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1.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1287872, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328261

RESUMO

The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is a vulnerable species in South America and is considered endangered or near extinction in Central America. Therefore, studies describing the reproductive characteristics of this species are pivotal for its conservation. Thus, this study aimed to provide a morphological description of the female reproductive tissues of this species. We collected tissue samples from six female giant anteaters and performed gross, morphological, and histochemical analyses. Five adult subjects and one juvenile were included in the study. In the ovary, classifications were made according to the follicle and oocyte sizes: primordial, primary, secondary, early antral, or antral. Typical follicles with a single oocyte surrounded by a simple or stratified layer of cubic epithelium, atretic follicles, corpora lutea, corpora albicans, and ovarian cysts were also observed. No ovarian lesions were observed. By contrast, endometritis, metritis, mucometra, and endometrial cysts were identified in the uterus. Uterine alterations in these subjects were frequent and could affect reproduction.

4.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 463, 2023 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38115152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes has been utilized to enhance the accuracy of serological tests for infectious diseases, including Dirofilaria immitis. Currently, the antigen detected by available tests is primarily a glycoprotein found in the reproductive tract of female worms. However, this antigen can become inaccessible when bound to excessive circulating antibodies, leading to reduced test sensitivity and false-negative results. Acid and heat treatments of the sera or plasma have been established as reliable methods for inducing immune complex dissociation (ICD). Previous antigen testing for heartworm infection in dogs and cats has demonstrated that these treatments improve the diagnostic sensitivity without compromising specificity. This study aims to evaluate the performance of four distinct ICD methods in the detection of D. immitis antigen. METHODS: We utilized twofold serial dilutions of a well-characterized plasma (ranging from 1:2 to 1:4096) obtained from a D. immitis-infected dog to simulate the diverse antigen levels encountered in real-life infected dogs. The presence of antigen in the diluted samples, both without treatment and treated with four ICD protocols, was assessed in triplicate visually using DiroCHEK® by observing color changes. OD values were also obtained using the microplate reader SpectraMax® i Series-Spectramax Id3. A Factorial ANOVA test was conducted to compare the OD values between samples with and without treatments. RESULTS: The highest dilution at which color changes were observed was 1:128 for untreated samples and for samples subjected to acid treatments in ICD-3 and the hybrid ICD-4 protocol. In contrast, both heat treatment protocols (ICD-1 and ICD-2) exhibited color changes at a 512-fold dilution. The OD values in samples subjected to heat treatment were significantly higher than those in untreated samples, up to dilutions of 512-fold. Although OD values tended to be higher in samples subjected to acid treatment and the hybrid protocol compared to untreated samples up to a 128-fold dilution, this difference was not significant as the samples underwent further dilution. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings affirm that heat treatments, rather than acid treatment, efficiently enhance the detection of D. immitis antigen by liberating the sequestered antigen from the immune complexes.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Animais , Feminino , Gatos , Temperatura Alta , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Antígenos de Helmintos , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 296, 2023 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37620911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline heartworm disease (HWD) is a complex and often misdiagnosed disease in cats, caused by the filarial nematode Dirofilaria immitis. Despite its significant impact, studies reporting the prevalence of D. immitis in apparently healthy pet cats in the USA are lacking. METHODS: To investigate feline heartworm seroprevalence in apparently healthy pet cats in the USA, serum samples (n = 2165) collected from cats across 47 states and Washington District of Columbia were analyzed for D. immitis antibody (Heska Corp.) and antigen (DiroCHEK®; Zoetis Inc.) with and without acid treatment of the samples. RESULTS: Antibodies to D. immitis antibodies were identified in 3.5% (76/2165) of cats from 26 states, with a significantly higher prevalence in cats from the westernmost US states (West region; 5.4%, 23/429) compared to those from the South (3.8%, 32/847), Midwest (2.7%, 9/338) and Northeast regions (2.2%, 12/551) (P < 0.04). Antigen from D. immitis was detected in 0.3% (6/2165) of cats, which was significantly lower than the antibody detection (P < 10-4), and no samples were positive for both antibody and antigen. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest antibody-based, nationwide serosurvey of feline heartworm in an apparently healthy cat population, and the results suggest that cats in the USA have a high risk of exposure to D. immitis-infected mosquitoes. The high nationwide prevalence (3.5%) indicates that the true prevalence of cats infected with D. immitis in the USA may be significantly underestimated. Our findings emphasize the need for increased awareness and routine testing of cats for heartworm infection, especially in non-endemic areas of the USA. Clinicians should consider appropriate use of broad-spectrum veterinary-approved parasiticides and lifestyle management in feline patients to reduce the risk of infection. Future studies should focus on evaluating the D. immitis infection status in healthy cats and developing better diagnostic assays to detect this complex infection.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis , Gatos , Animais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Animais de Estimação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Anticorpos , Antiparasitários
7.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 20(11): 477-483, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37615516

RESUMO

The practice of feeding raw meat-based diets to dogs has grown in popularity worldwide in recent years. However, there are public health risks in handling and feeding raw meat-based dog diets (RMDDs) to dogs since there are no pathogen reduction steps to reduce the microbial load, which may include antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic bacteria. A total of 100 RMDDs from 63 suppliers were sampled, and selective media were used to isolate bacteria from the diets. Bacterial identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were conducted to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The primary meat sources for RMDDs included in this study were poultry (37%) and beef (24%). Frozen-dry was the main method of product production (68%). In total, 52 true and opportunistic pathogens, including Enterobacterales (mainly Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae) and Enterococcus faecium, were obtained from 30 RMDDs. Resistance was identified to 19 of 28 antimicrobials tested, including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (23/52, 44%), ampicillin (19/52, 37%), cephalexin (16/52, 31%), tetracycline (7/52, 13%), marbofloxacin (7/52, 13%), and cefazolin (6/52, 12%). All 19 bacterial isolates submitted for WGS harbored at least one type of AMR gene. The identified AMR genes were found to mediate resistance to aminoglycoside (gentamicin, streptomycin, amikacin/kanamycin, gentamicin/kanamycin/tobramycin), macrolide, beta-lactam (carbapenem, cephalosporin), tetracycline, fosfomycin, quinolone, phenicol/quinolone, and sulfonamide. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that feeding and handling RMDDs may pose a significant public health risk due to the presence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, and further research and intervention may be necessary to minimize these risks.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecium , Quinolonas , Bovinos , Cães , Animais , Enterobacter cloacae , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Escherichia coli , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Kentucky , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carne/microbiologia , Tetraciclina , Salmonella , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Canamicina , Gentamicinas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 437, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of mosquito species is essential for the development and optimization of strategies to control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. Problems with the morphological identification of mosquito species have led to the use of molecular identification techniques, in particular the Folmer cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) PCR system (FCOS), originally designed to identify a range of other invertebrates. METHODS: As there can be difficulties identifying mosquitoes using FCOS, we re-evaluated the FCOS primers and developed a new COI-based SYBR PCR (the Auburn COI system-AUCOS) to improve the molecular identification of mosquitoes. Sequence data in GenBank for 33 species from 10 genera of mosquitoes were used to develop our AUCOS primers. Two molecular assays (AUCOS, FCOS) and morphological identification were carried out on mosquitoes collected from the field in Auburn, Alabama (USA) and on Saint Kitts. RESULTS: With a convenience sample of individual mosquitoes comprising 19 species from six genera in Saint Kitts (n = 77) and Auburn (n = 48), our AUCOS provided higher-quality sequence data than FCOS. It also proved more sensitive than FCOS, successfully amplifying 67.5% (85/126) as opposed to 16.7% (21/126) of the samples. The species determined by morphology, or genus with damaged samples, matched that as determined by AUCOS for 84.9% (62/73) of the samples. Morphological classification was confirmed by FCOS with 81.0% (17/21) of samples producing utilizable sequences. While both FCOS and AUCOS correctly identified all the Aedes, Anopheles, Deinocerites, and Uranotaenia species in the study, identification of Culex species was less successful with both methods: 50.0% (3/6) by FCOS and 35.7% (5/14) by AUCOS. CONCLUSIONS: The AUCOS DNA barcoding system for mosquito species described in this study is superior to the existing FCOS for the identification of mosquito species. As AUCOS and FCOS amplify the same variable region of the COI, the large amount of existing data on GenBank can be used to identify mosquito species with sequences produced by either PCR.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Primers do DNA/genética
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 367, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heartworms, Dirofilaria immitis, are known to be widespread in dogs and cats in the USA, but there have been no country-wide prevalence studies performed to date. There have also been no large-scale studies to determine whether the closely related species, Dirofilaria repens, occurs in the USA. METHODS: To provide this large-scale data, we examined whole blood samples (n = 2334) submitted from around the USA to the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory at Auburn University between 2016 and 2022. Quantitative PCRs for D. immitis (targeting 16S rRNA) and D. repens (targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene) were performed to determine the presence of Dirofilaria DNA. DNA sequencing was performed to confirm the results. RESULTS: Dirofilaria immitis DNA was found in 6.3% (68/1080) of the dogs from 17/39 states, and 0.3% (4/1254) of the cats from 4/42 states. None of the dogs or cats were positive for D. repens. The average 16S rRNA copy number of D. immitis in the dogs was 1,809,604 in 200 µl whole blood, while only a single copy was found in each of the four D. immitis-positive cats. The prevalence of D. immitis in dogs of different ages, sexes, and breeds did not differ significantly, but the prevalence in Southern states (7.5%, 60/803) was significantly higher than in the Western (1.7%, 1/58), Midwest (3.3%, 4/120), and Northeastern states (3.1%, 3/98) (P < 0.05). Dogs positive for D. immitis were identified in each study year (2016: 4.2%, 2/48; 2017: 9.8%, 4/41; 2018: 5.1%, 8/156; 2019: 4.9%, 15/306; 2020: 9.8%, 26/265; 2021: 4.9%, 13/264). Interestingly, dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. (11.8%, 37/313) were significantly more likely to also be positive for D. immitis than dogs without evidence of Hepatozoon infection (3.9%, 30/760) (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first nationwide molecular survey of Dirofilaria spp. in dogs and cats in the USA, and the largest molecular survey of canine and feline dirofilariosis worldwide. Further studies are warranted to combine PCR with standard heartworm diagnostics to better understand the prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. and aid in determining the risks posed to dogs and cats in the USA.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria repens , Dirofilariose , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Animais de Estimação , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Pathogens ; 12(1)2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678356

RESUMO

Costa Rica harbors several flaviviruses, including Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). While DENV and ZIKV are hyperendemic, previous research indicates restricted circulation of SLEV and WNV in animals. SLEV and WNV seroprevalence and high transmission areas have not yet been measured. To determine the extents of putative WNV and SLEV circulation, we sampled peri-domestic and domestic animals, humans, and mosquitoes in rural households located in two DENV and ZIKV hyperendemic regions during the rainy and dry seasons of 2017-2018 and conducted plaque reduction neutralization test assay for serology (PRNT) and RT-PCR for virus detection. In Cuajiniquil, serological evidence of WNV and SLEV was found in equines, humans, chickens, and wild birds. Additionally, five seroconversion events were recorded for WNV (2 equines), SLEV (1 human), and DENV-1 (2 humans). In Talamanca, WNV was not found, but serological evidence of SLEV circulation was recorded in equines, humans, and wild birds. Even though no active viral infection was detected, the seroconversion events recorded here indicate recent circulation of SLEV and WNV in these two regions. This study thus provides clear-cut evidence for WNV and SLEV presence in these areas, and therefore, they should be considered in arboviruses differential diagnostics and future infection prevention campaigns.

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