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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 69: 102486, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370536

RESUMO

Background: Limited data exists on how early-life weight changes relate to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in midlife. This study examines the association between long-term trajectories of body mass index (BMI), its variability, and MetS risk in Chinese individuals. Methods: In the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension study (March 10, 1987-June 3, 2017), 1824 participants with at least five BMI measurements from 1987 to 2017 were included. Using group-based trajectory modeling, different BMI trajectories were identified. BMI variability was assessed through standard deviation (SD), variability independent of the mean (VIM), and average real variability (ARV). Logistic regression analyzed the relationship between BMI trajectory, BMI variability, and MetS occurrence in midlife (URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02734472). Findings: BMI trajectories were categorized as low-increasing (34.4%), moderate-increasing (51.8%), and high-increasing (13.8%). Compared to the low-increasing group, the odds ratios (ORs) [95% CIs] for MetS were significantly higher in moderate (4.27 [2.63-6.91]) and high-increasing groups (13.11 [6.30-27.31]) in fully adjusted models. Additionally, higher BMI variabilities were associated with increased MetS odds (ORs for SDBMI, VIMBMI, and ARVBMI: 2.30 [2.02-2.62], 1.22 [1.19-1.26], and 4.29 [3.38-5.45]). Furthermore, BMI trajectories from childhood to adolescence were predictive of midlife MetS, with ORs in moderate (1.49 [1.00-2.23]) and high-increasing groups (2.45 [1.22-4.91]). Lastly, elevated BMI variability in this period was also linked to higher MetS odds (ORs for SDBMI, VIMBMI, and ARVBMI: 1.24 [1.08-1.42], 1.00 [1.00-1.01], and 1.21 [1.05-1.38]). Interpretation: Our study suggests that both early-life BMI trajectories and BMI variability could be predictive of incident MetS in midlife. Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 82070437 (J.-J.M.), the Clinical Research Award of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University of China (No. XJTU1AF-CRF-2022-002, XJTU1AF2021CRF-021, and XJTU1AF-CRF-2023-004), the Key R&D Projects in Shaanxi Province (Grant No. 2023-ZDLSF-50), the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College (2017-CXGC03-2), and the International Joint Research Centre for Cardiovascular Precision Medicine of Shaanxi Province (2020GHJD-14).

2.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 26(1): 36-46, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010846

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported the role of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R), a member of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, encoded by the CHRM3 gene, in cardiac function and the regulation of blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of CHRM3 genetic variants with salt sensitivity, longitudinal BP changes, and the development of hypertension in a Chinese population. We conducted a chronic dietary salt intervention experiment in a previously established Chinese cohort to analyze salt sensitivity of BP. Additionally, a 14-year follow-up was conducted on all participants in the cohort to evaluate the associations of CHRM3 polymorphisms with longitudinal BP changes, as well as the incidence of hypertension. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10802811 within the CHRM3 gene displayed significant associations with low salt-induced changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), while rs373288072, rs114677844, and rs663148 exhibited significant associations with SBP and MAP responses to a high-salt diet. Furthermore, the SNP rs58359377 was associated with changes in SBP and pulse pressure (PP) over the course of 14 years. Additionally, the 14-year follow-up revealed a significant association between the rs619288 polymorphism and an increased risk of hypertension (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.06-2.87, p = .029). This study provides evidence that CHRM3 may have a role in salt sensitivity, BP progression, and the development of hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , China/epidemiologia , Receptor Muscarínico M3/genética
3.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 26(1): 71-83, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126623

RESUMO

Nocturnal hypertension is highly prevalent among Chinese and Asian populations, which is mainly attributed to high salt intake and high salt sensitivity. Nocturnal hypertension increases the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, independent of daytime blood pressure (BP). However, it can usually be detected by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, rather than routine office or home BP measurement, thus is often underdiagnosed in clinical practice. Currently, no specific guidance is available for the management of nocturnal hypertension in China or worldwide. Experts from the Chinese Hypertension League summarized the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic characteristics and clinical phenotype of nocturnal hypertension and provided consensus recommendations on optimal management of nocturnal hypertension, with the goal of maximally reducing the cardiovascular disease risks. In this consensus document, 24-h ABPM is recommended for screening and diagnosis of nocturnal hypertension, especially in the elderly, patients with diabetes, chronic kidney diseases, obstructive sleep apnea and other conditions prone to high nocturnal BP. Lifestyle modifications including salt intake restriction, exercise, weight loss, sleep improvement, and mental stress relief are recommended. Long-acting antihypertensive medications are preferred for nocturnal and 24-h BP control. Some newly developed agents, renal denervation, and other device-based therapy on nocturnal BP reduction are evaluated.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Humanos , Idoso , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Consenso , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial
4.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 25(12): 1096-1104, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966821

RESUMO

Normoalbuminuria has recently been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and vascular aging is proposed as the early manifestation of cardiovascular disease. Here, the authors aimed to examine the association of high-normal albuminuria and vascular aging in a Chinese cohort. From our previously established cohort, 1942 participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) <30 mg/g were enrolled. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400 cm/s and/or carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥0.9 mm were used as indicators of vascular aging. Multivariate regression and receiving operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to examine the relationship between continuous and categorical UACR with vascular aging. We found an average UACR value of 8.08 (5.45-12.52) mg/g in this study. BaPWV and CIMT demonstrated positive correlations with lg-UACR (p < .05). High-normal albuminuria (10-29 mg/g) was significantly associated with the presence of vascular aging after adjusting for multiple cardiovascular confounders (OR = 1.540, 95% CI = 1.203-1.972, p = .001). In addition, a lg-UACR cutoff point of 0.918 lg(mg/g) (equal to UACR of 8.285 mg/g) was significantly associated with the presence of vascular aging and its components for all participants and those without hypertension or diabetes and without medication (p < .05). Briefly, high-normal albuminuria was significantly associated with vascular aging in this sample of Chinese adults. These findings implied the warning of elevated UACR even within normal range in clinical practice and the importance of UACR screening in normoalbuminuria for early detection and prevention of cardiovascular disease in otherwise healthy participants.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Albuminúria/complicações , Creatinina , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Envelhecimento
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1164592, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37795361

RESUMO

Background and aims: Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. Here, we aimed to examine and compare the predictive values of three novel obesity indices, lipid accumulation product (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI), and triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, for cardiovascular subclinical organ damage. Methods: A total of 1,773 healthy individuals from the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study cohort were enrolled. Anthropometric, biochemical, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and Cornell voltage-duration product data were collected. Furthermore, the potential risk factors for subclinical organ damage were investigated, with particular emphasis on examining the predictive value of the LAP, VAI, and TyG index for detecting subclinical organ damage. Results: LAP, VAI, and TyG index exhibited a significant positive association with baPWV and uACR. However, only LAP and VAI were found to have a positive correlation with Cornell product. While the three indices did not show an association with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, higher values of LAP and TyG index were significantly associated with an increased risk of arterial stiffness and albuminuria. Furthermore, after dividing the population into quartiles, the fourth quartiles of LAP and TyG index showed a significant association with arterial stiffness and albuminuria when compared with the first quartiles, in both unadjusted and fully adjusted models. Additionally, the concordance index (C-index) values for LAP, VAI, and TyG index were reasonably high for arterial stiffness (0.856, 0.856, and 0.857, respectively) and albuminuria (0.739, 0.737, and 0.746, respectively). Lastly, the analyses of continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) demonstrated that the TyG index exhibited significantly higher predictive values for arterial stiffness and albuminuria compared with LAP and VAI. Conclusion: LAP, VAI, and, especially, TyG index demonstrated utility in screening cardiovascular subclinical organ damage among Chinese adults in this community-based sample. These indices have the potential to function as markers for early detection of cardiovascular disease in otherwise healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Produto da Acumulação Lipídica , Adulto , Humanos , Adiposidade , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , População do Leste Asiático , Glucose , Obesidade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Triglicerídeos
6.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 25(9): 868-879, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37602974

RESUMO

Sodium intake shows a positive correlation with blood pressure, resulting in an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Salt reduction is a key step toward the WHO's goal of 25% reduction in mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 2025. This study aims to assess the current condition and temporal changes of the global CVD burden due to high sodium intake (HSI). We extracted data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019. The numbers and age-standardized rates of mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), stratified by location, sex, and socio-demographic Index (SDI), were used to assess the high sodium intake attributable CVD burden from 1990 to 2019. The relationship between the DALYs rates and related factors was evaluated by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Globally, in 2019, the deaths and DALYs of HSI-related CVD were 1.72 million and 40.54 million, respectively, increasing by 41.08% and 33.06% from 1990. Meanwhile, the corresponding mortality and DALYs rates dropped by 35.1% and 35.2%, respectively. The high-middle and middle SDI quintiles bore almost two-thirds of CVD burden caused by HSI. And the leading cause of HSI attributable CVD burden was ischemic heart disease. Universal health coverage (UHC) was associated with the DALYs rates after adjustment. From 1990 to 2019, the global CVD burden attributable to HSI has declined with spatiotemporal and sexual heterogeneity. However, it remains a major public health challenge because of the increasing absolute numbers. Improving UHC serves as an effective strategy to reduce the HSI-related CVD burden.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Carga Global da Doença , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
7.
Hypertens Res ; 46(12): 2613-2621, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37553520

RESUMO

Hypertension is a pivotal factor in cardiovascular risk. However, the association of longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories in the early life and cardiovascular risk assessed by target organ damage (TOD) in adulthood is poorly reported. The objective of this study was to identify the association between systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean atrial pressure (MAP) trajectories early in life with a single or multiple TOD in later life. We identified BP trajectories from 6 to 45 year-old using group-based trajectory models among 2430 individuals in the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study and examined the relationship between BP trajectories and cardiovascular risk in later life. Four discrete long-term systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP trajectories were identified, namely, low stable, moderate stable, high stable (low increasing), and moderate increasing groups, based on the BP levels at baseline and in the 30-year follow-up. The carotid intima-media thickness were higher in persistently high or increasing trajectories in comparison to the low stable group. Individuals with deteriorative trajectories during early life were at an increased risk of suffering from a single TOD, including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and carotid atherosclerosis (CA) in middle age (36-49 years old). Moreover, higher BP trajectories were correlated with the presence of combined TODs load stage which were assessed by CA, LVH, arteriosclerosis and subclinical renal damage (SRD). Higher longitudinal BP trajectories early in life were associated with increased cardiovascular risk in midlife, and identifying BP trajectories in early life can help screen individuals with TOD later. LVH, left Ventricular Hypertrophy; CA, carotid atherosclerosis; SRD, subclinical renal damage; TOD, target organ damage.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Hipertensão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Fatores de Risco , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações
8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 23(1): 337, 2023 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37393236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid management with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of < 1.4 mmol/L is recommended for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) due to a high risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study evaluated the lipid-lowering treatment (LLT) pattern and the LDL-C goal attainment rate in this special population. METHODS: DM patients were screened from the observational Dyslipidemia International Study II-China study which assessed LDL-C goal attainment in Chinese ACS patients. The baseline characteristics between the LLT and no pre-LLT groups were compared. The proportions of patients obtaining LDL-C goal at admission and at 6-months, the difference from the goal, and the pattern of the LLT regimen were analyzed. RESULTS: Totally 252 eligible patients were included, with 28.6% taking LLT at admission. Patients in the LLT group were older, had a lower percentage of myocardial infarction, and had decreased levels of LDL-C and total cholesterol compared to those in the no pre-LLT group at baseline. The overall LDL-C goal attainment rate was 7.5% at admission and increased to 30.2% at 6 months. The mean difference between the actual LDL-C value and LDL-C goal value dropped from 1.27 mmol/L at baseline to 0.80 mmol/L at 6 months. At 6 months, 91.4% of the patients received statin monotherapy, and only 6.9% received a combination of statin and ezetimibe. The atorvastatin-equivalent daily statin dosage was moderate during the study period. CONCLUSION: The low rate of lipid goal attainment observed was in line with the outcomes of other DYSIS-China studies.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Diabetes Mellitus , Dislipidemias , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Humanos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , China/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Objetivos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico
9.
Hypertens Res ; 46(7): 1795-1803, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37160967

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lowers blood pressure (BP) and exert a salutary effect on the salt sensitivity of BP. This study aimed to examine the associations of SGLT2 genetic variants with salt sensitivity, longitudinal BP changes and the risk of incident hypertension in Baoji Salt-Sensitive Study. A total of 514 participants were recruited when the cohort was established in 2004, and 333 participants received a dietary intervention that consisted of a 3-day usual diet followed sequentially by a 7-day low-salt diet and a 7-day high-salt diet. The cohort was then followed up for 14 years to evaluate the longitudinal BP changes and development of hypertension. We found that SGLT2 SNP rs3813007 was significantly associated with the systolic BP (SBP) responses to the low-salt diet. Over the 14 years of follow-up, SNPs rs3116149 and rs3813008 were significantly associated with the longitudinal SBP changes, and SNPs rs3116149, rs3813008, rs3813007 in SGLT2 were significantly associated with incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, gene-based analyses revealed that SGLT2 was significantly associated with hypertension incidence. Our study suggests that SGLT2 genetic polymorphisms may be involved in salt sensitivity and development of hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , População do Leste Asiático , Hipertensão , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/genética
10.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 666, 2023 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37041564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Albuminuria is recognized as being a predictor of cardiovascular and renal disease. We aimed to identify the impact of the long-term burden and trends of systolic blood pressure on albuminuria in midlife, as well as to explore sex differences concerning this relationship. METHODS: This longitudinal study consisted of 1,683 adults who had been examined 4 or more times for blood pressure starting in childhood, with a follow-up time period of 30 years. The cumulative effect and longitudinal trend of blood pressure were identified by using the area under the curve (AUC) of individual systolic blood pressure measurement with a growth curve random effects model. RESULTS: Over 30 years of follow-up, 190 people developed albuminuria, including 53.2% males and 46.8% females (aged 43.39 ± 3.13 years in the latest follow-up). The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) values increased as the total and incremental AUC values increased. Additionally, women had a higher albuminuria incidence in the higher SBP AUC groups than men do (13.3% for men vs. 33.7% for women). Logistic regression showed that the ORs of albuminuria for males and females in the high total AUC group were 1.34 (0.70-2.60) and 2.94 (1.50-5.74), respectively. Similar associations were found in the incremental AUC groups. CONCLUSIONS: Higher cumulative SBP was correlated with higher uACR levels and a risk of albuminuria in middle age, especially in women. The identification and control of cumulative SBP levels from an early age may assist in reducing the incidences of renal and cardiovascular disease for individuals in later life.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Prospectivos , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Creatinina
11.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 23(1): 78, 2023 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37029402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The new visceral adiposity index (NVAI) was superior to previous obesity indices in predicting cardiovascular diseases among Asians. Nevertheless, the utility of the NVAI for predicting chronic kidney disease is still unclear. The objective of this research was to explore the relationship between the NVAI and subclinical renal damage (SRD) and to investigate whether the NVAI outperforms other common obesity indices in predicting SRD in the Chinese population. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study were from the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Cohort. The NVAI and seven other common obesity indices were calculated, including body mass index, waist circumference, lipid accumulation product, visceral adiposity index, Chinese visceral adiposity index, a body shape index and metabolic score for visceral fat. Logistic regression models revealed the association between NVAI and SRD. The odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to show the association between the two variables. The predictive power of eight obesity indices for SRD was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were also applied to compare the incremental predictive value for SRD of different obesity indices. RESULTS: The median age of the 2358 subjects was 42.00 years. Across NVAI tertiles, the prevalence of SRD was 7.25%, 11.21%, and 21.60%, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, a high level of NVAI remained a risk factor for SRD. The ORs of the middle and top NVAI tertiles for SRD were 1.920 (95% CI: 1.322, 2.787) and 4.129 (95% CI: 2.750, 6.202), respectively. The AUC of the NVAI was 0.666 (95% CI: 0.647, 0.685), which was significantly larger than the AUC of any of the other obesity indicators. Moreover, the NRI and IDI were significantly improved when NVAI was added to the basic model for predicting SRD. Among eight obesity indices, NVAI had the highest NRI (0.392; 95% CI: 0.280, 0.503), and its IDI (0.021; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.027) was second only to that of the body mass index (0.023; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: NVAI is independently and positively associated with SRD. Among the eight obesity indices, the NVAI shows the strongest predictive power for SRD in the Chinese population. The NVAI may be useful as an effective warning indicator of chronic kidney disease in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade Abdominal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Humanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , População do Leste Asiático , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Hypertension ; 80(5): 1057-1066, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36880389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular aging, as assessed by structural and functional arterial properties, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to explore the associations of individual cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to midlife and their accumulation over a 30-year span with vascular aging in midlife. METHODS: Using data from the ongoing cohort of Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension study, 2180 participants aged 6 to 18 years at baseline were followed for over 30 years. Distinct trajectories of systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index (BMI), and heart rate from childhood to midlife were identified by group-based trajectory modeling. Vascular aging was assessed by carotid intima media thickness or brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. RESULTS: We identified 4 distinct SBP trajectories, 3 distinct BMI trajectories, and 2 distinct heart rate trajectories from childhood to midlife. Persistently increasing SBP, high-increasing BMI, and high-stable heart rate were all shown to have a positive association with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in midlife. For carotid intima-media thickness, similar associations were observed for persistently increasing SBP and high-increasing body mass index. After further adjustment for SBP, body mass index and heart rate at the time of vascular assessment in 2017, associations were also observed for cardiovascular risk factor trajectories accumulation with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ß, 0.656 [95% CI, 0.265-1.047]) and with carotid intima media thickness (ß, 0.045 [95% CI, 0.011-0.079]) in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal exposure to individual cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to midlife and cardiovascular risk factor accumulation were associated with an increased risk of vascular aging in midlife. Our study lends support for early targeting of risk factors in order to prevent cardiovascular disease later in life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
13.
Lancet ; 401(10380): 928-938, 2023 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36871573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of a non-physician community health-care provider-led intensive blood pressure intervention on cardiovascular disease has not been established. We aimed to test the effectiveness of such an intervention compared with usual care on risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause death among individuals with hypertension. METHODS: In this open-label, blinded-endpoint, cluster-randomised trial, we recruited individuals aged at least 40 years with an untreated systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mm Hg (≥130 mm Hg and ≥80 mm Hg for those at high risk for cardiovascular disease or if currently taking antihypertensive medication). We randomly assigned (1:1) 326 villages to a non-physician community health-care provider-led intervention or usual care, stratified by provinces, counties, and townships. In the intervention group, trained non-physician community health-care providers initiated and titrated antihypertensive medications according to a simple stepped-care protocol to achieve a systolic blood pressure goal of less than 130 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure goal of less than 80 mm Hg with supervision from primary care physicians. They also delivered discounted or free antihypertensive medications and health coaching for patients. The primary effectiveness outcome was a composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure requiring hospitalisation, and cardiovascular disease death during the 36-month follow-up in the study participants. Safety was assessed every 6 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03527719. FINDINGS: Between May 8 and Nov 28, 2018, we enrolled 163 villages per group with 33 995 participants. Over 36 months, the net group difference in systolic blood pressure reduction was -23·1 mm Hg (95% CI -24·4 to -21·9; p<0·0001) and in diastolic blood pressure reduction, it was -9·9 mm Hg (-10·6 to -9·3; p<0·0001). Fewer patients in the intervention group than the usual care group had a primary outcome (1·62% vs 2·40% per year; hazard ratio [HR] 0·67, 95% CI 0·61-0·73; p<0·0001). Secondary outcomes were also reduced in the intervention group: myocardial infarction (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·60-0·98; p=0·037), stroke (0·66, 0·60-0·73; p<0·0001), heart failure (0·58, 0·42-0·81; p=0·0016), cardiovascular disease death (0·70, 0·58-0·83; p<0·0001), and all-cause death (0·85, 0·76-0·95; p=0·0037). The risk reduction of the primary outcome was consistent across subgroups of age, sex, education, antihypertensive medication use, and baseline cardiovascular disease risk. Hypotension was higher in the intervention than in the usual care group (1·75% vs 0·89%; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: The non-physician community health-care provider-led intensive blood pressure intervention is effective in reducing cardiovascular disease and death. FUNDING: The Ministry of Science and Technology of China and the Science and Technology Program of Liaoning Province, China.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Hipotensão , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Pressão Sanguínea , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Saúde Pública , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipotensão/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico
14.
J Nutr Biochem ; 115: 109281, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36758838

RESUMO

Transient high salt intake causes a sustained increase in blood pressure (BP) even after returning to a normal-salt diet, a phenomenon known as "salt memory." However, the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) or high-salt diet and treated with drugs for 8 to 16 weeks and then returned to a normal-salt diet for 3 months. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of salt memory and its mediation of SS hypertension and renal damage. We show that transient high salt intake caused persistent elevation of BP and exacerbation of kidney damage in Dahl SS rats even after returning to a normal-salt diet. Both epigenetic changes and inflammatory activation also persisted after resumption of a normal diet. Arterial BP, renal injury and the inflammatory response returned to normal levels in rats administered mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) during the 8-week period of high salt intake, resulting in the disappearance of salt memory. However, the vasodilator hydralazine did not ameliorate kidney damage or inflammatory activation, although it decreased BP to control levels. Transient high salt intake increased histone 3 lysine 4 monomethylation (H3K4me1) levels at the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) subunit p65 promoter in SS rats, promoting p65 gene transcription and NF-κB activation and further leading to a series of inflammatory responses. Our findings demonstrate that transient high salt-induced epigenetic changes and persistent inflammatory activation play important roles in salt memory and its mediation of SS hypertension and renal damage.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Nefropatias , Ratos , Animais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , NF-kappa B , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl , Rim , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Sanguínea
15.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 10(2)2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36829751

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a noninvasive, economical and effective subclinical renal damage (SRD) risk assessment tool to identify high-risk asymptomatic people from a large-scale population and improve current clinical SRD screening strategies. Based on the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Cohort, SRD-associated variables were identified and the SRD risk assessment score model was established and further validated with machine learning algorithms. Longitudinal follow-up data were used to identify child-to-adult SRD risk score trajectories and to investigate the relationship between different trajectory groups and the incidence of SRD in middle age. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index were identified as SRD-associated variables. Based on these three variables, an SRD risk assessment score was developed, with excellent classification ability (AUC value of ROC curve: 0.778 for SRD estimation, 0.729 for 4-year SRD risk prediction), calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test p = 0.62 for SRD estimation, p = 0.34 for 4-year SRD risk prediction) and more potential clinical benefits. In addition, three child-to-adult SRD risk assessment score trajectories were identified: increasing, increasing-stable and stable. Further difference analysis and logistic regression analysis showed that these SRD risk assessment score trajectories were highly associated with the incidence of SRD in middle age. In brief, we constructed a novel and noninvasive SRD risk assessment tool with excellent performance to help identify high-risk asymptomatic people from a large-scale population and assist in SRD screening.

16.
Hypertens Res ; 46(2): 321-329, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280736

RESUMO

The joint effect of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) on cardiovascular disease is unclear. Rate pressure product (RPP), the product of systolic BP and HR, is assessed in this study. This study aimed to determine the longitudinal patterns of RPP from childhood to adulthood and to explore the relationship between RPP trajectories in early life and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in midlife. We included individuals with 3 or more RPP values from 7 visits over a 30-year follow-up period in the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study cohort to fit trajectory groups and performed logistic regression to evaluate the relative risk of developing LVH. Three discrete trajectories in RPP were identified among 2412 participants assessed from childhood to middle-aged adulthood, which were tagged as "low stable," "moderate stable," and "moderate increasing". A higher waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia were associated with increased RPP trajectories. The Cornell voltage product was positively correlated with RPP in 2017 and was higher in the moderate-stable and moderate-increasing groups than in the low-stable group in RPP trajectories. Compared with the low-stable group, the ORs of LVH were 1.65 (1.13, 2.92) for the moderate-stable and 3.56 (2.26, 5.44) for the moderate-increasing group. Subjects with moderate-stable and moderate-increasing trajectories showed higher probabilities of LVH at an elderly age than those in the low stable trajectory group even after adjusting for multiple cardiovascular risk factors. RPP trajectories are identifiable from childhood and are associated with LVH in midlife. Monitoring RPP trajectories from early life may be an effective approach to predict cardiovascular health status later in life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia
17.
Hypertens Res ; 45(11): 1690-1700, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104623

RESUMO

Masked hypertension is difficult to identify and is associated with adverse outcomes. How and to what extent masked hypertension is related to overweight and obesity remain unclear. In participants with a clinic blood pressure (BP) < 140/90 mmHg enrolled in a nationwide prospective registry in China, we performed ambulatory and home BP measurements and defined masked hypertension and masked uncontrolled hypertension as an elevated 24-h (≥130/80 mmHg), daytime (≥135/85 mmHg) or nighttime ambulatory BP (≥120/70 mmHg) or an elevated home BP (≥135/85 mmHg). Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index of 25.0-29.9 and ≥30.0 kg/m2, respectively. The 2838 participants had a mean (±SD) age of 54.9 ± 13.6 years and included 1286 (45.3%) men and 1065 (37.5%) and 173 (6.1%) patients with overweight and obesity, respectively. Multiple stepwise regression analyses identified that body mass index was significantly (P ≤ 0.006) associated with the prevalence of masked ambulatory and home hypertension in treated (n = 1694, 58.6% and 42.1%, respectively) but not untreated participants (n = 1144, 55.7% and 29.5%, respectively). In categorical analyses, significant associations were observed with overweight and obesity for the prevalence of masked uncontrolled ambulatory and home hypertension (P ≤ 0.02) but not masked ambulatory or home hypertension (P ≥ 0.08). The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for overweight and obesity relative to normal weight were 1.56 (1.27-1.92) and 1.34 (1.09-1.65) for masked uncontrolled ambulatory and home hypertension, respectively. In conclusion, overweight and obesity were associated with a higher prevalence of masked uncontrolled hypertension, indicating that clinic BP might overestimate antihypertensive treatment effects in patients with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Hipertensão Mascarada , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Hipertensão Mascarada/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Mascarada/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Mascarada/complicações , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Prevalência , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema de Registros , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia
18.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 24(10): 1381-1389, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36039789

RESUMO

Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 4-like (NEDD4L), a member of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, encoded by NEDD4L gene, was found to be involved in in salt sensitivity by regulating sodium reabsorption in salt-sensitive rats. The authors aimed to explore the associations of NEDD4L genetic variants with salt sensitivity, blood pressure (BP) changes and hypertension incidence in Chinese adults. Participants from 124 families in Northern China in the Baoji Salt-Sensitive Study Cohort in 2004, who received the chronic salt intake intervention, including a 7-day low-salt diet (3.0 g/day) and a 7-day high-salt diet (18 g/day), were analyzed. Besides, the development of hypertension over 14 years was evaluated. NEDD4L single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs74408486 was shown to be significantly associated with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to low-salt diet, while SNPs rs292449 and rs2288775 were significantly associated with pulse pressure (PP) response to high-salt diet. In addition, SNP rs4149605, rs73450471, and rs482805 were significantly associated with the longitudinal changes in SBP, DBP, MAP, or PP at 14 years of follow-up. SNP rs292449 was significantly associated with hypertension incidence over the 14-year follow-up. Finally, this gene-based analysis found that NEDD4L was significantly associated with longitudinal BP changes and the incidence of hypertension over the 14-year follow-up. This study indicated that gene polymorphism in NEDD4L serve an important function in salt sensitivity, longitudinal BP change and development of hypertension in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4 , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , China/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/genética
19.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 894426, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35845038

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to identify the subgroups of individuals sharing similar blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to youth and explore the associations of these trajectories with arterial stiffness in adulthood. Methods: A group-based trajectory model was used to identify BP trajectories among 2,082 individuals in the Hanzhong adolescent hypertension cohort by using BP values repeatedly measured at four visits from childhood (6-15 years) to youth (14-23 years). The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was examined 30 years after the baseline survey. Mixed linear regression models were used to examine the associations of these trajectories with adult baPWV. Results: Among the 2,082 individuals, three trajectory groups of systolic BP were identified as follows: the low-level group (n = 889), medium-level group (n = 1,021), and high-level group (n = 172). The baPWV in adulthood was higher in medium-level and high-level groups compared with the low-level group (1271.4 ± 224.7 cm/s, 1366.1 ± 249.8 cm/s vs. 1190.1 ± 220.3 cm/s, all p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the association between baPWV and systolic BP trajectories was statistically significant (adjusted ß = 49.4 cm/s; p < 0.001 for the medium-level group and ß = 107.6 cm/s; p < 0.001 for the high-level group compared with the low-level group). Similar results were obtained for the association of baPWV with the trajectories of diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP), except for pulse pressure. Conclusion: Our investigation demonstrates different BP trajectories from childhood to youth and shows the trajectories of systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP are significant predictors of arterial stiffness in adulthood.

20.
J Hypertens ; 40(8): 1556-1563, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the association of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in childhood with adult cardiovascular risk are scarce. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of IDH in adolescents and to explore the impact of IDH in childhood on adult subclinical target organ damage (STOD). METHODS: This longitudinal study consisted of 1738 school children (55.4% boys) aged 6-15 years from rural areas of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, who were followed for 30 years. Their blood pressure was recorded to define the hypertension subtypes: normotension, IDH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and mixed hypertension. Tracked STOD included arterial stiffness ( n  = 1738), albuminuria ( n  = 1652) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) ( n  = 1429). RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of IDH, ISH and mixed hypertension was 5.4, 2.2 and 3%, respectively, and there was no gender difference. Over 30 years, 366 (21.1%) of participants developed arterial stiffness, 170 (10.3%) developed albuminuria and 68 (4.8%) developed LVH. Compared with normotensive participants, IDH in childhood had higher risk ratio (RR) of experiencing arterial stiffness (RR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.76) and albuminuria (RR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.35-4.16) in adults after being fully adjusted but not LVH. However, if the elevated blood pressure in children was used as the reference standard, IDH in childhood was associated with adult LVH (RR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.28-4.84). CONCLUSION: IDH accounts for a higher proportion of adolescent hypertension subtypes and can increase the risk of adult STOD. These results highlight the necessity of improving the prevention, detection and treatment of IDH in adolescents.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Hipertensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Albuminúria/complicações , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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