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1.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 27(4): e26229, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604993

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Following HIV testing services (HTS), the World Health Organization recommends prompt linkage to prevention and treatment. Scale-up of effective linkage strategies is essential to achieving the global 95-95-95 goals for maintaining low HIV incidence by 2030 and reducing HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Whereas linkage to care including same-day antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for all people with HIV is now routinely implemented in testing programmes, linkage to HIV prevention interventions including behavioural or biomedical strategies, for HIV-negative individuals remains sub-optimal. This review aims to evaluate effective post-HTS linkage strategies for HIV overall, and highlight gaps specifically in linkage to prevention. METHODS: Using the five-step Arksey and O'Malley framework, we conducted a scoping review searching existing published and grey literature. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science and EMBASE databases for English-language studies published between 1 January 2010 and 30 November 2023. Linkage interventions included as streamlined interventions-involving same-day HIV testing, ART initiation and point-of-care CD4 cell count/viral load, case management-involving linkage coordinators developing personalized HIV care and risk reduction plans, incentives-financial and non-financial, partner services-including contact tracing, virtual-like social media, quality improvement-like use of score cards, and peer-based interventions. Outcomes of interest were linkage to any form of HIV prevention and/or care including ART initiation. RESULTS: Of 2358 articles screened, 66 research studies met the inclusion criteria. Only nine linkage to prevention studies were identified (n = 9/66, 14%)-involving pre-exposure prophylaxis, voluntary medical male circumcision, sexually transmitted infection and cervical cancer screening. Linkage to care studies (n = 57/66, 86%) focused on streamlined interventions in the general population and on case management among key populations. DISCUSSION: Despite a wide range of HIV prevention interventions available, there was a dearth of literature on HIV prevention programmes and on the use of messaging on treatment as prevention strategy. Linkage to care studies were comparatively numerous except those evaluating virtual interventions, incentives and quality improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The findings give insights into linkage strategies but more understanding of how to provide these effectively for maximum prevention impact is needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Motivação
2.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; : 105669, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599355

RESUMO

The effectiveness of universal preventive approaches in reducing the incidence of affective/psychotic disorders is unclear. We therefore aimed to synthesise the available evidence from randomised controlled trials. For studies reporting change in prevalence, we simulated all possible scenarios for the proportion of individuals with the disorder at baseline and at follow-up to exclude them. We then combined these data with studies directly measuring incidence and conducted random effects meta-analysis with relative risk (RR) to estimate the incidence in the intervention group compared to the control group. Eighteen studies (k=21 samples) were included investigating the universal prevention of depression in 66,625 individuals. No studies were available investigating universal prevention on the incidence of bipolar/psychotic disorders. 63% of simulated scenarios showed a significant preventive effect on reducing the incidence of depression (k=9-19, RR=0.75-0.94, 95%CIs=0.55-0.87,0.93-1.15, p=0.007-0.246) but did not survive sensitivity analyses. There is some limited evidence for the effectiveness of universal interventions for reducing the incidence of depression but not for bipolar/psychotic disorders.

3.
J Fluoresc ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625574

RESUMO

Folic acid (FA) is a water-soluble vitamin found in diverse natural sources and is crucial for preserving human health. The risk of health issues due to FA deficiency underscores the need for a straightforward and sensitive FA detection methodology. Carbon dots (CDs) have gained significant attention owing to their exceptional fluorescence performance, biocompatibility, and easy accessibility. Consequently, numerous research studies have concentrated on developing advanced CD fluorescent probes to enable swift and precise FA detection. Despite these efforts, there is still a requirement for a thorough overview of the efficient synthesis of CDs and their practical applications in FA detection to further promote the widespread use of CDs. This review paper focuses on the practical applications of CD sensors for FA detection. It begins with an in-depth introduction to FA and CDs. Following that, based on various synthetic approaches, the prepared CDs are classified into diverse detection methods, such as single sensing, visual detection, and electrochemical methods. Furthermore, persistent challenges and potential avenues are highlighted for future research to provide valuable insights into crafting effective CDs and detecting FA.

4.
Am J Stem Cells ; 13(1): 27-36, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In regenerative biology, the most commonly used cells are adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs). This is due to the abundance and easy accessibility of AD-MSCs. METHODS: In this study, canine AD-MSCs were harvested from different anatomical locations, i.e., subcutaneous (SC), omental (OM), and perirenal (PR). Various isolation techniques namely explants (TRT-I), collagenase-digestion (TRT-II), collagenase-digested explants (TRT-III), and trypsin-digested explants (TRT-IV) were used to segregate the MSCs to evaluate cell doubling time, viability, and adipogenic/osteogenic lineage differentiation potential. RESULTS: The study showed that the SC stem cells had superior growth kinetics compared to other tissues, while the cells isolated through TRT-II performed better than the other cell isolation procedures. The metabolic status of cells isolated from dog adipose tissue indicated that all cells had adequate metabolic rates. However, SC-MSCs derived from TRT-III and TRT-IV outperformed those derived from TRT-I and TRT-II. The differentiation analysis revealed that cells differentiate into adipogenic and osteogenic lineage regardless of treatment, as demonstrated by positive oil red O (ORO) and Alizarin Red S (ALZ) stain. It is worth mentioning that cells derived from TRT-III had larger and more intracellular droplets compared to the other treatments. The TRT-I, -II, and -III showed greater osteogenic differentiation in cells isolated from PR and OM regions compared to SC-derived cells. However, the TRT-IV resulted in better osteogenic differentiation in cells from SC, followed by the OM and PR-derived cells. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that all methods of MSCs isolation from adipose tissues are successful; however, the TRT-II had the highest rate of cell re-assortment from the SC, while, TRT-II and -IV are most suitable for isolating cells from PR and OM adipose tissue.

5.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54362, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500936

RESUMO

Ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS) are used to manage hydrocephalus but suffer from high failure rates. Our objectives were to (1) conduct a meta-analysis to objectively weigh this conflicting evidence, and (2) conduct a systematic review compiling and synthesizing what is known about the association between CSF proteins and shunt failure. A literature search was performed in compliance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Embase, PubMed, and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to June 2023. The articles were screened based on the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was conducted using R statistical software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria); heterogeneity, subgroup, sensitivity, risk of bias, and publication bias analyses were performed. Thirty-one studies were selected for the systematic review, of which eight were selected for the meta-analysis. Perioperative CSF protein level was compared between 351 shunt failures and 1,094 shunt survivals; the mean difference of 24.37 mg/dL favoring shunt failure was significant (95% confidence interval=2.44-46.29 mg/dL). Our systematic review yielded a hypothesized pathogenesis: proteins attached to imperfections in the shunt surface lead to secondary attachment of cells, particularly astrocytes, and tertiary attachment of ependymal cells and the choroid plexus. Owing to the limitations of this meta-analysis, including lack of robustness due to missing data, heterogeneity, and certainty of the evidence, future research is needed to better understand the relationship between perioperative CSF protein levels and shunt failure.

6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2017, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443376

RESUMO

HIV-1 infection elevates the risk of developing various cancers, including T-cell lymphoma. Whether HIV-1-encoded proteins directly contribute to oncogenesis remains unknown. We observe that approximately 1-5% of CD4+ T cells from the blood of people living with HIV-1 exhibit over-duplicated centrioles, suggesting that centrosome amplification underlies the development of HIV-1-associated cancers by driving aneuploidy. Through affinity purification, biochemical, and cellular analyses, we discover that Vpr, an accessory protein of HIV-1, hijacks the centriole duplication machinery and induces centrosome amplification and aneuploidy. Mechanistically, Vpr forms a cooperative ternary complex with an E3 ligase subunit, VprBP, and polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4). Unexpectedly, however, the complex enhances Plk4's functionality by promoting its relocalization to the procentriole assembly and induces centrosome amplification. Loss of either Vpr's C-terminal 17 residues or VprBP acidic region, the two elements required for binding to Plk4 cryptic polo-box, abrogates Vpr's capacity to induce these events. Furthermore, HIV-1 WT, but not its Vpr mutant, induces multiple centrosomes and aneuploidy in human primary CD4+ T cells. We propose that the Vpr•VprBP•Plk4 complex serves as a molecular link that connects HIV-1 infection to oncogenesis and that inhibiting the Vpr C-terminal motif may reduce the occurrence of HIV-1-associated cancers.


Assuntos
HIV-1 , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Centrossomo , Carcinogênese , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Aneuploidia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos
7.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54394, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the head and neck region. Particularly, high incidence rates are observed in South and Southeast Asia, attributed to the widespread use of the carcinogenic areca nut. This study aimed to investigate the clinical, epidemiological, and histopathological features of OSCC, identify prognostic factors impacting disease-free survival, and determine a post-diagnosis disease-free survival time of OSCC patients. METHODOLOGY: Employing a descriptive cross-sectional design, the study conducted a thorough examination of the clinical, epidemiological, and histopathological aspects of OSCC among patients seeking care at a tertiary healthcare facility. Participants were personally interviewed if available, while information for unreachable or deceased individuals was extracted from archival patient records in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Bakhtawar Amin Medical and Dental College, Multan, Pakistan. Data analysis was performed with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 54.16 ± 11.1, with a notable concentration in the 41 years and above age group, indicating a significant prevalence of OSCC in this population. The data revealed a gender bias toward males, and a substantial proportion of patients, particularly those aged 41 years and above, had unfortunately passed away. Statistical analysis using the Fisher exact test showed a significant association between age groups and patients' current living status (p-value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Histopathologically, moderately differentiated OSCC was the most frequently encountered grade, and surgery emerged as the predominant treatment modality. The majority of patients studied had a survival period of three years or less, emphasizing the need for further exploration of factors influencing prognosis and treatment outcomes in OSCC.

8.
Environ Res ; 251(Pt 1): 118562, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447605

RESUMO

Increased levels of heavy metals (HMs) in aquatic environments poses serious health and ecological concerns. Hence, several approaches have been proposed to eliminate/reduce the levels of HMs before the discharge/reuse of HMs-contaminated waters. Adsorption is one of the most attractive processes for water decontamination; however, the efficiency of this process greatly depends on the choice of adsorbent. Therefore, the key aim of this article is to review the progress in the development and application of different classes of conventional and emerging adsorbents for the abatement of HMs from contaminated waters. Adsorbents that are based on activated carbon, natural materials, microbial, clay minerals, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), nano-zerovalent iron (nZVI), graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs), and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are critically reviewed, with more emphasis on the last four adsorbents and their nanocomposites since they have the potential to significantly boost the HMs removal efficiency from contaminated waters. Furthermore, the optimal process conditions to achieve efficient performance are discussed. Additionally, adsorption isotherm, kinetics, thermodynamics, mechanisms, and effects of varying adsorption process parameters have been introduced. Moreover, heavy metal removal driven by other processes such as oxidation, reduction, and precipitation that might concurrently occur in parallel with adsorption have been reviewed. The application of adsorption for the treatment of real wastewater has been also reviewed. Finally, challenges, limitations and potential areas for improvements in the adsorptive removal of HMs from contaminated waters are identified and discussed. Thus, this article serves as a comprehensive reference for the recent developments in the field of adsorptive removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The proposed future research work at the end of this review could help in addressing some of the key limitations facing this technology, and create a platform for boosting the efficiency of the adsorptive removal of heavy metals.

9.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2178, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467639

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1/L1 have modest efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma as single agents. Targeting membranous phosphatidylserine may induce pro-inflammatory and -immune stimulating effects that enhance immunotherapy activity. This hypothesis was tested in a single-arm phase 2 trial evaluating frontline bavituximab, a phosphatidylserine targeting antibody, plus pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (NCT03519997). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate among evaluable patients, and secondary end points included progression-free survival, incidence of adverse events, overall survival, and duration of response. Among 28 evaluable patients, the confirmed response rate was 32.1%, which met the pre-specified endpoint, and the median progression-free survival was 6.3 months (95% CI, 1.3-11.3 months). Treatment related-adverse events of any grade occurred in 45.7% of patients, with grade 3 or greater adverse events in 14.3% of patients. Adverse events of any cause were observed in 33 patients (94.3%), with grade 3 or greater adverse events in 11 patients (31.4%). Prespecified exploratory analyses of baseline tumor specimens showed that a depletion of B cells, and the presence of fibrotic tissue and expression of immune checkpoints in stroma was associated with tumor response. These results suggest that targeting phosphatidylserine may lead to synergistic effects with PD-1 blockade without increasing toxicity rates, and future studies on this therapeutic strategy may be guided by biomarkers characterizing the pre-treatment tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Fosfatidilserinas , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Microambiente Tumoral
10.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54499, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to compare the success rate, duration, and incidence of complications of a right internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation by using three different techniques. METHODOLOGY: A randomised controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 201 patients were randomly allocated to one of the following three groups (67 in each group). Techniques were categorised as anatomical landmark technique group (Group ALT), ultrasound guided pre-location group (Group USG-Pre), and real-time ultrasound-guided technique group (Group USG-RT). INTERVENTIONS: Central venous catheter insertion via three techniques. RESULTS: In 138 (73.01%) patients' IJV canulated in the first attempt, USG-RT, USG-Pre, and ALT were 51 (83.6%), 44 (72.1%), and 43 (64.2%), respectively. On the other hand, 37 (19.57%) patients were required in the second attempt, while only 14 (7.40%) patients were required in the third attempt for successful IJV cannulation. The success rates, as defined in our study, were only 138 (73%) as, in 51 (27%), we cannulated in more than a single attempt or switched to another technique. We found a significant difference in preparation time in all techniques as P-value <0.05, but no significant difference was found in venous access time, cannulation time, and duration of the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Any technique can be used for IJV cannulation, but the most acceptable is the real-time US technique. However, no difference in the overall procedure time among all three techniques was noted, and no major incidence of complication was found.

11.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54951, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544611

RESUMO

Introduction The transperineal (TP) approach for prostate biopsy offers advantages such as a low risk of infection, the ability to target lesions in difficult locations, and a rapid acquisition of proficiency. This prospective clinical audit aims to evaluate the outcomes and patient experiences of TP prostate biopsies performed by a new operator to determine the feasibility of adopting the TP biopsy as the primary method for prostate evaluations. Methods The study included all patients who underwent a TP prostate biopsy from August 1 to September 30, 2022, at Dorset County Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust. The operator, a member of the urology team, had recently begun performing these biopsies independently after completing a four-month supervised training program and receiving approval from two consulting trainers. The biopsy technique was evaluated based on diagnostic yield and patient experience, comparing pre-procedure imaging results with histology reports and analyzing patient-completed questionnaires. Results Among the 42 patients, the cancer detection rate was 79%. The highest core positivity rate was 100% in two patients (5%), with 90% in 11 patients (26%). Of the patients, 57% showed complete agreement between magnetic resonance imaging findings and histology. A questionnaire assessing patient experience received a 64% response rate. The most common pain score reported was 2 (on a scale of 0-10), noted in 25% of patients. Most reported mild lower urinary tract symptoms (88%) and mild hematuria (85%). Of the patients, 44% rated their overall satisfaction as 10 (on a scale of 0-10), and no urinary tract infections were reported. Conclusion The findings support the adoption of TP biopsy as the primary method for prostate biopsies due to its short learning curve, high diagnostic yield, and favorable patient satisfaction. Training for new operators should be encouraged to achieve this goal.

12.
Small ; : e2400278, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552247

RESUMO

Developing a highly efficient electrochromic energy storage device with sufficient color fluctuation and significant electrochemical performance is highly desirable for practical energy-saving applications. Here, to achieve a highly stable material with a large electrochemical storage capacity, a W18O49 NW/Ti3C2Tx composite has been fabricated and deposited on a pre-assembled Ag and W18O49 NW conductive network by Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The resulting hybrid electrode composed of 15 layers of W18O49 NW/Ti3C2Tx composite exhibits an areal capacitance of 125 mF cm-2, with a fast and reversible switching response. An optical modulation of 98.2% can be maintained at a current density of 5 mA cm-2. Using this electrode, a bifunctional symmetric electrochromic supercapacitor device having an energy density of 10.26 µWh cm-2 and a power density of 0.605 mW cm-2 is fabricated, with high capacity retention and full columbic efficiency over 4000 charge-discharge cycles. Meanwhile, the device displays remarkable electrochromic characteristics, including fast switching time (5 s for coloring and 7 s for bleaching), and a significant coloration efficiency of 116 cm2 C-1 with good optical modulation stability. In addition, the device exhibits significant mechanical flexibility and fast switching while being stable over 100 bending cycles, which is promising for real-world applications.

14.
J Anim Sci ; 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38545844

RESUMO

Many animal species exhibit sex-limited traits, where certain phenotypes are exclusively expressed in one sex. Yet, the genomic regions that contribute to these sex-limited traits in males and females remain a subject of debate. Reproductive traits are ideal phenotypes to study sexual differences since they are mostly expressed in a sex-limited way. Therefore, this study aims to use local correlation analyses to identify genomic regions and biological pathways significantly associated with male and female sex-limited traits in two distinct cattle breeds (Brahman (BB) and Tropical Composite (TC)). We used the Correlation Scan method to perform local correlation analysis on 42 trait pairs consisting of six female and seven male reproductive traits recorded on ~1000 animals for each sex in each breed. To pinpoint a specific region associated these sex-limited reproductive traits, we investigated the genomic region(s) consistently identified as significant across the 42 trait pairs in each breed. The genes found in the identified regions were subjected to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) colocalization, QTL enrichment analyses, and functional analyses to gain biological insight into sexual differences. We found that the genomic regions associated with the sex-limited reproductive phenotypes are widely distributed across all the chromosomes. However, no single region across the genome was associated all the 42 reproductive trait pairs in the two breeds. Nevertheless, we found a region on the X-chromosome to be most significant for 80-90% (BB; 33 and TC; 38) of the total 42 trait pairs. A considerable number of the genes in this region were regulatory genes. By considering only genomic regions that were significant for at least 50% of the 42 trait pairs, we observed more regions spread across the autosomes and the X-chromosome. All genomic regions identified were highly enriched for trait-specific QTL linked to sex-limited traits (percentage normal sperm, metabolic weight, average daily gain, carcass weight, age at puberty, etc.). The gene list created from these identified regions were enriched for biological pathways that contribute to the observed differences between sexes. Our results demonstrate that genomic regions associated with male and female sex-limited reproductive traits are distributed across the genome. Yet, chromosome X seems to exert a relatively larger effect on the phenotypic variation observed between the sexes.

15.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533601

RESUMO

As the global climate continues to change, plants will increasingly experience abiotic stress(es). Stomata on leaf surfaces are the gatekeepers to plant interiors, regulating gaseous exchanges that are crucial for both photosynthesis and outward water release. To optimise future crop productivity, accurate modelling of how stomata govern plant-environment interactions will be crucial. Here, we synergise optical and thermal imaging data to improve modelled transpiration estimates during water and/or nutrient stress (where leaf N is reduced). By utilising hyperspectral data and partial least squares regression analysis of six plant traits and fluxes in wheat (Triticum aestivum), we develop a new spectral vegetation index; the Combined Nitrogen and Drought Index (CNDI), which can be used to detect both water stress and/or nitrogen deficiency. Upon full stomatal closure during drought, CNDI shows a strong relationship with leaf water content (r2 = 0.70), with confounding changes in leaf biochemistry. By incorporating CNDI transformed with a sigmoid function into thermal-based transpiration modelling, we have increased the accuracy of modelling water fluxes during abiotic stress. These findings demonstrate the potential of using combined optical and thermal remote sensing-based modelling approaches to dynamically model water fluxes to improve both agricultural water usage and yields.

16.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e058098, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2015 and 2016, WHO issued guidelines on HIV testing services (HTS) highlighting recommendations for a strategic mix of differentiated HTS approaches. The policy review examines the uptake of differentiated HTS approaches recommendations in national policies. METHODS: Data were extracted from national policies published between January 2015 and June 2019. The WHO-recommended HTS approaches included facility-based testing, community-based testing, HIV self-testing and provider-assisted referral (or assisted partner notification). Other supportive recommendations include pre-test information, post-test counselling, lay provider testing and rapid testing. Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine inclusion of recommendations in national policies. RESULTS: Of 194 countries worldwide, 65 published policies were identified; 24 WHO Africa region (AFR) countries (51%, 24/47), 21 WHO European region (EUR) (40%, 21/53), 6 WHO Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) (29%, 6/21), 5 Pan-American region (AMR) (14%, 5/35), 5 Western Pacific Region (WPR) (19%, 5/27) and 4 WHO South East Asia Region (SEAR) (36%, 4/11). Only five countries included all recommendations. 63 included a minimum of one. 85% (n=55) included facility-based testing for pregnant women, 75% (n=49) facility-based testing for key populations, 74% (n=48) community-based testing for key populations, 69% (n=45) rapid testing, 57% (n=37) post-test counselling, 45% (n=29) lay provider testing, 38% (n=25) HIV self-testing, 29% (n=19) pre-test information and 25% (n=16) provider-assisted referral. The proportion in each region that included at least one recommendation were: 100% AFR (24/47), 100% EMR (6/6), 100% AMR (5/5), 100% WPR (5/5), 100% SEAR (4/4) and 95% EUR (20/21). AFR followed by EMR included the highest number of reccomendations. CONCLUSION: There was substantial variability in the uptake of the WHO-differentiated HTS recommendations. Those in EMR included the most WHO-differentiated HTS recommendation followed by AFR. Countries within AMR included the least number of recommendations. Ongoing advocacy and efforts are needed to support the uptake of the WHO-differentiated HTS recommendations in country policies as well as their implementation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Teste de HIV , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Busca de Comunicante , Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370806

RESUMO

Currently approved COVID-19 vaccines prevent symptomatic infection, hospitalization, and death from the disease. However, repeated homologous boosters, while considered a solution for severe forms of the disease caused by new SARS-CoV-2 variants in elderly individuals and immunocompromised patients, cannot provide complete protection against breakthrough infections. This highlights the need for alternative platforms for booster vaccines. In our previous study, we assessed the boost effect of the SARS-CoV-2 Beta S1 recombinant protein subunit vaccine (rS1Beta) in aged mice primed with an adenovirus-based vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2-S1 (Ad5.S1) via subcutaneous injection or intranasal delivery, which induced robust humoral immune responses (1). In this follow-up study, we demonstrated that a second booster dose of a non-adjuvanted recombinant Omicron (BA.1) S1 subunit vaccine with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist RS09 (rS1RS09OM) was effective in stimulating strong S1-specific immune responses and inducing significantly high neutralizing antibodies against the Wuhan, Delta, and Omicron variants in 100-week-old mice. Importantly, the second booster dose elicits cross-reactive antibody responses, resulting in ACE2 binding inhibition against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron (BA.1) and its subvariants. Interestingly, the levels of IgG and neutralizing antibodies correlated with the level of ACE2 inhibition in the booster serum samples, although Omicron S1-specific IgG level showed a weaker correlation compared to Wuhan S1-specific IgG level. Furthermore, we compared the immunogenic properties of the rS1 subunit vaccine in young, middle-aged, and elderly mice, resulting in reduced immunogenicity with age, especially an impaired Th1-biased immune response in aged mice. Our findings demonstrate that the new variant of concern (VOC) rS1 subunit vaccine as a second booster has the potential to offer cross-neutralization against a broad range of variants and to improve vaccine effectiveness against newly emerging breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 variants in elderly individuals who were previously primed with the authorized vaccines.

18.
RSC Adv ; 14(8): 5012-5021, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332781

RESUMO

Carbon dots (CDs) are valued for their biocompatibility, easy fabrication, and distinct optical characteristics. The current study examines using whey to fabricate CDs using the hydrothermal method. When stimulated at 350 nm, the synthetic CDs emitted blue light at 423 nm and revealed a selective response to ferric ion (Fe3+) in actual samples with great sensitivity, making them a suitable probe for assessing Fe3+ ions. The produced carbon dots demonstrated great photostability, high sensitivity, and outstanding biocompatibility. The findings showed that Fe3+ ions could be quickly, sensitively, and extremely selectively detected in an aqueous solution of carbon dots, with a revealing limit of 0.409 µM in the linear range of 0-180 µM. Interestingly, this recognition boundary is far inferior to the WHO-recommended threshold of 0.77 µM. Two metric tools which were AGREE and the ComplexGAPI were also used to evaluate the method's greenness. The evaluation confirmed its superior environmental friendliness.

19.
Clin Kidney J ; 17(2): sfad226, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327281

RESUMO

Chronic changes on kidney biopsy specimens include increasing amounts of arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, enlarged nephron size, and reduced nephron number. These chronic changes are difficult to accurately assess by visual inspection but are reasonably quantified using morphometry. This review describes the various patient populations that have undergone morphometric analysis of kidney biopsies. The common approaches to morphometric analysis are described. The chronic kidney disease outcomes associated with various chronic changes by morphometry are also summarized. Morphometry enriches the characterization of chronicity on a kidney biopsy and this can supplement the pathologist's diagnosis. Artificial intelligence image processing tools are needed to automate the annotations needed for practical morphometric analysis of kidney biopsy specimens in routine clinical care.

20.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 382(1): 5, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329582

RESUMO

Third-generation organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on metal-free thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) materials have sparked tremendous interest in the last decade due to their nearly 100% exciton utilization efficiency, which can address the low-efficiency issue of the first-generation fluorescent emitters and the high-cost issue of the second-generation organometallic phosphorescent emitters. Construction of efficient and stable TADF-OLEDs requires utilizing TADF materials with a narrow singlet-triplet energy gap (ΔEST), high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and short TADF lifetime. A small ΔEST is necessary for an efficient reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) process, which can be achieved through the effective spatial separation of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). TADF emitters have been generally designed as intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecules with highly twisted donor-acceptor (D-A) molecular architectures. A wide variety of combinations of electron donors and acceptors have been explored. In this review, we shall focus on recent progress in organic TADF molecules incorporating strong electron-donor phenoxazine moiety and their application as emitting layer (EML) in OLEDs.


Assuntos
Corantes , Oxazinas
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