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1.
Neurosurgery ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that female neurosurgeons experience unique challenges in the workplace including lack of academic advancement, challenges with work-life balance, harassment, and discrimination. How these factors influence the gender gap in neurosurgery remains unclear. This analysis investigated gender differences in pediatric neurosurgeons in professional and nonprofessional activities and responsibilities. METHODS: A survey examining professional activities, work-life balance, family dynamics, career satisfaction, and workplace discrimination and harassment was administered to 495 pediatric neurosurgeons. Response rate was 49% (n = 241). RESULTS: One-third of the pediatric neurosurgical workforce is female. There were no gender differences in race/ethnicity, American Board of Neurological Surgery/American Board of Pediatric Neurological Surgery certification rates, or pediatric neurosurgery fellowship completion. No gender differences were found in operative caseload, weekly hours worked, or working after 8 pm or weekends. Women took call more frequently than men (P = .044). Men were more likely to work in academia (P = .004) and have salary subsidization from external sources (P = .026). Women were more likely to anticipate retirement by age 65 years (P = .044), were less happy with call commitments (P = .012), and worked more hours at home while off (P = .050). Women more frequently reported witnessing and experiencing racial discrimination (P = .008; P < .001), sexual harassment (P = .002, P < .001), and feeling less safe at work (P < .001). Men were more likely married (P = .042) with 1 (P = .004) or more children (P = .034). Women reported significantly greater responsibility for child and domestic care (P < .001). There were no gender differences in work-life balance, feeling supported at work, or having enough time to do things outside of work. CONCLUSION: Despite little difference in workload and professional responsibilities, women held more domestic responsibilities and experienced and witnessed more racial and sexual discrimination in the workplace. Surprisingly, there were no reported differences in work-life balance or feeling supported at work between genders. These findings suggest that factors unique to female neurosurgeons may contribute to continued gender disparity in the field.

2.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 59(1): 14-19, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37980900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several studies describe traumatic head injuries caused by ceiling fans in Australia, the Middle East, and Malaysia. Some injuries required neurosurgical intervention, especially those caused by metallic ceiling fans. This study describes traumatic head injuries caused by ceiling fans at a single pediatric level 1 trauma center in the Southern USA. METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients under 18 years of age who presented with a traumatic injury to the head from a ceiling fan from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2021. The cohort of patients meeting all inclusion criteria was identified by querying multiple free-text fields derived from the electronic medical record, followed by a manual record review. RESULTS: Of 60 children treated for traumatic head injury from a ceiling fan, the median age was 5.7 years and 53% were female. Laceration was the most common injury (80%), followed by scalp swelling/hematoma (20%), contusion (8%), and skull fracture (7%). Two patients (3%) with intracranial hemorrhage and fracture underwent neurosurgery. One neurosurgical case involved a metal ceiling fan and the other involved an outdoor ceiling fan. Nearly half of the injuries involved bunk or loft beds (47%) and young children were often injured while being lifted up by a caregiver (18%). CONCLUSION: Although most pediatric traumatic head injuries from ceiling fans resulted in minor injuries, our center saw a similar proportion of cases with skull fractures to what has been reported in Australia (5%). The effects of fan construction and blade material on the severity of head injury may warrant further study. Understanding the most common mechanisms for these injuries may guide injury prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Fraturas Cranianas , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Fraturas Cranianas/cirurgia , Hemorragias Intracranianas , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia
3.
Acad Emerg Med ; 31(1): 36-41, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37828864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the change in cervical spine (C-spine) immobilization frequency in trauma patients over time. We hypothesize that the frequency of unnecessary C-spine immobilization has decreased. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of adult trauma patients transported to our American College of Surgeons-verified Level I trauma center from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2021, was performed. Emergency medical services documentation was manually reviewed to record prehospital physiology and the application of a prehospital cervical collar (c-collar). C-spine injuries were defined as cervical vertebral fractures and/or spinal cord injuries. Univariate and year-by-year trend analyses were used to assess changes in C-spine injury and immobilization frequency. RESULTS: Among 2906 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 12% sustained C-spine injuries, while 88% did not. Patients with C-spine injuries were more likely to experience blunt trauma (95% vs. 68%, p < 0.001), were older (46 years vs. 41 years, p < 0.001), and had higher Injury Severity Scores (31 vs. 18, p < 0.001). They also exhibited lower initial systolic blood pressures (108 mm Hg vs. 119 mm Hg, p < 0.001), lower heart rates (92 beats/min vs. 97 beats/min, p < 0.05), and lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores (9 vs. 11, p < 0.001). In blunt trauma, c-collars were applied to 83% of patients with C-spine injuries and 75% without; for penetrating trauma, c-collars were applied to 50% of patients with C-spine injuries and only 8% without. Among penetrating trauma patients with C-spine injury, all patients either arrived quadriplegic or did not require emergent neurosurgical intervention. The proportion of patients receiving a c-collar decreased in both blunt and penetrating traumas from 2014 to 2021 (blunt-82% in 2014 to 68% in 2021; penetrating-24% in 2014 to 6% in 2021). CONCLUSIONS: Unnecessary C-spine stabilization has decreased from 2014 to 2021. However, c-collars are still being applied to patients who do not need them, both in blunt and in penetrating trauma cases, while not being applied to patients who would benefit from them.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Lesões do Pescoço , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Lesões do Pescoço/terapia , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões
4.
Neurosurg Focus ; 55(5): E10, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37913532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of neurosurgeons in terms of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer (LGBTQ+) gender and sexual minority status using the Graduation Questionnaire (GQ) as the single nationalized source of LGBTQ+ identification. Additionally, inclusivity was assessed through interviews by residents and attendings in the field. METHODS: First, a PRISMA literature review was conducted and independently reviewed by two authors on studies involving LGBTQ+ representation in neurosurgery from PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Then, aggregate responses of 16,901 participants' sexual and gender identities from the GQ administered between 2016 and 2022 were compiled. To statistically analyze the response frequencies, the authors performed a chi-square analysis. Finally, interviews were conducted with individuals who identify as LGBTQ+ and are currently neurosurgical residents or attendings. Direct invitations were extended to participate in interviews, and all participants gave informed consent prior to the interview. Interviews were conducted using standardized questions and were video recorded. RESULTS: Two studies were identified by literature review that referenced the LGBTQ+ community in neurosurgery. A GQ chi-square analysis comparing neurosurgical with nonneurosurgical LGBTQ+ identification proved statistically insignificant (p = 0.65). More broad analysis of majority sexual and gender identification (heterosexual and cisgendered) compared with the total gender and sexual minority group also proved statistically insignificant (p = 0.32) in response frequency. Five interviews, including 4 residents and 1 attending, provided several overarching themes including self-identification as an invisible minority, self-limiting behavior to ensure inclusion, and LGBTQ+ status as a direct departure from the stereotypical neurosurgeon. CONCLUSIONS: Results from the GQ analysis indicate that neurosurgery is achieving LGBTQ+ diversity of its incoming members comparable to that of other fields in medicine. However, qualitative data from the interviews and a lack of specific literature indicate that despite obtaining diversity, inclusion of LGBTQ+ neurosurgeons and trainees is lacking.


Assuntos
Neurocirurgia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , Identidade de Gênero , Diversidade Cultural
6.
Heliyon ; 9(7): e18225, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37539177

RESUMO

Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome (ARS) is comprised of a group of autosomal dominant disorders that are each characterized by anterior segment abnormalities of the eye. Mutations in the transcription factors FOXC1 or PITX2 are the most well-studied genetic manifestations of this syndrome. Due to the rarity this syndrome, ARS-associated neurological manifestations have not been well characterized. The purpose of this systematic review is to characterize and describe ARS neurologic manifestations that affect the cerebral vasculature and their early and late sequelae. PRISMA guidelines were followed; studies meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed for study design, evidence level, number of patients, patient age, whether the patients were related, genotype, ocular findings, and nervous system findings, specifically neurostructural and neurovascular manifestations. 63 studies met inclusion criteria, 60 (95%) were case studies or case series. The FOXC1 gene was most commonly found, followed by COL4A1, then PITX2. The most commonly described structural neurological findings were white matter abnormalities in 26 (41.3%) of studies, followed by Dandy-Walker Complex 12 (19%), and agenesis of the corpus callosum 11 (17%). Neurovascular findings were examined in 6 (9%) of studies, identifying stroke, cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), tortuosity/dolichoectasia of arteries, among others, with no mention of moyamoya. This is the first systematic review investigating the genetic, neurological, and neurovascular associations with ARS. Structural neurological manifestations were common, yet often benign, perhaps limiting the utility of MRI screening. Neurovascular abnormalities, specifically stroke and CSVD, were identified in this population. Stroke risk was present in the presence and absence of cardiac comorbidities. These findings suggest a relationship between ARS and neurovascular findings; however, larger scale studies are necessary inform therapeutic decisions.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(13)2023 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37445633

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most common brain tumor in adults, and molecularly targeted therapies to treat gliomas are becoming a frequent topic of investigation. The current state of molecular targeted therapy research for adult-type diffuse gliomas has yet to be characterized, particularly following the 2021 WHO guideline changes for classifying gliomas using molecular subtypes. This systematic review sought to characterize the current state of molecular target therapy research for adult-type diffuse glioma to better inform scientific progress and guide next steps in this field of study. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were queried for study design, subject (patients, human cell lines, mice, etc.), type of tumor studied, molecular target, respective molecular pathway, and details pertaining to the molecular targeted therapy-namely the modality, dose, and duration of treatment. A total of 350 studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 52 of these were clinical studies, 190 were laboratory studies investigating existing molecular therapies, and 108 were laboratory studies investigating new molecular targets. Further, a total of 119 ongoing clinical trials are also underway, per a detailed query on clinicaltrials.gov. GBM was the predominant tumor studied in both ongoing and published clinical studies as well as in laboratory analyses. A few studies mentioned IDH-mutant astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas. The most common molecular targets in published clinical studies and clinical trials were protein kinase pathways, followed by microenvironmental targets, immunotherapy, and cell cycle/apoptosis pathways. The most common molecular targets in laboratory studies were also protein kinase pathways; however, cell cycle/apoptosis pathways were the next most frequent target, followed by microenvironmental targets, then immunotherapy pathways, with the wnt/ß-catenin pathway arising in the cohort of novel targets. In this systematic review, we examined the current evidence on molecular targeted therapy for adult-type diffuse glioma and discussed its implications for clinical practice and future research. Ultimately, published research falls broadly into three categories-clinical studies, laboratory testing of existing therapies, and laboratory identification of novel targets-and heavily centers on GBM rather than IDH-mutant astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma. Ongoing clinical trials are numerous in this area of research as well and follow a similar pattern in tumor type and targeted pathways as published clinical studies. The most common molecular targets in all study types were protein kinase pathways. Microenvironmental targets were more numerous in clinical studies, whereas cell cycle/apoptosis were more numerous in laboratory studies. Immunotherapy pathways are on the rise in all study types, and the wnt/ß-catenin pathway is increasingly identified as a novel target.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Oligodendroglioma , Adulto , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , beta Catenina , Mutação , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética
8.
World Neurosurg ; 176: e281-e288, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37209918

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to stratify the geographic distribution of academic spine surgeons in the United States, analyzing how this distribution highlights differences in academic, demographic, professional metrics, and gaps in access to spine care. METHODS: Spine surgeons were identified using American Association of Neurological Surgeons and American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons databases, categorizing into geographic regions of training and practice. Departmental websites, National Institutes of Health (NIH) RePort Expenditures and Results, Google Patent, and NIH icite databases were queried for demographic and professional metrics. RESULTS: Academic spine surgeons (347 neurological; 314 orthopedic) are predominantly male (95%) and few have patents (23%) or NIH funding (4%). Regionally, the Northeast has the highest proportion per capita (3.28 surgeons per million), but California is the state with the highest proportion (13%). The Northeast has the greatest regional retention post-residency at 74%, followed by the Midwest (59%). The West and South are more associated with additional degrees. Neurosurgery-trained surgeons hold more additional degrees (17%) than orthopedic surgeons (8%), whereas more orthopedic surgeons hold leadership positions (34%) than neurosurgeons (20%). CONCLUSIONS: Academic spine surgeons are found at the highest proportion in the Northeast and California; the Northeast has the greatest regional retention. Spine neurosurgeons have more additional degrees, whereas spine orthopedic surgeons have more leadership positions. These results are relevant to training programs looking to correct geographic disparities, surgeons in search of training programs, or students in pursuit of spine surgery.


Assuntos
Neurocirurgia , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Neurocirurgiões , Cirurgiões/educação , Neurocirurgia/educação
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