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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMO

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243633, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249273

RESUMO

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:


Resumo A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMO

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247604, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495156

RESUMO

In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in vitro investigations are essential to ensure the anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of all bioactive compounds particularly axillarin to encourage preventive use of Centaurea jacea against COVID-19 infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Centaurea , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Neuroradiol J ; : 19714009211042893, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intractable nasal and oropharyngeal hemorrhage may be treated with endovascular embolization, but limited data are available. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and factors associated with rebleeding. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of consecutive embolizations for nasal and oropharyngeal hemorrhage over a 10-year period at a single institution was performed. Outcomes included procedural success (defined as cessation of hemorrhage in the immediate postoperative period), rebleeding requiring an additional intervention, and procedural complications. RESULTS: A total of 47 embolizations on 39 patients were included. The mean age was 60 years (standard deviation 16.1), 23.1% of patients were women, and 21 (53.8%) patients had a previously diagnosed head/neck malignancy. Bleeding sites were the nose in 20 patients and oropharynx in 21 (two patients presented with both nasal and oral bleeding). Immediate procedural success was achieved in 45 (95.7%) embolizations. Rebleeding requiring an additional intervention occurred after 11 (23.4%) embolizations at a median of one day after the procedure. In the multivariate analysis, preoperative hypotension (odds ratio 4.78, 95% confidence interval 1.04-24.61) and the use of coils (odds ratio 6.09, 95% confidence interval 1.24-46.69) were associated with rebleeding requiring repeat intervention. Complications included two watershed strokes that were anticipated due to occlusion of the internal carotid artery. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience endovascular embolization was a safe and effective treatment option for stopping oral and nasal hemorrhage. However, rebleeding was present after 23.4% of treatments and was associated with preoperative hypotension and the use of coils. Further study in a large multi-institutional cohort is warranted.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049673, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where HIV burden is highest, access to testing, a key entry point for prevention and treatment, remains low for adolescents (aged 10-19). Access may be hampered by policies requiring parental consent for adolescents to receive HIV testing services (HTS). In 2013, the WHO recommended countries to review HTS age of consent policies. Here, we investigate country progress and policies on age of consent for HIV testing. DESIGN: Comprehensive policy review. DATA SOURCES: Policies addressing HTS were obtained through searching WHO repositories and governmental and non-governmental websites and consulting country and regional experts. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: HTS policies published by SSA governments before 2019 that included age of consent. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted on HTS age of consent including exceptions based on risk and maturity. Descriptive analyses of included policies were disaggregated by Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) and Western and Central Africa (WCA) subregions. RESULTS: Thirty-nine policies were reviewed, 38 were eligible; 19/38 (50%) permitted HTS for adolescents ≤16 years old without parental consent. Of these, six allowed HTS at ≥12 years old, two at ≥13, two at ≥14, five at ≥15 and four at ≥16. In ESA, 71% (n=15/21) allowed those of ≤16 years old to access HTS, while only 24% (n=6/25) of WCA countries allowed the same. Maturity exceptions including marriage, sexual activity, pregnancy or key population were identified in 18 policies. In 2019, 63% (n=19/30) of policies with clear age-based criteria allowed adolescents of 12-16 years old to access HIV testing without parental consent, an increase from 37% (n=14/38) in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: While many countries in SSA have revised their HTS policies, many do not specify age of consent. Revision of SSA consent to HTS policies, particularly in WCA, remains a priority to achieve the 2025 goal of 95% of people with HIV knowing their status.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Casamento , Políticas , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual
7.
Rheumatol Int ; 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417829

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by persistent widespread musculoskeletal pain. Patients with fibromyalgia have reduced physical activity and increased sedentary rate. The age-associated reduction of skeletal muscle mass and function is called sarcopenia. The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People developed a practical clinical definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Loss of muscle function is common in fibromyalgia and in the elderly. The goal of this study is to determine whether the reduction of muscle function in fibromyalgia is related to sarcopenia according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. Forty-five patients with fibromyalgia and thirty-nine healthy control female subjects were included. All the participants were assessed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and SARC-F questionnaire. Muscle mass was evaluated by bioimpedance analysis, muscle strength by handgrip strength test and physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and SARC-F scores were statistically significantly higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the control group, showing severe disease and a higher risk of sarcopenia in the fibromyalgia group (p < 0.001). Muscle strength and physical performance were statistically significantly lower in the group with fibromyalgia than in the control group (p < 0.001). There was no statistical difference between fibromyalgia and control groups regarding skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.263). Our study demonstrated a significant reduction in muscle function in fibromyalgia patients without any loss of muscle mass. Loss of muscle function without decrease in muscle mass is called dynapenia.

8.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e932467, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Neurosyphilis is a bacterial infection of the brain and the spinal cord, caused by Treponema pallidum. Its nonspecific clinical presentation includes cognitive impairment and motor and/or sensory function compromise. Neurosyphilis infections in patients with HIV have increased over the past few years and many cases of neurosyphilis manifest in patients with HIV who have low CD4 T-cell counts and high viral loads (VL). However, there is extremely limited acknowledgement in the literature about neurosyphilis presentations in patients with HIV who have normal CD4 counts. CASE REPORT We present a neurosyphilis and HIV coinfection in a patient with a normal CD4 count and an undetectable VL. A 69-year-old woman with a medical history of HIV was on a prescribed antiretroviral treatment regimen. She presented in the Emergency Room in an unresponsive state, although this had been preceded by a period of rapidly progressive cognitive decline. Her brain computed tomography scan without contrast was unremarkable. Laboratory test results were within normal limits, except for a positive result for the microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies and rapid plasma regain (RPR) test, which was highly suggestive of neurosyphilis as a presumed diagnosis. She showed remarkable clinical improvement after the initiation of conventional treatment for neurosyphilis, which is a 14-day regimen of intravenous penicillin G. CONCLUSIONS Given the broad neurological manifestations of neurosyphilis and its increasing incidence in patients with HIV, it is important to consider neurosyphilis in the differential diagnosis after ruling out other causes of encephalopathy, especially in patients with an undetectable VL and a normal CD4 count.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Neurossífilis , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Neurossífilis/complicações , Neurossífilis/diagnóstico , Neurossífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Penicilinas , Carga Viral
10.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 931-933, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402686

RESUMO

Meningitis caused by Salmonella typhi is rare and is generally seen in infants. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy with extensively drug-resistant S. typhi meningitis. The patient was diagnosed using a culture sensitivity test and successfully treated with meropenem. Culture sensitivity may be included in routine testing for the diagnosis of S. typhi especially in developing countries due to high burden of disease and emergence of drug resistance.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445361

RESUMO

Inflammation promotes endothelial dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined in vivo. Using translational vascular function testing in myocardial infarction patients, a situation where inflammation is prevalent, and knock-out (KO) mouse models we demonstrate a role for mitogen-activated-protein-kinases (MAPKs) in endothelial dysfunction. Myocardial infarction significantly lowers mitogen and stress kinase 1/2 (MSK1/2) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and diminished endothelial function. To further understand the role of MSK1/2 in vascular function we developed in vivo animal models to assess vascular responses to vasoactive drugs using laser Doppler imaging. Genetic deficiency of MSK1/2 in mice increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promoted endothelial dysfunction, through attenuated production of nitric oxide (NO), which were further exacerbated by cholesterol feeding. MSK1/2 are activated by toll-like receptors through MyD88. MyD88 KO mice showed preserved endothelial function and reduced plasma cytokine expression, despite significant hypercholesterolemia. MSK1/2 kinases interact with MAPK-activated proteins 2/3 (MAPKAP2/3), which limit cytokine synthesis. Cholesterol-fed MAPKAP2/3 KO mice showed reduced plasma cytokine expression and preservation of endothelial function. MSK1/2 plays a significant role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and may provide a novel target for intervention to reduce vascular inflammation. Activation of MSK1/2 could reduce pro-inflammatory responses and preserve endothelial vasodilator function before development of significant vascular disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/fisiologia , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(4): e1018-e1028, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to identify which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing (HIVST) distribution strategies are most effective. METHODS: We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies published between 4 June 2006 and 4 June 2019. RESULTS: We included 33 studies, yielding 6 HIVST distribution strategies. All distribution strategies increased testing uptake compared to standard testing: in sub-Saharan Africa, partner HIVST distribution ranked highest (78% probability); in North America, Asia, and the Pacific regions, web-based distribution ranked highest (93% probability), and facility based distribution ranked second in all settings. Across HIVST distribution strategies HIV positivity and linkage was similar to standard testing. CONCLUSIONS: A range of HIVST distribution strategies are effective in increasing HIV testing. HIVST distribution by sexual partners, web-based distribution, as well as health facility distribution strategies should be considered for implementation to expand the reach of HIV testing services.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Autoteste , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Metanálise em Rede , Parceiros Sexuais
14.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376577

RESUMO

Itraconazole, an FDA-approved antifungal, has antitumor activity against a variety of cancers. We sought to determine the effects of itraconazole on esophageal cancer and elucidate its mechanism of action. Itraconazole inhibited cell proliferation and induced G1-phase cell-cycle arrest in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cell lines. Using an unbiased kinase array, we found that itraconazole downregulated protein kinase AKT phosphorylation in OE33 esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Itraconazole also decreased phosphorylation of downstream ribosomal protein S6, transcriptional expression of the upstream receptor tyrosine kinase HER2, and phosphorylation of upstream PI3K in esophageal cancer cells. Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets HER2, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of HER2 similarly suppressed cancer cell growth in vitro. Itraconazole significantly inhibited growth of OE33-derived flank xenografts in mice with detectable levels of itraconazole and its primary metabolite, hydroxyitraconazole, in esophagi and tumors. HER2 total protein and phosphorylation of AKT and S6 proteins were decreased in xenografts from itraconazole-treated mice compared to xenografts from placebo-treated mice. In an early phase I clinical trial (NCT02749513) in patients with esophageal cancer, itraconazole decreased HER2 total protein expression and phosphorylation of AKT and S6 proteins in tumors. These data demonstrate that itraconazole has potent antitumor properties in esophageal cancer, partially through blockade of HER2/AKT signaling.

15.
Cancer Biol Ther ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392779

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is utilized for molecular profiling of cancers, and is under investigation for a growing number of applications based on the assumption that ctDNA levels faithfully reflect disease burden. Our objective was to investigate whether patient and tumor characteristics may impact ctDNA detection or levels and the prognostic significance of ctDNA levels or mutations. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of a comprehensively annotated cohort of 561 patients at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center with advanced solid cancers who underwent ctDNA testing using a commercial targeted next-generation sequencing assay. ctDNA detection in advanced cancers was associated with older age, non-obese body mass index, and diabetes, but not with tumor diameter, volume, lesion number, or other pathological features. Regression models indicate that no more than 14.3% of the variance in ctDNA levels between patients was explained by known clinical factors and disease burden. Even after adjusting for established prognostic factors and tumor burden, ctDNA levels were associated with worse survival among patients without prior systemic therapy, while ctDNA mutations were associated with survival among patients who previously received systemic treatment. These findings uncover clinical factors that affect ctDNA detection in patients with advanced cancers and challenge the convention that ctDNA is a surrogate for tumor burden. Our study also indicates that the prognostic value of ctDNA levels and mutations are independent of tumor burden and dependent on treatment context.

16.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378665

RESUMO

Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
17.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361430

RESUMO

Square planar organoplatinum(II) complexes have garnered immense interest in the area of materials research. The combination of the Pt(II) fragment with mono-, bi- tri- and tetradentate organic ligands gives rise to a large variety of complexes with intriguing properties, especially cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes in which ligands are connected through covalent bonds demonstrate higher stability, excellent photoluminescence properties, and diverse applications. The properties and applications of the Pt(II)-based materials can be smartly fine-tuned via a judicious selection of the cyclometalating as well as ancillary ligands. In this review, attempts have been made to provide a brief review of the recent developments of neutral Pt(II) organometallic complexes bearing bidentate cyclometalating ligands and ß-diketonate ancillary ligands, i.e., (C^N)Pt(O^O) and (C^C)Pt(O^O) derivatives. Both small (monomeric, dimeric) and large (polymeric) materials have been considered. We critically assessed the role of functionalities (ligands) on photophysical properties and their impact on applications.

18.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(607)2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408080

RESUMO

Anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may favor development of antiviral immunity by engaging the immune system during immunotherapy. Targeting integrin α4ß7 with an anti-α4ß7 monoclonal antibody (Rh-α4ß7) affects immune responses in SIV/SHIV-infected macaques. To explore the therapeutic potential of combining bNAbs with α4ß7 integrin blockade, SHIVSF162P3-infected, viremic rhesus macaques were treated with bNAbs only (VRC07-523LS and PGT128 anti-HIV antibodies) or a combination of bNAbs and Rh-α4ß7 or were left untreated as a control. Treatment with bNAbs alone decreased viremia below 200 copies/ml in all macaques, but seven of eight macaques (87.5%) in the bNAbs-only group rebounded within a median of 3 weeks (95% CI: 2 to 9). In contrast, three of six macaques treated with a combination of Rh-α4ß7 and bNAbs (50%) maintained a viremia below 200 copies/ml until the end of the follow-up period; viremia in the other three macaques rebounded within a median of 6 weeks (95% CI: 5 to 11). Thus, there was a modest delay in viral rebound in the macaques treated with the combination antibody therapy compared to bNAbs alone. Our study suggests that α4ß7 integrin blockade may prolong virologic control by bNAbs in SHIVSF162P3-infected macaques.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Integrinas , Macaca mulatta , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; : 9603271211033777, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidences are beginning to accrue that flavonoids, particularly phytoestrogens, could have beneficial effects against several age-related diseases linked to estrogen deficiency including postmenopausal osteoporosis. METHODS: In this study, the effect of chrysin on selected bone-remodeling markers in ovariectomized rats and its estrogen-like activity in silico were investigated. RESULTS: The data indicated that administration of chrysin at 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg for 6 weeks to OVX rats significantly (p < 0.05) prevented body weight gain and partially reverse uterine weight loss. In addition, treatment of OVX rats significantly (p < 0.01) increased femur dry weight, femur ash weight, bone ash calcium, and phosphorous levels in a dose-dependent manner. However, there was significant (p < 0.001) decline in serum estradiol level in all OVX rats compared to the sham-operated group. Interestingly, administration of chrysin significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the reduction of estradiol induced by ovariectomy compared to untreated OVX rats. Moreover, administration of chrysin to OVX rats significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed excessive elevation of bone-remodeling markers expression compared to untreated OVX rats. Similarly, molecular docking analysis revealed that chrysin interacts with both α and ß estrogen receptors with exothermic binding energies of -229.83 kcal/Mol and -252.72 kcal/Mol, respectively, and also fits perfectly into the active site of both α and ß estrogen receptors. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that chrysin exhibits potential antiosteoporotic effects against bone loss in OVX rats through enhanced bone mineral contents and preventing excessive elevation of bone-remodeling markers and bone-resorbing cytokine.

20.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 59(9): 1723-1734, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291385

RESUMO

The rapid spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic and affected more than 15 million patients reported in 27 countries. Therefore, the computational biology carrying this virus that correlates with the human population urgently needs to be understood. In this paper, the classification of the human protein sequences of COVID-19, according to the country, is presented based on machine learning algorithms. The proposed model is based on distinguishing 9238 sequences using three stages, including data preprocessing, data labeling, and classification. In the first stage, data preprocessing's function converts the amino acids of COVID-19 protein sequences into eight groups of numbers based on the amino acids' volume and dipole. It is based on the conjoint triad (CT) method. In the second stage, there are two methods for labeling data from 27 countries from 0 to 26. The first method is based on selecting one number for each country according to the code numbers of countries, while the second method is based on binary elements for each country. According to their countries, machine learning algorithms are used to discover different COVID-19 protein sequences in the last stage. The obtained results demonstrate 100% accuracy, 100% sensitivity, and 90% specificity via the country-based binary labeling method with a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Furthermore, with significant infection data, the USA is more prone to correct classification compared to other countries with fewer data. The unbalanced data for COVID-19 protein sequences is considered a major issue, especially as the US's available data represents 76% of a total of 9238 sequences. The proposed model will act as a prediction tool for the COVID-19 protein sequences in different countries.

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