Negeri Sembilan state, Malaysia. Linear mixed-effects modelling was conducted to determine the LDL-C trend and its predictors. The LDL-C target for patients without CVD was <2.6 mmol/L, whereas <1.8 mmol/L was targeted for those with CVD. Results: Among 18,312 patients, there were more females (55.9%), adults ≥60 years (49.4%), Malays (64.7%), non-smokers (93.6%), and 45.3% had diabetes for <5 years. The overall LDL-C trend reduced by 6.8% from 2.96 to 2.76 mmol/L. In 2017, 16.8% (95% CI: 13.2-21.0) of patients without CVD and 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.8) of patients with CVD achieved their respective LDL-C targets. The predictors for a higher LDL-C trend were younger adults, Malay and Indian ethnicities, females, dyslipidemia, and diabetes treatment with lifestyle modification and insulin. Longer diabetes duration, obesity, hypertension, retinopathy, statin therapy, achievement of HbA1c target and achievement of BP target were independent predictors for a lower LDL-C trend. Conclusions: The LDL-C trend has improved, but there are still gaps between actual results and clinical targets. Interventions should be planned and targeted at the high-risk populations to control their LDL-C.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , LDL-Colesterol/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273364, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040960

RESUMO

Patients with COVID-19 usually recover and return to normal health, however some patients may have symptoms that last for weeks or even months after recovery. This persistent state of ill health is known as Long COVID if it continues for more than three months and are not explained by an alternative diagnosis. Long Covid has been overlooked, especially in the low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, we conducted an online survey among the COVID-19 survivors in the community to explore their Long COVID symptoms, factors associated with Long COVID and how Long COVID affected their work. A total of 732 COVID-19 survivors responded, with 56% were without or with mild symptoms during their acute COVID-19 conditions. One in five COVID-19 survivors reported of experiencing Long COVID. The most commonly reported symptoms were fatigue, brain fog, depression, anxiety and insomnia. Females had 58% higher odds (95% CI: 1.02, 2.45) of experiencing Long COVID. Patients with moderate and severe levels of acute COVID-19 symptoms had OR of 3.01 (95% CI: 1.21, 7.47) and 3.62 (95% CI: 1.31, 10.03) respectively for Long COVID. Recognition of Long COVID and its associated factors is important in planning prevention, rehabilitation, clinical management to improve recovery from COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda
10.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 31(5): e13577, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To overview the colonoscopy adherence in cascade screening of colorectal cancer (CRC) and evaluate potential influence of the initial tests based on an ecological evaluation. METHODS: The performance of the initial screening tests and adherence to subsequent colonoscopy were extracted from relevant studies published up to 16 October 2020. The age-standardised incidence (ASRi) of CRC in populations in the year of screening was derived from the Cancer Statistics. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-six observational studies and 60 experimental studies were identified. Most studies applied cascade screening with faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) as an initial test. The adherence to colonoscopy varied greatly across populations by continents, gross national income and type of initial tests, with a median (interquartile range) of 79.8% (63.1%-87.8%) in observational studies and 82.1% (66.7%-90.4%) in randomised trials. The adherence was positively correlated with the ASRi of CRC (r = 0.145, p = 0.023) and positive predictive value (PPV) of the initial tests (r = 0.206, p = 0.002) in observational studies and correlated with ASRi of CRC (r = 0.309, p = 0.002) and sensitivity of the initial tests (r = -0.704, p = 0.003) in experimental studies. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to colonoscopy varies greatly across populations and is related with performance of the initial tests, indicating the importance to select appropriate initial tests.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Sangue Oculto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(5): 524-536, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311377

RESUMO

Determining the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of secondary school teachers and its relationship with various factors will provide a basis for improving their quality of life and benefit society. To this end, this article endeavors to determine the factors associated with HRQoL among female secondary school teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study of 888 female secondary school teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. We used a self-reported questionnaire to collect data, and linear regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated between physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of HRQoL. Age, body mass index (BMI), symptoms of depression and anxiety, and reporting low back pain were significantly associated with PCS. Meanwhile, age, symptoms of depression, and resilience level were significantly associated with MCS. These findings will benefit workplaces in planning strategies and initiatives to improve HRQoL among female secondary school teachers in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Trop Doct ; 52(2): 325-330, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35098808

RESUMO

Nationally-representative evidence is limited on factors affecting uptake of cataract surgery in Malaysia. We found the prevalence of cataract among older persons to be 26.8%. The two most common barriers were 'need not felt' (43.5%) and 'fear of surgery or poor result' (16.2%). Reluctance for surgical intervention was greater outside the Central zone.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Catarata/complicações , Catarata/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
13.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 54(2): 143-150, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore how working women in metropolitan Malaysia make food decisions. DESIGN: A grounded theory approach and semistructured interviews. SETTING: A large university in metropolitan Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four female employees purposively recruited to vary in ethnicity, body mass index, age, and marital status via convenience sampling. PHENOMENON OF INTEREST: Perceptions of sociocultural influences on healthy eating behavior among working women. ANALYSIS: Researchers audio-recorded interviews and analyzed verbatim transcripts. RESULTS: Working women shared a desire to eat a healthier, more balanced diet by reducing processed food consumption through home-cooked meals. Participants described aspects of their living situations and cultural values about food that made it seem impossible to change their diets. Living with other people limited their ability to cook the food they wanted to eat. In addition, unspoken rules about communal eating in Malaysia, such as not refusing food and not wasting food, prevented working women from practicing healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In this population of working women in metropolitan Malaysia, experiences of time scarcity and limited sociocultural support for behavior change were major barriers to healthy eating. Interventions could prioritize leveraging these realities about food to facilitate environments in which women feel like they have control of their own food intake.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Culinária , Dieta Saudável , Fast Foods , Feminino , Humanos
14.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211029812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260295

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of all including university students. With the preventive measures to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, all face-to-face teaching and learning are converted to e-learning. The COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of e-learning may influence these students' mental conditions. This study aimed to determine the association of factors with mental health status (depression, anxiety and stress) among university students in Malaysia. Study participants were tertiary education students from both the private and public universities in Malaysia. Participants were recruited via university emails and social media. The survey was administered via the online REDCap platform, from April to June 2020, during the movement control order period in the country. The questionnaire captured data on socio-demographic characteristics, academic information, implementation of e-learning, perception towards e-learning and COVID-19; as well as DASS 21 to screen for depression, anxiety and stress. The levels of stress, anxiety and depression were 56.5% (95% CI: 50.7%, 62.1%), 51.3% (95% CI: 45.6%, 57.0%) and 29.4% (95% CI: 24.3%, 34.8%) respectively. Most participants had good perception towards e-learning but negative perception on COVID-19. From the multivariate analysis, participants with positive perception on COVID-19 were protective towards stress (aOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.99), anxiety (aOR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98) and depression (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). Older students were 14% (aOR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.94) and 11% (aOR: 0.89: 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) less likely for anxiety and depression, respectively. Students originated from the Malay ethnicity had higher odds (aOR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.56) for depression. These findings demonstrated that the mental status of university students was greatly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Timely and credible information should be disseminated to alleviate their negative perception towards COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Depressão/psicologia , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Percepção Social/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
15.
J Diabetes ; 13(11): 915-929, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe changes in body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin A1C, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol among type 2 diabetes patients in Malaysia. METHODS: A five-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the National Diabetes Registry. Type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥18 years and had ≥2 clinical audits between 2013 and 2017 were included in the analysis. The first audit information formed the baseline characteristics, and the last audit information was used for comparison. Individualized A1C, blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol goals were adapted from Malaysian Clinical Practice Guidelines on Type 2 Diabetes Management 2020, American Diabetes Association 2020, and European Association for the Study of Diabetes 2019. RESULTS: Of the 18 341 patients, 55.8% were female and 64.9% Malay ethnicity. The baseline mean age was 59.3 ± 10.6 years. During an average of 2.5 person-years of follow-up, the mean body mass index dropped by 0.16 kg/m2 to 27.9 kg/m2 , A1C increased by 0.16% to 8.0%, systolic blood pressure increased by 1.4 mm Hg to 136.2 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure decreased by 1.0 mm Hg to 77.3 mm Hg and LDL-cholesterol reduced by 0.12 mmol/L to 2.79 mmol/L, P < 0.001 for all. Out of eight categories of individualized goals, most patients achieved the A1C goal of ≤8.0%. The new LDL-cholesterol goal of <1.4 mmol/L was least likely to be achieved. CONCLUSIONS: The body mass index, A1C, blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol performance remained suboptimal. Standards of care for these clinical parameters remain to be achieved by the majority of diabetes patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801191

RESUMO

(1) Background: We studied the association of both conventional (BMI, waist and hip circumference and waist-hip ratio) and novel (UK clothing sizes) obesity indices with pancreatic cancer risk in the UK women's cohort study (UKWCS). (2) Methods: The UKWCS recruited 35,792 women from England, Wales and Scotland from 1995 to 1998. Cancer diagnosis and death information were obtained from the National Health Service (NHS) Central Register. Cox's proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between baseline obesity indicators and pancreatic cancer risk. (3) Results: This analysis included 35,364 participants with a median follow-up of 19.3 years. During the 654,566 person-years follow up, there were 136 incident pancreatic cancer cases. After adjustments for age, smoking, education and physical activity, each centimetre increase in hip circumference (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p = 0.009) and each size increase in skirt size (HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.23, p = 0.041) at baseline increased pancreatic cancer risk. Baseline BMI became a significant predictor of pancreatic cancer risk (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.08, p = 0.050) when latent pancreatic cancer cases were removed. Only baseline hip circumference was associated with pancreatic cancer risk (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05, p = 0.017) when participants with diabetes at baseline were excluded to control for reverse causality. (4) Conclusion: Hip circumference and skirt size were significant predictors of pancreatic cancer risk in the primary analysis. Thus, hip circumference is useful to assess body shape relationships. Additionally, standard skirt sizes offer an economical and objective alternative to conventional obesity indices for evaluating pancreatic cancer risk in women.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6803, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762665

RESUMO

Good control of glycosylated haemoglobin A1C in diabetes patients prevents cardiovascular complications. We aim to describe the A1C trend and determine the predictors of the trend among type 2 diabetes patients in Malaysia. Longitudinal data in the National Diabetes Registry from 2013 to 2017 were analysed using linear mixed-effects modelling. Among 17,592 patients, 56.3% were females, 64.9% Malays, and the baseline mean age was 59.1 years. The U-shaped A1C trend changed marginally from 7.89% in 2013 to 8.07% in 2017. The A1C excess of 1.07% as reported in 2017 represented about 22% higher risk of diabetes-related death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which are potentially preventable. The predictors for higher baseline A1C were non-Chinese ethnicity, younger age groups, longer diabetes duration, patients on insulin treatment, polypharmacy use, patients without hypertension, and patients who were not on antihypertensive agents. Younger age groups predicted a linear increase in the A1C trend, whereas patients on insulin treatment predicted a linear decrease in the A1C trend. Specifically, the younger adults and patients of Indian and Malay ethnicities had the poorest A1C trends. Targeted interventions should be directed at these high-risk groups to improve their A1C control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Lineares , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
OMICS ; 25(1): 52-59, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170085

RESUMO

This study reports on the attitudes and perceptions toward pharmacogenomics (PGx) and personalized medicine (PM) education among pharmacy and medical students in Malaysian health sciences. Importantly, the survey was developed through a codesign approach, with field pretesting/design with users before the actual survey, and based on collaboration between institutions in Greece and Malaysia. The study addressed eight key areas of interest to education in health sciences: (1) General awareness about genetics and PGx, (2) Attitude toward genetic testing usefulness, (3) Benefits of direct-to-consumer personal genome testing as a "diagnostic" tool, (4) Concerns (risks) about genetics, (5) Effectiveness of genetic testing in PM, (6) Benefits of PGx on disease management, (7) Benefits of PGx on drug management, and (8) Attitudes toward genetic testing public endorsement. We observed that Malaysian students appear aware of the term PGx, but there are areas of critical knowledge gap such as the need for greater familiarity with the concept of PGx implementation science, and the availability of genetic testing in clinical practice. This is one of the first studies on perceptions and attitudes toward PGx testing in Southeast Asia. The present findings provide a map of the views and perspectives of medicine and pharmacy students regarding PGx and implementation of PM in Malaysia and should assist toward facilitating the integration of genomics into the medical decision-making process. To this end, it is necessary to enhance collaboration between universities, health care institutions, and governing bodies to incorporate further training and additional education topics related to PGx and genetic testing. This is the first study that assesses the level of PGx and genomics knowledge of pharmacy and medicine students in Southeast Asia, Malaysia in particular, and thus paves the way to guide future global PGx implementation science.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação Médica , Percepção , Farmacogenética , Medicina de Precisão , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudantes de Farmácia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Testes Genéticos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Farmacogenética/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050612

RESUMO

The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is partly due to nutrition transition. The reported association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity has been controversial because of inconsistent results and weak observed associations. Although it has been hypothesized that an unhealthy diet can increase obesity risk, none of the previous studies have examined the dose-response association using nonlinear dose-response analyses. This study aimed to examine the dose-response association between major dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. This was a cross-sectional study involving teachers selected through stratified multistage sampling from public schools in three Malaysian states. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and two major dietary patterns (Western and Prudent diet) were extracted using factor analysis. Logistic regression followed by trend analysis was used to test the difference in odds of overweight and obesity in each quintile of diet score. A further analysis using restricted cubic spline models was performed to examine the dose-response associations of dietary patterns with odds of overweight/obesity. The logistic regression analysis showed that participants with the highest quintile of Western diet score were 1.4 times more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those in the lowest quintile (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83, p-trend < 0.001). The odds of overweight/obesity showed a significant increasing trend across quintiles of Western diet among both men and women (p-trend < 0.001). In the dose-response analysis, a positive linear association (Pnonlinearity = 0.6139) was observed where overweight/obesity was more likely to occur among participants with a Western diet score greater than a mean score of zero. There was an inverse trend of odds of overweight/obesity across quintiles of Prudent diet score, significant only for men (p for trend < 0.001). Linear association was found between Prudent diet score and odds of overweight/obesity among both men (Pnonlinearity = 0.6685) and women (Pnonlinearity = 0.3684) in the dose-response analysis. No threshold at the level of adherence to Prudent diet was linked to odds of overweight/obesity. Dose-response analysis indicated that women with a Western diet score greater than zero were more likely to be overweight or obese among women. In men, higher adherence to Western diet was associated with increased odds of overweight/obesity, while greater adherence to Prudent diet decreased the odds of overweight/obesity. Promoting and enhancing the consumption of Prudent diet and limit in Western diet may be used to guide the development of evidence-based diet interventions to curb overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240531, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical inertia can lead to poor glycemic control among type 2 diabetes patients. However, there is paucity of information on clinical inertia in low- and middle-income countries including Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the time to treatment intensification among T2D patients with HbA1c of ≥7% (≥53 mmol/mol) in Malaysian public health clinics. The proportion of patients with treatment intensification and its associated factors were also determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a five-year retrospective open cohort study using secondary data from the National Diabetes Registry. The study setting was all public health clinics (n = 47) in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Time to treatment intensification was defined as the number of years from the index year until the addition of another oral antidiabetic drug or initiation of insulin. Life table survival analysis based on best-worst case scenarios was used to determine the time to treatment intensification. Discrete-time proportional hazards model was fitted for the factors associated with treatment intensification. RESULTS: The mean follow-up duration was 2.6 (SD 1.1) years. Of 7,646 patients, the median time to treatment intensification was 1.29 years (15.5 months), 1.58 years (19.0 months) and 2.32 years (27.8 months) under the best-, average- and worst-case scenarios respectively. The proportion of patients with treatment intensification was 45.4% (95% CI: 44.2-46.5), of which 34.6% occurred only after one year. Younger adults, overweight, obesity, use of antiplatelet medications and poorer HbA1c were positively associated with treatment intensification. Patients treated with more oral antidiabetics were less likely to have treatment intensification. CONCLUSION: Clinical inertia is present in the management of T2D patients in Malaysian public health clinics. We recommend further studies in lower- and middle-income countries to explore its causes so that targeted strategies can be developed to address this issue.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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