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1.
Nutr J ; 23(1): 35, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns, encompassing an overall view of individuals' dietary intake, are suggested as a suitable means of assessing nutrition's role in chronic disease development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for use in the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN), by comparing major dietary patterns assessed by the FFQ with a reference method. METHODS: Study participants included men and women who enrolled in the PERSIAN Cohort Study at seven of the eighteen centers. These centers were chosen to include dietary variations observed among the different Iranian ethnic populations. Two FFQ were completed for each participant over a one-year study period (FFQ1 upon enrollment and FFQ2 at the end of the study), with 24 interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recalls (24 h) being completed monthly in between. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) were used comparing FFQs 1 and 2 to the 24 h to assess validity, while FFQ1 was compared to FFQ2 to assess reproducibility of the questionnaire. RESULTS: Three major dietary patterns-Healthy, Low Protein/High Carb and Unhealthy-were identified, accounting for 70% of variance in the study population. Corrected SCC ranged from 0.31 to 0.61 in the validity and from 0.34 to 0.57 in reproducibility analyses, with the first two patterns, which accounted for over 50% of population variance, correlated at above 0.5 in both parameters, showing acceptable findings. CONCLUSIONS: The PERSIAN Cohort FFQ is suitable for identification of major dietary patterns in the populations it is used for, in order to assess diet-disease relationships.


Assuntos
Dieta , 60408 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Registros de Dieta
2.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04050, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483444

RESUMO

Background: This study presents the first report on research impact assessment (RIA) in non-high-income countries, undertaken as a pilot initiative in 2021. Within it, we aimed to explore the feasibility of employing the 'payback' model for evaluating the impact of health research and enhancing the accountability of universities. We focussed on three key impact domains: 'production of decision support documents and knowledge-based products,' 'implementation of research results,' and 'health and economic impact.' Methods: We adopted a case study approach to assess the impact of 5334 health research projects conducted by researchers from 18 universities from 2018 to 2020. Researchers were required to submit evidence related to at least one of the specified impact domains; six scientific committees verified and scored claimed impacts at the national level. Results: Only 25% of the assessed projects achieved impact in at least one domain, with the production of decision support documents and knowledge products being the most reported impact. Notably, economic impact was verified in only three projects, indicating room for improvement in this area. Technology research exhibited the highest acceptance rate of claimed impact, suggesting a positive correlation between technology-focused projects and impactful outcomes. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of employing a case study approach and the 'payback' model to evaluate the impact of health research, even within the constraints of a moderately equipped research infrastructure. These findings underscore the potential of integrating RIA into the governance of health research in Iran and other non-high-income countries, as well as the importance of using RIA to assess the accountability of health research systems, guide the allocation of research funding, and advocate for the advancement of health research. The study sets a precedent for future assessments in similar contexts and contributes to the ongoing global dialogue on the societal impact of health research.


Assuntos
Renda , Conhecimento , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Assistência Médica , Pesquisadores
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 752, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interactions between risk factors may influence disease severity. Knowing this relationship is important for preventive interventions and disease control. The purpose of this study was to determine the interactions effects of obesity and hypertension on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: The data of 9,283 adults 35 to 65 years were examined from the cohort study of Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD). Waist circumference (WC) was used to identify both general and abdominal obesity based on body mass index (BMI). To assess the interaction between hypertension and obesity (general/abdominal) and the risk of T2DM, the additive interaction was calculated. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios for T2DM were 2.38 (1.67, 3.41) in men and 4.02 (2.47, 6.47) in women for the combinations of hypertension and abdominal obesity. The adjusted odds ratios for T2DM were 2.53 (1.63, 3.82) in men and 2.66 (1.92, 3.70) in women for the combinations of hypertension and general obesity. The results of the additive interaction indicators were inconsistent with gender. The relative excess risk due to interaction (interaction between hypertension and central obesity) (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) and synergy index (SI) were0.27 (-1.01, 1.54), 0.11 (-0.41, 0.63) and 1.23 (0.41, 3.68) in male and were 0.61 (-1.12, 2.33), 0.23 (0.08, 0.37) and 1.26 (0.60, 2.61) in female, respectively. CONCLUSION: General/abdominal obesity and hypertension have a synergistic effect on the risk of T2DM. The recommendation for preventing T2DM is lifestyle modification. Large longitudinal studies are necessary to investigate causal relationships.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura , Índice de Massa Corporal
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 471, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer remains the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer among women, and its impact is particularly significant in women residing in less developed countries. This study aims to assess socioeconomic inequality in using Papanicolaou tests, commonly known as Pap tests, which are crucial for detecting cervical cancer. The research also seeks to decompose this inequality, identifying its contributing factors. This investigation is conducted within a sizable population-based study focused on the Kurdish population, with an additional examination of potential variations between urban and rural areas. METHOD: The study utilized baseline data from the Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease Cohort Study (RaNCD), involving 3,074 ever-married women aged 35-65. Asset data was employed to determine socioeconomic status (SES), and Principal Component Analysis was applied. The uptake of Papanicolaou tests was assessed for inequality using the Concentration Index (Cn). Additionally, decomposition analysis was conducted to identify and understand the factors contributing to socioeconomic inequality. RESULTS: The study found that overall, 86% of women reported having undergone cervical cancer screening at least once in their lifetime. The Concentration Index (Cn) for the total population was 0.21 (p < 0.0001), indicating a higher concentration of Papanicolaou test uptake among wealthier groups. In urban areas, the Cn was 0.34 (p < 0.0001), reflecting a significant concentration among the rich. However, in rural areas, the Cn was -0.10 (p = 0.3006), suggesting no significant socioeconomic inequality. Factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), education, and age contributed to reducing inequality, explaining 62.7%, 36.0%, and 1.7% of the observed inequality, respectively. Interestingly, place of residence had a negative influence on inequality. CONCLUSION: The uptake of Papanicolaou tests varies across different socioeconomic status levels, with a higher concentration among wealthier groups. The results enable health policymakers and researchers to tailor health intervention toward increasing public awareness, especially among women with lower levels of education women in economically deprived groups.


Assuntos
Teste de Papanicolaou , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Humanos , Feminino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Disparidades Socioeconômicas em Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3814, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360842

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in middle- and low-income countries, and this disease is a burden on public health systems. Notably, dietary components are crucial regulatory factors in T2DM. Plant-based dietary patterns and certain food groups, such as whole grains, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits, are inversely correlated with diabetes incidence. We conducted the present study to determine the association between adherence to a plant-based diet and the risk of diabetes among adults. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based RaNCD cohort study involving 3401 men and 3699 women. The plant-based diet index (PDI) was developed using a 118-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the PDI score and the risk of T2DM. A total of 7100 participants with a mean age of 45.96 ± 7.78 years were analysed. The mean PDI scores in the first, second, and third tertiles (T) were 47.13 ± 3.41, 54.44 ± 1.69, and 61.57 ± 3.24, respectively. A lower PDI was significantly correlated with a greater incidence of T2DM (T1 = 7.50%, T2 = 4.85%, T3 = 4.63%; P value < 0.001). Higher PDI scores were associated with significantly increased intakes of fibre, vegetables, fruits, olives, olive oil, legumes, soy products, tea/coffee, whole grains, nuts, vitamin E, vitamin C, and omega-6 fatty acids (P value < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, the odds of having T2DM were significantly lower (by 30%) at T3 of the PDI than at T1 (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.96; P value < 0.001). Our data suggest that adhering to plant-based diets comprising whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, and tea/coffee can be recommended today to reduce the risk of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fabaceae , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , 60408 , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Café , Dieta , Verduras , Plantas , Chá
6.
Acta Oncol ; 62(12): 1661-1668, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37934078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opium use has been associated with an increased risk of cancers of the lung, oesophagus, and pancreas, and it was recently classified by the International Agency for Cancer Research as carcinogenic to humans. It is not clear whether opium also increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of our study was to assess the association between various metrics of opium use and the risk of CRC. METHODS: This case-referent study from seven provinces in Iran comprised 848 CRC cases and 3215 referents. Data on opium use (duration, amount, frequency) and potential confounders were collected by trained interviewers. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were used to measure odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age, gender, province, marital status, family history of CRC-linked cancers, consumption of red meat, fruits and vegetables, body shape, occupational physical activity, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Regular opium consumption was not associated with the risk of CRC (OR 0.9, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.7, 1.2) compared to subjects who never used opium. However, frequent opium use more than twice a day was associated with an increased risk of CRC compared to non-users of opium (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.8; p for quadratic trend 0.008). CONCLUSION: There seems to be no overall association between opium use and CRC, but the risk of CRC might be increased among persons who use opium many times a day.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dependência de Ópio , Humanos , Dependência de Ópio/epidemiologia , Dependência de Ópio/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Ópio/efeitos adversos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles
7.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2284, 2023 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37980456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most common chronic diseases and the main risk factors for T2D consist of a combination of lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and genetic factors. Amino acids are considered to be a major component of dietary sources for many of the associations between dietary protein and chronic disease. Therefore, this study amied to determine the association between dietary amino acid intakes and the incidence of T2D. METHODS: The present nested case-control study was conducted using data from the Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) Cohort Study. The information required for this study was collected from individuals who participated in the Adult Cohort Study from the start of the study until September 2023. Over a 6-year follow-up period, data from 113 new T2D cases were available. Four controls were then randomly selected for each case using density sampling. Cases and controls were matched for sex and age at the interview. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect data related to all amino acids including tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, valine, arginine, histidine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, proline, and serine were also extracted. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the crude and adjusted odds ratio for the risk of T2D. RESULTS: Using the univariable model, a significant association was found between T2D risk and branched-chain, alkaline, sulfuric, and essential amino acids in the fourth quartile. Accordingly, individuals in the fourth quartile had a 1.81- to 1.87-fold higher risk of developing new T2D than individuals in the lowest quartile (P<0.05). After adjustment for several variables, the risk of developing a new T2D was 2.70 (95% CI: 1.16-6.31), 2.68 (95% CI: 1.16-6.21), 2.98 (95% CI: 1.27-6.96), 2.45 (95% CI: 1.02-5.90), and 2.66 (95% CI: 1.13-6.25) times higher, for individuals in the fourth quartile of branched-chain, alkaline, sulfuric, alcoholic, and essential amino acids compared with those in the lowest quartile, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the risk of developing a new T2D was higher for individuals in the fourth quartile of branched-chain amino acids, alkaline, sulfate, and essential amino acids than in the lower quartile.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Humanos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta , Leucina , Masculino , Feminino
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 20302, 2023 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37985726

RESUMO

This research investigated how the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) related to musculoskeletal issues in adults. It used a cross-sectional design with a sample of 3477 female and 3572 male participants aged 35 to 65 from the Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases cohort study in western Iran. The DII is calculated from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure dietary intake. Musculoskeletal disorders including back pain, back pain/stiffness, joint pain, and joint pain/stiffness were evaluated by the RaNCD cohort study physician using a standard questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis examined the association between DII and musculoskeletal disorders. The findings demonstrated a positive association between higher DII scores and back pain/stiffness (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.73, P = 0.047). Furthermore, DII displayed a significant association with a heightened odd to joint pain (OR 1.26, CI 1.10-1.46) when compared to those with lower DII scores (Q3 vs. Q1). After adjusting for cofounding factors, the Q3 DII quintile participants showed a 44% higher odd of experiencing joint pain/stiffness (OR 1.44, CI 1.01-2.05, P = 0.047). However, the study found no significant association between back pain and DII (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the research suggests that consuming a pro-inflammatory diet might be linked to developing musculoskeletal issues in adults.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Artralgia , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Dor nas Costas/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 615, 2023 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37978520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015) is a tool for checking the quality of diet. This index is used to examine how well people's dietary behavior fits certain criteria for achieving a healthy diet in Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020. We look at the possible association between the HEI-2015 and bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This research included 1012 postmenopausal women from the recruitment phase of the Ravansar Noncommunicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort study in Kermanshah-Iran. A standardized and repeatable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that contains 118 items was used to quantify dietary consumption. Anthropometric indices measured via Bio-Impedance Analyzer BIA (Inbody 770, Inbody Co, Seoul, Korea). RESULT: The mean age of postmenopausal women was (56.41 ± 5.31) years. Participants in the highest quartile had a more daily energy intake compared to the lowest quartile (2329.89 ± 837.59), (P < 0.001). Women in the upper quartiles had greater Skeletal Muscle Mass (SMM) than those in the lower quartiles (21.61 ± 2.80 vs 20.52 ± 3.13; p = 0.0002). The linear model didn't show a significant relationship between HEI score and greater BMD (ß = 0.0014, P = 0.169). CONCLUSION: A diet of high quality followed by a high HEL-2015 score was shown to be strongly connected to increased BMD and muscle mass in Kurdish postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Dieta Saudável , Estudos de Coortes , Pós-Menopausa , Dieta , Músculos
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21112, 2023 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38036572

RESUMO

There are inconclusive results available on the association between dietary fatty acid intake and the risk of hypertension (HTN) incident. In this study, we investigate the relationship between baseline dietary fatty acids intake including polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), trans fatty acids (TFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and saturated fatty acid (SFA), and the risk of first incidence hypertension. The current prospective cohort study was carried out from the Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 118 items was used for the assessment of dietary data. Cox proportional hazards analyses were done to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the highest versus lowest quartile intake of SFA, PUFA, MUFA, and SFA and risk of HTN. Out of 7359 eligible participants, 597 new cases of HTN were identified over an average of 6.4 ± 1.33 years of follow-up. No significant relationship was observed between the fourth compared to the first categories of dietary SFA (HR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.55, 1.21; P trend: 0.476), MUFA (HR: 0.71, 95% CI 0.48, 1.06; P trend: 0.252), PUFA (HR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.62, 1.19; P trend: 0.315) and TFA (HR: 0.99, 95% CI 0.76, 1.27; P trend: 0.675), and risk of HTN. However, a significant inverse association between each 1 g per day increase in dietary MUFA intake during 6.4 years of follow up and HTN incident (HR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.94, 0.99; P 0.044) was observed. In brief, our study revealed that higher dietary MUFA intake was protectively associated with HTN incident. Dietary MUFA-rich foods should be encouraged to improve blood pressure.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Ácidos Graxos trans , Humanos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos trans/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 19075, 2023 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37925569

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke due to the restriction of blood flow through the blood vessels. Dietary modification is an appropriate approach to reducing this phenomenon. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate major dietary patterns and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) in relation to dyslipidemia. 5954 participants in the Ravansar non-communicable diseases (RaNCD) cohort study were eligible for this study. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed based on the lipid profile under consideration of the RaNCD physician. Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis. The three identified dietary patterns included (1) plant-based pattern; (2) high protein and sugar pattern; and (3) energy-dense dense pattern. DII was also calculated based on the dietary information from a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We found that higher adherence to DII was significantly associated with increased odds of dyslipidemia after adjusting for age, sex, and physical activity (OR: 1.24; CI 95% 1.09-1.42). Additionally, higher adherence to the high protein and sugar diet and an energy-dense diet was significantly associated with higher odds for dyslipidemia (OR: 1.31; CI 95% 1.16-1.49) and (OR: 1.28; CI 95% 1.12-1.46). Nevertheless, according to our results, following plant-based diet had no association with dyslipidemia in both crude and adjusted models. Our findings revealed that greater adherence to DII, a high-protein, high-sugar diet, and an energy-dense diet can have undesirable effects on dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Coortes , Inflamação , Dieta/métodos , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Açúcares , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2034, 2023 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37853359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shift work has been related to adverse health outcomes that can partially be attributed to physical inactivity. However, our knowledge of the influence of shift work on physical activity and sedentary behavior is inconclusive. Therefore, this study aimed to assess physical activity levels among shift and non-shift workers among a sample of Iranian adults. METHODS: Baseline data of the Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study were used. All participants of RaNCD except those excluded due to unemployment or considerable disability were included in the study. We evaluated participants' physical activity levels using the PERSIAN cohort questionnaire and examined its associations with being a shift worker. RESULTS: A total of 4695 participants with a mean age of 46.1 (SD = 7.74) were included in the study. In total, 1108 (23.6%) participants were shift workers, 1420 (30.2%) had insufficient physical activity levels, and 4283 (91.2%) were male. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly lower among shift workers compared to non-shift workers (21% vs. 33.1%, p < 0.001). Multiple backward stepwise binary logistic regression tests indicated that being a shift worker was significantly associated with a lower chance of having insufficient physical activity levels (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.92, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of insufficient physical activity was higher among non-shift workers than shift workers in our study. By providing the factors associated with insufficient physical activity among the workers in a region of Iran, the current study findings might help policymakers target groups at higher risk of physical activity in Iran and design interventions to improve physical activity, especially among non-shift workers.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Coortes
13.
Int J Prev Med ; 14: 90, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37854987

RESUMO

Background: Considering that metformin is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, and its protective role against various malignancies, the strength and validity of the available evidence from related systematic reviews and meta-analysis were evaluated. Methods: Scopus, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of science databases, and Google Scholar and manual screening of retrieved references were systematically searched from their inception dates to 24 March 2020 by extracting the effect size (Odds ratios (OR) and relative risk (RR) in each study. To present the forest plot of effect of metformin on each cancer, Stata version 14.2 was used. Results: This study included 36 meta-analysis studies and 620 original research studies (26 randomized control trials studies and 594 observational studies (cohort, case-control)) covering 15 different cancers. Overall, metformin medication prevented different cancers, including ovarian cancer (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62,0.93), cervical cancer (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.83), endometrial cancer (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.82,1.35), liver cancer (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47,0.74), pancreatic cancer (OR = 0.59, 95%CI 0.50,0.69), head and neck cancer (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61,0.83), stomach cancer (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.26,1.99), colorectal cancer (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.59,0.91), colorectal adenoma cancer (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.65,0.86), colon cancer (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69,0.91), esophagus cancer (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83,0.98), lung cancer (OR = 0.92, CI95%:0.85,0.99), breast cancer (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84,1.02), prostate cancer (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.85-1.04), and bladder cancer (OR = 0.94 95% CI: 0.64,1.38). Conclusions: Treatment with metformin can significantly decrease the chance of all cancers with larger preventive effect on hepatocellular carcinoma and smaller preventive effect on lung and breast cancers.

14.
Epidemiol Health ; 45: e2023083, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37723842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased in recent decades. In this study, we investigated the socioeconomic inequalities associated with MetS and its components in a sample of the Iranian Kurdish population. METHODS: We used data from 3,996 participants, aged 35 years to 70 years, from the baseline phase of the Dehgolan Prospective Cohort Study (February 2018 to March 2019). The concentration index and concentration curve were used to measure inequality and the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was used to examine the contribution of various determinants to the observed socioeconomic inequality in MetS and its components. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 34.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.97 to 35.93). The prevalence of MetS was 26.18% for those in the highest socioeconomic status (SES), compared with 40.51% for participants in the lowest SES. There was a significant negative concentration index for MetS (C=-0.13; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.09), indicating a concentration of MetS among participants with a lower SES. The most prevalent component was abdominal obesity (59.14%) with a significant negative concentration index (C=-0.21; 95% CI, -0.25 to -0.18). According to decomposition analysis, age, gender, and education were the highest contributing factors to inequality in MetS and its components. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed socioeconomic inequality in MetS. People with a low SES were more likely to have MetS. Therefore, policymakers and health managers need to develop appropriate strategies to reduce these inequalities in MetS across age groups, genders, and education levels, especially among women and the elderly.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Classe Social , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Front Health Serv ; 3: 1144685, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37670895

RESUMO

Background: The Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP) was set up in Iran's health system to respond to some of the main problems in hospitals and other health sectors. We aimed to compare the effect of the HSEP on teaching hospital performance before and after the implementation of the HSEP through the interrupted time series (ITS) analysis. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, data collection was performed in 17 teaching hospitals affiliated with the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS). We used the existing data on three indicators of hospitalization rate (per 10,000 population), Emergency Department Visits (EDVs) (per 10,000 population), and in-hospital mortality (per 10,000 population). The monthly data from 2009 to 2019 was analyzed by the ITS method 60 months before and 61 months after the HSEP. Results: We found a non-statistically significant decrease in the monthly trend of hospitalization rate relative to the period before the HSEP implementation (-0.084 per 10,000 population [95%CI: -0.269, 0.101](. There was a statistically significant increase in the monthly trend of EDVs rate compared to before the HSEP implementation (1.07 per 10,000 population [95%CI: 0.14, 2.01]). Also, a significant decrease in the monthly trend of in-hospital mortality compared to before the HSEP implementation [-0.003 per 10,000 population (95%CI: -0.006, -0.001)] was observed. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated a significant increasing and decreasing trend for EDVs and in-hospital mortality following the HSEP implementation, respectively. Regarding the increase in hospitalization rate and EDVs after the implementation of HESP, it seems that there is a need to increase investment in healthcare and improve healthcare infrastructure, human resources-related indicators, and the quality of healthcare.

16.
J Ren Nutr ; 2023 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A plant-based diet has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, it is hypothesized that adherence to a plant-based diet may have a positive effect on kidney function. The study aimed to determine the association between the plant-based diet index (PDI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis used information from the Ravansar noncommunicable diseases cohort study, which included 9,746 participants between the ages of 35 and 65. By measuring the estimation glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the modification of diet in the renal disease equation, CKD was determined. Using a food frequency questionnaire, the PDI was computed based on food intake. To determine odds ratios (ORs), multivariable logistic regression models were utilized. RESULTS: 1,058 (10.86%) participants had CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and the mean PDI was 54.22 ± 6.68. The mean eGFR in the group with a high PDI score was significantly higher than the group with a low PDI score (fourth quartile: 79.20 ± 0.36 vs. first quartile: 72.95 ± 0.31, P < .001). Adherence to a plant-based diet was more prevalent in those with a higher socioeconomic status (P < .001). After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of CKD in the third and fourth quartiles of PDI were 25% (OR: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.62-0.91) and 39% (OR: 0.61; 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.78, P trend<.001) lower than the first quartile, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that having a plant-based diet may prevent the prevalent CDK. However, further studies with a cohort design are recommended.

17.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(8): 620-629, 2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37698217

RESUMO

Background: Headache is the most common disorder of the central nervous system, and one of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases. Aims: We aimed to determine factors associated with chronic headache among adults in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that recruited 10 063 participants from the baseline data of the Ravansar noncommunicable disease cohort study in western Islamic Republic of Iran in 2021. Participants who had headaches for ≥ 15 days per month for ≥ 3 months were considered as having chronic headache. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations. Results: The prevalence of chronic headache was 10.49% (n = 1054), and was significantly higher among females (14.55%, n = 769) than males (5.98%, n = 285) (P < 0.001). The risk of chronic headache among married females was 73% higher than among single females. Among male smokers, the risk of chronic headache was 1.47 times higher than among non-smokers [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.06]. The risk of chronic headache among depressed males was 2.59 times higher than among non-depressed males (95% CI: 1.28, 5.22); and among depressed females the risk was 2.38 times higher than among non-depressed females (95% CI: 1.76, 3.23). Among males who lived in rural areas, the risk of chronic headache was 84% lower than among those who lived in urban areas; and among females who lived in rural areas it was 81% lower than those who lived in urban areas. Being menopausal and having normal sleep were significantly associated with lower risk, while comorbidity was associated with higher risk, of developing chronic headache. Conclusions: Depression, urban residence, smoking, comorbidity, and being married were associated with an increase in the risk of developing chronic headache, while higher education level, menopause and normal sleep were associated with a decrease in the risk of developing chronic headache.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Feminino , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 23(1): 401, 2023 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37580672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relationship between smoking and blood parameters in the Iranian Kurdish population. METHOD: The current study was conducted based on the recruitment phase of the Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study. RESULTS: Current smokers had higher levels of RBC count, HCT, HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC, WBC count, and GR%, than in other groups significantly. Passive smokers had higher levels of PLT count and PCT statistically. The increasing exposure time of smoking positively affected WBC count, GR%, PLT count, PCT, and RDW in female passive smokers. In addition, heavy smokers, as well as participants with a higher duration time of smoking, had the same results for significantly lower levels of lymphocyte and monocyte and a higher level of RBC indices. CONCLUSION: According to the present study, along with the current smokers, the intensity of smoking, as well as the duration time of the smoke, could have a positive correlation with blood parameters. Furthermore, passive smokers and specifically secondhand female smokers were more vulnerable to smoke.


Assuntos
Linfócitos , Fumar Tabaco , Humanos , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Contagem de Leucócitos
19.
Int J Cancer ; 153(10): 1758-1765, 2023 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37548110

RESUMO

In the current study, we aimed to calculate the fraction of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors in Iran in 2020. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated for established cancer risk factors using three data sources: the national cancer incidence reports, relative risks extracted from global and national meta-analyses, and exposure prevalence from national/subnational population-based surveys. In addition to overall cancers, the PAFs were estimated separately for each cancer site among men and women. Overall, 32.6% of cancers in 2020 in Iran were attributable to known risk factors. The PAF in men (40.2%) was twice as high as in women (21.1%). Cigarette smoking (15.4%), being overweight (5.0%), opium use (3.9%) and H. pylori infection (3.8%) were the leading causes of cancers. For men, the highest PAFs belonged to cigarette smoking (26.3%), opium use (6.8%) and being overweight (3.1%), while for women, the highest PAFs belonged to being overweight (7.2%), H. pylori infection (2.7%) and cigarette smoking (2.7%). Among Iranian men and women, the PAFs of waterpipe smoking were 2% and 0.9%, respectively. A third of incident cancers in Iran are due to modifiable exposures, mainly cigarette smoking, being overweight, and H. pylori infection. Opium consumption and waterpipe smoking collectively accounted for 8.8% of cancer occurrence in men and 1.3% in women in Iran. These emerging risk factors should be taken into consideration in future PAF studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Dependência de Ópio , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Dependência de Ópio/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Prevalência , Incidência
20.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 23(1): 156, 2023 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37479987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) and obesity are risk factors for hypertension; triglyceride-glucose (TyG) is known as a surrogate for IR. The present study investigated the association between the triglyceride-glucose body mass index (TyG-BMI) index and the risk of hypertension in Iranian adults. METHODS: This study was conducted on a sample of 8,610 participants from the baseline phase of the Ravansar non- communicable diseases (RaNCD) in Iran. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between TyG-BMI and hypertension. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to estimate the predictive power of TyG-BMI for hypertension. RESULTS: A total of 4176 men and 4434 women with an average age of 46.74 years were examined. The anthropometric indices were significantly higher in hypertensive than normotensive subjects (P < 0.001). The level of physical activity was significantly higher in the bottom quartiles (P < 0.001). The odds of hypertension in the highest quartile and 3.10 (95% CI: 2.28, 4.16) times significantly higher than the bottom quartile of the TyG-BMI index. The discriminating ability of TyG-BMI to predict blood pressure was 61% (AUC: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.63), and higher than BMI and TyG. CONCLUSION: The TyG-BMI index is associated with an increase in the odds of hypertension. Therefore, the TyG-BMI index can be a new clinical index for early diagnosis of hypertension. Lifestyle modifications such as weight control through physical activity and a healthy diet can help improve IR and prevent hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Glucose
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